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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\arm3
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0000712
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
armXP33
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
point mutation
Nucleotide change:

C1895128T

Reported nucleotide change:

C3466T

Amino acid change:

Q553term | arm-PA; Q553term | arm-PB; Q553term | arm-PC; Q553term | arm-PD; Q553term | arm-PE; Q553term | arm-PF

Reported amino acid change:

??term

Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Nucleotide substitution: ?3466?.

Truncated protein.

Nucleotide substitution: C3466T.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

arm3 maternal and zygotic embryonic mutants exhibit a fragmented cuticle.

Photoreceptor cell differentiation appears abnormal in arm3 mutant clones.

Embryos maternally and zygotically mutant for arm3 show weak staining for and improper localisation of the shg, arm and α-Cat gene products, suggesting little or no adherens junction formation.

Embryos maternally and zygotically mutant for arm3 contain cells of normal shape after cellularization. However, mutant embryos form a disorganized ventral furrow during early gastrulation and much of the ectoderm breaks into rounded, dissociated cells soon afterward. Nevertheless, cells make roughly correct cell fate choices, and some cells retain residual epithelial character and undergo limited morphogenesis.

Embryos maternally and zygotically mutant for arm3 form more epithelial folds than wild type embryos.

Cells in epithelial folds and rosettes of embryos maternally and zygotically mutant for arm3 are pear-shaped with a constricted and extended apical domain, whereas wild type epithelial cells adopt a columnar shape.

Basic cytoskeletal polarity appears to be maintained in the epithelial folds of embryos maternally and zygotically mutant for arm3, although actin and microtubules are disorganised in rounded dissociated mutant cells.

In embryos maternally and zygotically mutant for arm3, most neuroblasts fail to be internalized and divide laterally or orthogonally on the embryo surface, rather than in the apical-basal orientation as in wild type. However, as in wild type, neuroblasts divide asymmetrically and epithelial cells divide symmetrically in arm3 mutants.

arm3 maternal mutants have defects in spindle attachment to the cortex during syncytial divisions but do not have defects in pseudocleavage furrows. There is no evidence for multinucleate cells during cellularisation of arm3 maternal mutant embryos.

arm3 somatic stem cell (SSC) clones in the ovary are lost more rapidly than wild-type clones. Follicle cells in mutant clones do not have the wild-type regular columnar shape.

arm3 hemizygous embryos fail to form the second midgut constriction.

Leading edge cells fail to elongate uniformly in mutant embryos as dorsal closure is initiated.

Homozygous embryos derived from homozygous female germline clones show loss of nuclei from the surface of the embryo during syncytial development.

arm3/Y mutant cuticles are shorter than wild type, with a lawn of ventral denticles, no naked cuticle and incomplete dorsal closure. Embryos with a range of phenotypes is seen. In embryos with the most severe phenotype, the cuticle is much shorter than normal and is open dorsally. In less severe embryos, dorsal closure is partially complete and the cuticle is longer. At a very low frequency (0.5%), the cuticle is nearly wild type in length, has greater denticle diversity and is dorsally closed (the embryos retain an anterior hole).

Mutant embryos show dorsal closure defects and ventral defects revealed by loss of naked cuticle between denticle belts. At the end of germ band retraction the dorsal leading edge cells initiate cell shape cheanges, but in an uncoordinated fashion. A subset of more lateral cells fail to elongate. Most embryos fail to initiate dorsal closure and leading edge cells often curl under their more lateral neighbors. Amnioserosa eventually rips away from the leading edge cells with detached leading edge cells resuming a cuboidal shape.

Large follicle cell clones mutant for arm3 form a follicular epithelium. The mutant cells in most cases have a normal cuboidal to columnar shape.

Affected embryos show a strong segment polarity phenotype: reduced size, lawn of denticles and missing head structures.

All surviving ventral cells of hemizygous embryos secrete denticles.

Homozygotes show a strong zygotic segment polarity phenotype. Females with homozygous germlines can complete oogenesis, but homozygous embryos derived from these females are abnormal.

Embryos that are zygotically and maternally mutant for arm3 have a disrupted epithelium, and only patches of cuticle are secreted. The integrity of the cuticle is dramatically improved if these embryos are also expressing armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC (using Scer\GAL4e22c), and the secreted cuticle is naked. The integrity of the cuticle is dramatically improved if these embryos are also expressing armS2.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC (using Scer\GAL4e22c), some of the secreted cuticle has denticles.

