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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\arm4
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0000713
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
armYD35
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
point mutation
Nucleotide change:

C1895626T

Reported nucleotide change:

C2968T

Amino acid change:

Q387term | arm-PA; Q387term | arm-PB; Q387term | arm-PC; Q387term | arm-PD; Q387term | arm-PE; Q387term | arm-PF

Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Nucleotide substitution: C2968T.

Amino acid replacement: ??term.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In

nurse cell & actin filament

nurse cell & nucleus

oocyte & actin filament

Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

The position of the contractile ring at the end of constriction is unbiased along the apical-basal axis in mutant clones in the follicle cells, in contrast to wild type. The final position of the midbody ring is also disrupted in the mutant cells. At the clone border, wild-type cells always direct the midbody towards the wild-type neighbour.

The area of naked cuticle of arm4 mutant embryos is decreased compared to wild-type controls.

Hemizygous embryos have a strongly shortened cuticle which lacks anterior and head structures.

Myosin activity (assayed through a sqh antibody) is clearly restricted in arm4 follicle cell clones.

arm4 mutant clones sort away from wild-type cells and display epithelial integrity defects.

During oogenesis, arm4 mutant germ line clones cause oocyte mis-positioning. Also, in the follicular epithelium, arm4 mutant cells sort away from the wild-type cells and lose their epithelial integrity. arm4 mutant border cells do not migrate. Migration in arm4 mutant nurse cells is strongly blocked, although not inhibited.

Virtually all arm4/+ embryos show normal dorsal closure.

Embryos expressing armS6.T:Hsap\MYC in a arm4 background have a "lawn of denticles" cuticle phenotype. Embryos expressing armS12.T:Hsap\MYC in a arm4 background have a "lawn of denticles" cuticle phenotype.

Tube fusion at the adherens junction in the dorsal trunk is defective in mutants, fusion cells do not form E-cadherin contacts and associated fusion tracks.

arm4 somatic stem cell (SSC) clones in the ovary are lost more rapidly than wild-type clones. arm4 follicle cell clones form large patches similar to those formed by marked wild-type clones. The mutant follicle cells do not have the wild-type regular columnar shape. Mislocalisation of the oocyte can also be seen.

The addition of arm4 suppresses the eye phenotype seen in Hsap\MAPTGMR.Ex.PJ animals almost to wild-type, except for the anterior margin.

arm4 severely affects germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance in the ovary; more than 80% of mutant GSCs are lost 3 weeks after clone induction.

Posterior spiracles are present, but in an abnormal location, in mutant embryos and the tracheal dorsal trunk branch, dorsal branch 10 and spiracular branch 10 are absent.

Has no effect on the eye phenotype produced by activated arm constructs. (either armS44Y.GMR or armS56F.GMR).

Mutant embryos show a dramatic failure in epidermal patterning.

The size of the primary branches of the tracheal system is largely unaffected in embryos carrying armS14.T:Hsap\MYC in an arm4 background, even though segments of the dorsal trunk are disconnected.

Invagination of tracheal primordia is normal in zygotic arm4 embryos. The dorsal trunk is completely lost in these embryos and branch fusion does not occur.

Large follicle cell clones mutant for arm4 form a follicular epithelium. The follicle cells often develop a squamous cell morphology or show a multilayered structure.

Dorsal trunk branches are completely missing zygotic mutants.

Embryos that are zygotically arm4 but have wild-type maternal arm function have a partial set of RP2 neurons (70% of the normal number are formed). arm4 embryos have subtle ventral nervous system defects, including segmental gaps in the MP1 pathway. The pCC/MP2 pathway, although usually complete, undulates less than in wild-type embryos. The phenotype is not altered if the embryos also carry armS14.T:Hsap\MYC. Hemizygous embryos have a segment polarity phenotype.

Germline clones generate mutant germ cells that are frequently altered in position in the egg chamber, position of the oocyte is altered, cell shape and size are irregular and cells are multinucleated. No gaps are visible between the germ cells. Cell-cell adhesion by shg protein is not lost but the shg protein has lost its normal connection to the actin network.

