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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\arm2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0000711
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
armXM19
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
point mutation
Nucleotide change:
C1894612T
Reported nucleotide change:
C3850T
Amino acid change:
Q681term | arm-PA; Q681term | arm-PB; Q681term | arm-PC; Q681term | arm-PD; Q681term | arm-PE; Q681term | arm-PF
Reported amino acid change:
?681term
Comment:
arm2 is truncated after the twelfth and last arm repeat.
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference
Nucleotide substitution: ?3850?.
Mutation resulting in the truncation of the protein after amino acid 680.
Nucleotide substitution: C3850T.
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
adult cuticle & abdomen | somatic clone
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference
Maternally and zygotically mutant arm2 embryos (coming from mothers whose whole germline constitutes from arm2 mutant cells only - created by the OvoD germline clone technique) show a segment polarity phenotype and no naked cuticle between denticle belts on the ventral epidermis (resulting in a lawn of denticles).
Denticle belt patterning is abolished in arm2 mutants, with all cells secreting a single denticle and having a similar shape, with the planar distribution of markers being uniform around the cell margins.
arm2 homozygotes exhibit dorsal closure defects characterised by small holes in the dorsal epithelium. Mutant larvae also have a fully penetrant cuticle phenotype, characterised by shortened cuticle, severe segment polarity defects (resulting in a lawn of denticles replacing well-separated denticle belts), a hole in the head region, and a naked cuticle from the anterior end to the third thoracic segment. arm2 heterozygotes do not exhibit a visible phenotype nor a reduction in viability.
Embryos mutant for arm2 both maternally and zygotically display loss of naked regions of the embryonic cuticle.
arm2/Y embryos have a lawn of denticles phenotype.
Mutant embryos have a "lawn of denticles" cuticle phenotype.
When homozygous mutant germ-line clones are made, embryos exhibit cuticles that are covered with denticles.
arm2 somatic stem cell (SSC) clones in the ovary are lost more rapidly than wild-type clones. arm2 follicle cell clones form large patches similar to those formed by marked wild-type clones. The mutant clones have normal morphology compared to neighbouring wild-type follicle cells.
When arm2 clones are made in the tergites of the adult abdomen, the clone is transformed to form large pleural hairs and cuticle. The polarity of the front of the clone, and of some wild-type cells anterior to the cones is reversed.
arm2 has no dramatic effect on germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance in the ovary; approximately 60% of mutant GSCs observed during the first week after clone induction are maintained for two more weeks (compared to 70% for controls).
The middle gut constriction is missing in mutant embryos.
Has no effect on the eye phenotype produced by activated arm constructs. (either armS44Y.GMR or armS56F.GMR).
Embryos derived from females with arm2 homozygous germline clones and carrying Scer\GAL4arm.PS crossed to males carrying armΔ.Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 produce embryos with 4 different cuticle phenotypes; small abnormally shaped, denticle covered cuticles (25%, characteristic of arm2), naked cuticles (25%, characteristic of activated arm), wild-type cuticles (25%) and a phenotype where the embryo shows the cell transformations to naked cuticle, but is small and abnormally shaped (25%). This last phenotype seems to be intermediate between the naked and arm2 phenotype.
arm2 embryos dervied from arm2 germ-line clones have very few Malpighian tubule cells.
Zygotic arm2 mutants show 3 main kinds of tracheal defects; the dorsal trunk (DT) is completely missing or very much reduced, there are no branch fusions and therefore the ten tracheal metameres are completely disconnected and the ganglionic branch is misrouted. The lateral trunk and dorsal branches fail to fuse. The presumptive DT cells invaginate perfectly in mutant embryos, but do not migrate or join with other branches. Most DT cells remain clustered in the position where the DT is normally formed. Embryos derived from homozygous female germline clones show defects in tracheal invagination.
Mutant embryos show dorsal closure defects.
Embryos maternally and zygotically homozygous for arm2 are dramatically reduced in size compared to wild type amd all surviving ventral cells secrete denticles.
Homozygous embryos derived from homozygous female germ line clones have a lawn of denticles phenotype, in which all naked cuticle has been replaced by denticles.
Embryos zygotically and maternally mutant for arm2 show a complete absence of heart precursors.
Homozygous clones in the eye are extremely small and only infrequently observed.