Germline mosaics cause failure in adhesion between follicle and germ cells in the egg chambers. Nurse cell cortical actin cytoskeleton is often disorganised with abnormal inclusions of actin present. Centripetal follicle cells frequently fail to migrate and separate the oocyte from the nurse cells and nurse cells often fail to transfer their contents into the oocyte. At a low frequency normal egg chambers are seen producing fertilizable eggs but egg production is greatly reduced. Of the eggs laid 23% are flat or half-filled. Of the full eggs 94% do not develop, the remaining 6% are fertilised and begin embryonic development. Half of the developing embryos arrest before secreting cuticle ("no cuticle" class). Deviation from normal development occurs before the cellular blastoderm stage. A quarter hatch or have a nearly normal cuticle ("wild-type" class). The remaining have a more dramatic cuticle phenotype secreting only a few cuticle scraps ("crumbs-like" class), due to lack of maternal and zygotic arm. Embryos cellularise normally but morphogenetic movements are disrupted at the onset of gastrulation, there is little or no germ band extension and the ventral furrow and posterior midgut fail to invaginate normally. Cell polarity is rapidly disrupted due to disruptions in adherens junctions. The epithelial monolayer of cells at the cellular blastoderm stage rapidly becomes a disordered, multilayered mesenchyme, the cells in this mesenchyme round up. Cell-cell adhesion is severely disrupted. "crumbs-like" class can be rescued by paternal arm correspondingly increasing the number of wild type embryos. Paternal arm cannot rescue the "no cuticle" class.

Females bearing germline clones lay some eggs, homozygous embryos develop normally, hemizygotes show poor differentiation of the larval cuticle. A rare class of hemizygotes shows very early defects, before and during cellularisation, due a disruption of zonula adherens formation. Other embryos develop normally until early gastrulation and then the monolayered epithelium becomes disordered and in some regions multilayered.

Embryos secrete only small portion of cuticle, due to disruption of adherens junction function.

Embryos arising from germ-line clones dissociate at the onset of gastrulation. Additional defects are evident in the egg and cellularization/early gastrulation of the embryo. Embryos deficient for both maternal and zygotic arm product have a crb like phenotype forming only scraps of cuticle.

Females with homozygous arm3 germlines lay eggs that are often flaccid, perhaps because residual nurse cells prevent proper closure of the egg cell at the anterior end. Those eggs that are laid have normal anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral patterning.

Homozygous clone tissue dies in the imaginal discs of larvae suggesting that arm+ activity is required in late larval and pupal stages.

Shows effects on segment polarity, head development and dorsal closure.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

arm3/arm[+] is an enhancer of partially lethal phenotype of lqfR03685/lqfRΔ117

Suppressor of
Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)Hu/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)WIN11/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)crb87-5/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(4)M101-62f/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by T(Y;3)B81/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by panunspecified

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by spi1

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by hidrvX1

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Dp(2;2)M(2)m+/Df(2L)M36F-S5

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)sc19-8/Dp(2;1)B19

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by In(2LR)Gla/In(2R)bwVDe2LCyR

arm3 has embryo | dorsal closure stage phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)E2/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by C(4)RM/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)TE29Aa-11/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)spd/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)017/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)PC4/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)ST1/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(3L)Cat/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(3L)Pc-MK/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(3L)W10/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by +/Df(3R)Dl-BX12

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)Scr/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)p712/+

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by Psn10/Psn[+]

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by hid05014/W[+]

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by pucA251.1F3

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)H20/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)JS32/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)N22-3/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)TW84/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)al/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)cl-h3/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by +/Df(2L)prd1.7

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)r10/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)ES1/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by +/Df(2R)M41A4

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)Px2/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(2R)vg135/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(3L)H99/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(3L)ZN47/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(3L)fz-GF3b/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)CA3/+

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)D7/+

arm3 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible | partially by puc1/puc[+]

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | dorsal phenotype, suppressible by puc1/puc[+]

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | ventral phenotype, suppressible | partially by puc1/puc[+]

arm3 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible | partially by pucA251.1F3/puc[+]

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | dorsal phenotype, suppressible by pucA251.1F3/puc[+]

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | ventral phenotype, suppressible | partially by pucA251.1F3/puc[+]

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by ciD

arm3 has phenotype, suppressible by groE48

arm3 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)Espl22

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by pan1

arm3 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible by pan1

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by pan2

arm3 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible by pan2

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by pan3

arm3 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible by pan3

arm3 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible by shg2

arm3 has cuticle phenotype, suppressible | partially by Hsap\JUParm.PW

arm3 has cuticle phenotype, suppressible | partially by Mmus\Ctnnb1arm.PW

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Tp(3;3)Dfdrv1/Df(3R)Tpl10

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Ras85De1B

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by vn147-2

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by 18wunspecified

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(2L)J-H/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(2L)TW50/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(2L)tkv2/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(2R)AA21/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(2R)P34/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(2R)Pcl11B/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(2R)cn9/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3L)Pc/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3L)rdgC-co2