Embryos have a strong segment polarity defect and show defects in dorsal closure. The lethality and cuticle phenotype of arm4 embryos is rescued by armS2.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC expressed using Scer\GAL4e22c. arm4 embryos expressing armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC (using Scer\GAL4e22c) differentiate essentially only naked cuticle, similar to the phenotype of embryos expressing armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC (using Scer\GAL4e22c) in a wild-type background. These embryos are shorter than wild-type.

arm4; crb2 and arm4; crbD88-3 double mutants exhibit a severe crb-like cuticle phenotype.

Tracheal system is defective in the embryo, though Malpighian tubules are normal. Dorsal trachea trunks are missing, and lateral trunks do not link up.

Clonal analysis revealed that arm function within the germ line is not required for polarization of the follicle cells, however nurse cells and oocyte have altered shape and position. Cortical actin cytoskeleton, cytoplasmic actin filaments and ring canals are all disrupted in arm mutant germlines, the nurse cells' nuclei may be mis-positioned and there may be large aggregates of actin in both nurse cells and oocyte. In some mutant egg chambers border cell migration is perturbed. Unlaid eggs become surrounded by eggshells with normally positioned dorsal/anterior chorionic appendages and with a micropyle at the anterior end.

Strong segment polarity phenotype. Homozygous clone tissue dies in the imaginal discs of larvae suggesting that arm+ activity is required in late larval and pupal stages. Flies carrying one copy of P{arm10.5} die as pupae with a wg-like phenotype.

No protein. Embryos fail to close dorsally and much of the dorsal cuticle is missing. Segments are still recognizable but their segment polarity phenotype is very severe.

Strong arm allele. Mutant phenotype can be rescued to full adult viability and fertility by arm+t10.5.

Clones of homozygous arm4 induced by mitotic recombination form denticles with reversed polarity. Changes in cell fate are autonomous at the level of single cells.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Suppressed by
Enhancer of
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

arm4/arm[+] is a non-enhancer of visible phenotype of Scer\GAL4en-e16E, kermitGS2053

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

arm4/arm[+] is a suppressor of visible phenotype of CycEJP

arm4 is a suppressor of visible phenotype of Hsap\MAPTGMR.Ex.PJ

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

arm4/arm[+] is a non-suppressor of visible phenotype of Scer\GAL4en-e16E, kermitGS2053

Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

arm4 has phenotype, enhanceable by Abl4

arm4 has phenotype, enhanceable by Abl1

arm4 has commissure phenotype, enhanceable by Abl4/Abl1

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

arm4 has phenotype, non-enhanceable by nkd2

arm4 has phenotype, non-enhanceable by nkd3

arm4 has wing phenotype, non-enhanceable by Atg4bP0997/Atg4bP0997

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

arm4 has phenotype, suppressible by hid05014

arm4 has phenotype, suppressible by Psn10/Psn[+]

arm4 has phenotype, suppressible by groE48

arm4 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible by Df(3R)Espl22

arm4 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by pan2

arm4 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible by pan2

arm4 has embryonic epidermis phenotype, suppressible by pan3

arm4 has denticle belt phenotype, suppressible by pan3

arm4 has phenotype, suppressible by Abl4

arm4 has phenotype, suppressible by Abl1/Df(3L)st-j7

arm4 has phenotype, suppressible by Abl1

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

arm4 has phenotype, non-suppressible by eRF1[+]/eRF1F2

arm4 has phenotype, non-suppressible by nkd3

arm4 has phenotype, non-suppressible by nkd2

arm4 has wing phenotype, non-suppressible by Atg4bP0997/Atg4bP0997

Enhancer of
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

arm4/arm[+] is a non-enhancer of wing hair phenotype of Scer\GAL4en-e16E, kermitGS2053

arm4, Scer\GAL430A is a non-enhancer of wing phenotype of Pka-C1UAS.cKa, Scer\GAL430A