Homozygotes show a weak zygotic segment polarity phenotype that is enhanced to a severe phenotype on removal of the maternal arm+ contribution. Hemizygous embryos derived from homozygous female germline clones have a strong segment polarity phenotype.
Homozygous larvae have denticle lawns composed of large denticles. Homozygous larvae derived from embryos in which spis.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS have denticle lawns composed of small denticles.
Homozygous clones in the eye have interommatidial bristles.
In homozygous embryos the second constriction is missing.
Only one central invagination fold of the stomodeal invagination is observed.
Embryos exhibit a lawn of denticle belts.
Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic sgg and arm function have an embryonic cuticle phenotype like that of arm mutant embryos alone. Embryos lacking maternal sgg and arm but receiving wild type paternal copies develop into normal embryos that survive until adulthood. Embryos lacking maternal sgg and arm but receiving a wild type paternal copy of arm+ only, show a sgg naked cuticle phenotype.
Moderate segment polarity phenotype. Homozygous clones survive at a higher frequency in areas of low wg expression, dorsal regions of the leg disc. Biased distribution is produced by differential survival, not directed migration. Flies carrying one copy of P{arm10.5} survive to late pupal development with a wg-like phenotype.
Shows effects on segment polarity, head development and dorsal closure. The embryo is slightly shorter than wild type.
Head and dorsal closure defects. Abnormal oogenesis.
Clones of homozygous arm2 induced by mitotic recombination form denticles with reversed polarity. Changes in cell fate are autonomous at the level of single cells.
External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
NOT Enhanced by
NOT suppressed by
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhancer of
Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
arm2/arm[+] is a suppressor | partially of visible phenotype of Chie5.5
arm2/arm[+] is a suppressor | partially of visible phenotype of Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237, hepUAS.cBa
arm2/arm[+] is a suppressor of increased cell number | female | adult stage | heat sensitive phenotype of Mmp2Y53N/Mmp2W307stop
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
Phenotype Manifest In
NOT Enhanced by
Suppressed by
NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference
arm2 has denticle belt phenotype, non-suppressible by GαoGTP.hs
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhancer of
Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
arm2/arm[+] is a suppressor | partially of wing phenotype of Chie5.5
arm2/arm[+] is a suppressor | partially of eye phenotype of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF/Scer\GAL4GMR.PF, hepCA.UAS
arm2/arm[+] is a suppressor | partially of scutellum phenotype of Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237, hepUAS.cBa
arm2/arm[+] is a suppressor of interfollicle cell | supernumerary | heat sensitive phenotype of Mmp2Y53N/Mmp2W307stop
arm2 is a suppressor of denticle belt | anterior phenotype of nej3
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
arm2/arm[+] is a non-suppressor of ommatidium phenotype of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev, nmoUAS.cUa
arm2 is a non-suppressor of ommatidium phenotype of Rac1V12.hs.sev
arm2 is a non-suppressor of phenotype of dshhs.sev.B
Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
The wing notch phenotype seen in Chie5.5/+ mutants is partially suppressed by the presence of arm2/+.
The segment polarity phenotype and the lack of naked cuticle between denticle belts, resulting in a lawn of denticles on the ventral epidermis, characteristic for maternally and zygotically mutant arm2 embryos is not modified by Scer\GAL4arm.PU-driven expression of any of the following: sggScer\UAS.T:Myr-Src64B,T:Ivir\HA1, sggKK-MI.Scer\UAS.T:Myr-Src64B,T:Ivir\HA1 or sggScer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1.
The increase in average cell number in the stalks between egg chambers which is seen in Mmp2Y53N/Mmp2W307stop females after being shifted to the restrictive temperature is dominantly suppressed if the females also carry a single copy of arm2.
Approximately 90% of arm2; p130CAS1 flies exhibit smaller cuticles than arm2 mutants. Among these, 82% complete lack cuticle in the head region, and 65% have enhanced posterior curvature suggesting a strong germband retraction phenotype. While 40% of arm2 ; p130CAS1 flies retain the lawn of denticles characteristic of an arm2 homozygous mutant, 34% exhibit complete deletion of ventral and dorsal denticle belts, while 36% have well-separated posterior denticle belts. arm2 p130CAS1 double heterozygotes do not exhibit a visible phenotype nor a reduction in viability.