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3L)ri-79c

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3R)Cha7/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3R)MAP2/+

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by EgfrC18

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by Jra1

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by aopXE-12

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by aos257

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by bskunspecified

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by dppe87

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by enaunspecified

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by hhAC

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by hhunspecified

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by kkv1

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by mbcC1

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by quaunspecified

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by rlC18

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by scra8

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by scraunspecified

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by scwI1

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by sro1

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by stck3R-17

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by tor1

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by tshunspecified

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by wgunspecified

arm3 has denticle belt phenotype, non-suppressible by pucE69/puc[+]

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | dorsal phenotype, non-suppressible by pucE69/puc[+]

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | ventral phenotype, non-suppressible by Ras85De1B

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | dorsal phenotype, non-suppressible by rlunspecified

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | ventral phenotype, non-suppressible by rlunspecified

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | dorsal phenotype, non-suppressible by vn147-2

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | ventral phenotype, non-suppressible by vn147-2

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | ventral phenotype, non-suppressible by pucE69/puc[+]

arm3 has embryonic epidermis | dorsal phenotype, non-suppressible by Ras85De1B

arm3 has phenotype, non-suppressible by ciCe-1

arm3 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(4)M101-63a

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

arm3/arm[+] is an enhancer of eye disc | somatic clone | pupal stage phenotype of Magiex214

arm3/arm[+] is an enhancer of ventral furrow phenotype of Traf43

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

arm3 is a non-enhancer of phenotype of Rho1rev220

Suppressor of
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

arm3 is a non-suppressor of phenotype of Rho1rev220

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The high frequency of gaps in the structure of adherens junctions observed in somatic clones of Magiex214 homozygous cells in the pupal eye disc is strongly enhanced by combination with a single copy of the arm3 allele.

arm3/+ ; lqfR03685/lqfRΔ117 animals die in the pupal case. They have small or absent eyes, small head capsules and also have morphological defects in the head cuticle, wings and legs.

One copy of Arp3EP3640 partially suppresses the cuticle defects seen in arm3 mutant embryos.

p130CAS1 homozygotes in combination with heterozygous arm3 severely reduces viability.

arm3/+ ; ASPPd/ASPPd flies have enlarged eyes.

CbydsRNA.cTa injected arm3 hemizygous embryos are indistinguishable from uninjected arm3 hemizygous embryos.

The arm3/Y phenotype is suppressed by one copy of Df(2R)E2; the cuticle is longer, the dorsal closure defect is substantially reduced and denticle diversity is partially restored. Expression of dshScer\UAS.cAa under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.T:Hsim\VP16 in an arm3 background gives rise to a cuticle with many small denticles, but with the length of an arm3 single mutant.

pucA251.1F3 and puc1 dominantly suppress the dorsal closure defects of arm3, and partially suppress the ventral patterning defects, restoring naked cuticle. arm3,pucA251.1F3 double mutants show a novel loss of dorsal cuticle phenotype.

The arm2 segment polarity phenotype is suppressed by heterozygosity for Df(4)M101-62f but not Df(4)M101-63a, and by suppressed by a reduction in maternal, but not paternal, contribution from Df(3R)Espl22.

The arm3 segment polarity phenotype is suppressed by one copy of shg2 or Df(3L)st100.62. arm3; Abl1/Abl1 embryos show disruptions in axonogenesis, including segmental gaps along the longitudinal nerves.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

arm3/+ significantly partially suppresses the decreased lifespan seen in flies with expression of Hsap\HTTQ93.ex1p.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4elav.PU or Scer\GAL4Eaat1.PR. arm3/+ significantly suppresses photoreceptor loss seen in flies with expression of Hsap\HTTQ93.ex1p.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4elav.PU. arm3/+ significantly suppresses the locomotor defects and bang sensitivity seen in Scer\GAL4repo.PU>Hsap\HTTQ93.ex1p.Scer\UAS flies.

The integrity of the cuticle in homozygous embryos derived from females with homozygous germlines is rescued by Hsap\JUParm.PW or Mmus\Catnbarm.PW provided paternally, but has patterning defects; the ventral epidermis forms a denticle lawn in these partially rescued embryos.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by
Comments

Embryos maternally and zygotically mutant for arm3 have a fragmented cuticle. This cuticle phenotype is completely rescued by armT:Hsap\MYC,T:Hsap\CAAX, but the resulting embryos have a wg null-like phenotype.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

Strong mutant allele.

Moderate allele.

Intermediate allele.

Association of arm protein with α-Cat and shg in vivo is assayed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (2)
References (52)