arm4/arm[+] is a non-enhancer of ommatidium phenotype of fafFO8/fafBX3

arm4/arm[+] is a non-enhancer of phenotype of ctL188

arm4/arm[+] is a non-enhancer of phenotype of ctC145

arm4 is a non-enhancer of phenotype of ctC145

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

arm4/arm[+] is a suppressor of eye phenotype of Scer\GAL4GMR.PU, miple1UAS.Tag:HA

arm4/arm[+] is a suppressor of eye phenotype of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev, miple1UAS.Tag:HA

arm4/arm[+] is a suppressor of wing pouch | somatic clone phenotype of crolk05205

arm4/arm[+] is a suppressor of eye phenotype of CycEJP

arm4 is a suppressor of eye | anterior phenotype of Hsap\MAPTGMR.Ex.PJ

arm4 is a suppressor of eye phenotype of Hsap\MAPTGMR.Ex.PJ

arm4 is a suppressor of ommatidium phenotype of Hsap\MAPTGMR.Ex.PJ

arm4 is a suppressor of eye photoreceptor cell phenotype of ApcQ8

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

arm4/arm[+] is a non-suppressor of wing hair phenotype of Scer\GAL4en-e16E, kermitGS2053

arm4, Scer\GAL430A is a non-suppressor of wing phenotype of Pka-C1UAS.cKa, Scer\GAL430A

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

α-Cat::shgT:Avic\GFP rescues the defects in contractile ring and midbody ring positioning along the apical-basal axis which is seen in arm4 follicle cell clones.

An arm4 heterozygous mutant background suppresses the eye roughness seen in flies expressing miple1Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PU.

An arm4 heterozygous mutant background enhances the ommatidial rotation phenotype seen in flies expressing miple1Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev.

The delays in ventral furrow formation seen in homozygous Traf43 embryos are more severe if they are derived from females heterozygous for arm4.

arm4/+ enhances the ommatidial over-rotation phenotype which is caused by expression of nmoScer\UAS.cUa under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev.

The elimination of naked cuticle observed in arm4 mutant embryos is unchanged in either a pavB200/+ or a tumAR2/+ mutant background.

The reduced size of the posterior compartment of the wing that is seen in animals expressing crolScer\UAS.cMa under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E is enhanced is they are also heterozygous for arm4.

Analysis of 120 hour larval wing discs indicates that the growth of crolk05205 clones is restored if they are induced in a arm4/+ background compared to when they are induced in an otherwise wild-type background.

Approximately 58.2% of arm4/+ ; SoxNGA1192/+ double mutants appear phenotypically wild-type. Approximately 17.4% of mutants exhibit a 'lawn of denticles' phenotype, typical of arm mutants. The SoxNGA1192 mutation disrupts the dorsal pattern and reduces the size of the embryos. A SoxN-like phenotype is observed in approximately 17.6% of the double mutants. Approximately 6.8% of the double mutants exhibit a severe arm phenotype.

Approximately 55.2% of arm4/+ ; SoxNNC14/+ double mutants appear phenotypically wild-type. Approximately 19.9% of mutants exhibit a 'lawn of denticles' phenotype, typical of arm mutants. The SoxNNC14 mutation disrupts the dorsal pattern and reduces the size of the embryos. A SoxN-like phenotype is observed in approximately 17.5% of the double mutants. Approximately 7.4% of the double mutants exhibit a severe arm phenotype.

The Scer\GAL4hs.2sev>shgdCR3h.Scer\UAS.T:Avic\GFP-rs eye phenotype is enhanced in a arm4 background, both in terms of the under-rotation of ommatidia and in defects associated with ommatidial architecture and adhesion, such as the appearance of gaps between the ommatidia.

The ommatidial rotation phenotype of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev>shgdCR3h.Scer\UAS.T:Avic\GFP-rs mutants is partially suppressed in an arm4/+ background but gaps appear between ommatidia due to decreased adhesion.