Embryos double mutant for arm2 both maternally and zygotically and l(2)gl4 zygotically display a cuticle phenotype similar to that of l(2)gl4 single mutants. Cuticles of embryos double mutant maternally and zygotically for both sggM11 and arm2 resemble that of arm2 single mutants. Embryos triple mutant for sggM11 both maternally and zygotically and arm2 both maternally and zygotically and l(2)gl4 zygotically show a cuticle phenotype that is similar to that of zygotic l(2)gl4 single mutants.
An arm2 background does not enhance the Scer\GAL4hs.2sev>shgdCR3h.Scer\UAS.T:Avic\GFP-rs eye phenotype; arm2 does not affect cell architecture in single mutants.
The lawn of denticles phenotype seen in arm2/Y embryos is not affected by expression of G-oα47AGTP.hs using heat shock.
Embryos expressing DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS in an arm2 background show outgrowth of the dorsal branches, cell intercalation and autocellular adherens junction formation in the tracheal system.
The addition of sggM11 has no effect on the arm2 embryonic phenotype. However the combination of arm2, armS8 and sggM11 leads to embryos with naked cuticle.
S48-5/arm2 mutants show 12/43%+-5.66 misrotated ommatidia compared to 9.55%+-1.43 seen in S48-5 mutants alone.
The addition of ciScer\UAS.cAa (driven by Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PP) to arm2 germ-line clones, can suppress denticle belt formation in the thorax of mutant embryos but not in the abdomen.
Expression of salmScer\UAS.cdCa under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS partially rescues the lack of dorsal trunk (DT) seen in the tracheal system of arm2 embryos. DT cells are able to migrate anteriorly and posteriorly in these rescued embryos, but the branches do not fuse. The formation of all tracheal branches except the transverse connective and visceral branch is impaired in arm2 ; tkv8 double mutants.
The lawn of denticles phenotype of arm2 embryos derived from arm2 female germ line clones is partly suppressed if the embryos are also expressing tshScer\UAS.cGa under the control of Scer\GAL469B.
Dominantly enhances the wing margin phenotype of shgScer\UAS.cSa,Scer\GAL4en-e16E. Reduced denticle belt phenotype of nej3 is suppressed in double mutants with arm2.
Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Xlae\β-catScer\UAS.cCa partially rescues the phenotype of embryos that are maternally and zygotically mutant for arm2, when expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4e22c.
The segment polarity cuticle phenotype of embryos derived from homozygous arm2 female germline clones is partially rescued by Mmus\Catnbarm.PW and not rescued by Hsap\JUParm.PW, when the transgene is provided maternally. The phenotype of these embryos is also partially rescued by Mmus\CatnbScer\UAS.cWa expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS and is not rescued by Hsap\JUPScer\UAS.cWa expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS.
Complementation and Rescue Data
Fails to rescue
Comments
A arm2 mutant background fails to affect the epithelial patterning defects found in armF1α mutants.
The "lawn of denticles" cuticle phenotype seen in arm2 embryos is substantially rescued by ubiquitous expression of armScer\UAS.T:sev-TM using Scer\GAL4da.G32 (stripes of naked cuticle are restored). Ubiquitous expression of armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC in embryos using Scer\GAL4da.G32 produces ectopic naked cuticle in the arm2 background.
The segment polarity phenotype of embryos maternally and zygotically mutant for arm2 is substantially rescued by armScer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC,T:Ocun\nes or armScer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC,T:SV40\nls2 expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4e22c.
Homozygous clones in the eye that are weakly rescued with armBCD7 may show ectopic differentiation of retinal tissue. Many clones are associated with polarity inversions; the clones frequently show polarity inversions on their equatorial side. The polarity inversions are usually contained within the clone, but clones in dorsal regions of the eye show clear non-autonomy, with up to two to four ommatidial rows distant from the clone showing chirality changes.
The segment polarity cuticle phenotype of embryos derived from homozygous female germline clones is rescued to wild-type by arm+mWa, when the transgene is provided maternally. The phenotype of these embryos is also rescued by armScer\UAS.cWa expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS and partially rescued by armΔC.Scer\UAS expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS.
Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments
Encodes a truncated protein that can still be phosphorylated.
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
Reported As
Name Synonyms
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBal0049311
References (74)