The "lawn of denticles" cuticle phenotype seen in embryos carrying armS12.T:Hsap\MYC in an arm4 background is substantially rescued by expression of pan::pygopygoΔPHD-ΔNTCF.Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS; a segmented pattern of denticle bands and naked cuticle is restored.

The dorsal side of arm4/Y ; ena210/ena210 embryos is completely open.

The addition of nkd2 or nkd3 to arm4 embryos has no effect on the arm phenotype.

Expression of DlScer\UAS.cDa under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS does not rescue tracheal dorsal trunk formation in arm4 embryos.

Many photoreceptors are rescued from death in ApcQ8 homozygotes carrying one copy of arm4.

Suppressed by a reduction in maternal, but not paternal, contribution from Df(3R)Espl22.

arm4; Abl1/Abl4 embryos show disruptions in axonogenesis, including fused or missing commissures. The defects become more severe as development proceeds, such that, by stage 16, the central nervous system is dramatically disrupted. Abl+mTnabl significantly reduces the central nervous system defects of arm4; Abl1/In(3L)std11 embryos. The segment polarity phenotype of hemizygous embryos is suppressed by two copies of Abl4, or by Abl1/Df(3L)st-j7.

N, wg1 and arm4 triple mutants display, with about 10-20% penetrance, a perfect duplication of the notum charcateristic of wg mutations.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

Heterozygosity for arm4 partially abolishes the protective effect of Li[+] with respect to photoreceptor loss in Hsap\HTTGMR.Q120 flies.

Expression of shg::α-CatScer\UAS.fl in arm4/+ mutant follicle cells using the MARCM system and Scer\GAL4Scer\FRT.Rnor\CD2.αTub84B fully rescues oocyte positioning, sorting, and integrity of follicular epithelia, as well as border cell migration.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by
Comments

Expression of armY667F.PP in nurse cells, or armY667F.Scer\UAS in follicle and border cells clones, using the MARCM system, in a arm4 mutant clone, rescues migration defects caused by the absence of endogenous arm in border and nurse cells, along with both the sorting and follicular epithelium integrity.

Expression of armWT.PP in nurse cells, or armScer\UAS.cPa in follicle and border cells clones, using the MARCM system, in a arm4 mutant clone, rescues migration defects caused by the absence of endogenous arm in border and nurse cells, along with both the sorting and follicular epithelium integrity.

Expression of shg::α-CatScer\UAS.fl can suppress arm4 clone phenotypes such as follicle cell sorting, loss of epithelial integrity, and oocyte mis-positioning, as well as the migration defects of arm4 mutant border cell clones.

The "lawn of denticles" cuticle phenotype seen in embryos carrying armS6.T:Hsap\MYC in an arm4 background is not rescued by ubiquitous expression of armScer\UAS.T:sev-TM using Scer\GAL4arm.PS. The "lawn of denticles" cuticle phenotype seen in embryos carrying armS12.T:Hsap\MYC in an arm4 background is not rescued by ubiquitous expression of armScer\UAS.T:sev-TM using Scer\GAL4arm.PS. Ubiquitous expression of armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC using Scer\GAL4arm.PS produces ectopic naked cuticle in embryos carrying armS6.T:Hsap\MYC in an arm4 background. Ubiquitous expression of armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC using Scer\GAL4arm.PS produces ectopic naked cuticle in embryos carrying armS12.T:Hsap\MYC in an arm4 background.

Expression of armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS rescues the formation of the tracheal dorsal trunk in arm4 embryos.

The phenotype seen in RP2 neurons in embryos that are zygotically arm4 but have wild-type maternal arm is rescued by armS14.T:Hsap\MYC.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (3)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

Strong mutant allele.

Used as cuticular marker to aid in identifying rescue of the N epidermal defect in embryos.

Even when the oocyte is mispositioned it enlarges relative to the nurse cells, and follicle cells retract from nurse cells and become columnar atop the oocyte. There is a phenotypic series in the clonal germline phenotype that parallels the affect in embryos.

Association of arm protein with α-Cat and shg in vivo is assayed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (4)
References (71)