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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\arr2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0000724
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
arrIIW
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
point mutation
Nucleotide change:
C13457462T
Amino acid change:
R753term | arr-PA
Reported amino acid change:
?753term
Comment:
Site of nucleotide substitution in mutant inferred by FlyBase based on reported amino acid change.
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference
The premature stop codon is introduced between EGF-like repeats 2 and 3.
Amino acid replacement: ?753term.
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference
Maternally and zygotically mutant arr2 embryos (coming from mothers whose whole germline constitutes from arr2 mutant cells only - created by the OvoD germline clone technique) show a segment polarity phenotype and no naked cuticle between denticle belts on the ventral epidermis (resulting in a lawn of denticles).
Embryos mutant for both maternal and zygotic arr2 show lawns of denticles uninterrupted by naked cuticle.
In clones mutant for arr2, the peripheral ommatidia do not undergo programmed cell death and so fail to release their associated 2o and 3o pigment cells to join the pigment rim. As a consequence, the pigment rim in arr2 clones is significantly reduced in relation to neighbouring wild-type tissue.
Somatic clones of arr2 homozygous cells in the wing pouch region of third instar wing discs are smaller on average than their wild-type twin spots (P=1.6x10-7). Mutant wing pouch clones are associated with increased apoptosis marker expression. When these clones fall in the notum region of this disc there is no difference in mutant clone and twin spot size.
Homozygous clones are not recovered in the wing pouch when the clones are induced early, although small mutant clones are detected in the wing pouch and hinge cells.
Clones expressing arr2 that are induced at the anterior margin in the ventral part of the eye have extra ommatidia in the position normally occupied by the pigment rim. arr2 clones can violate the normal margin and grow out into the head region. Such ectopic eye tissue is heavily bristled. However, in clones that respect the normal eye boundary, the only observed phenotype is the presence of bristles adjacent to the head capsule.
Early induced clones do not survive well.
Clones in the wing cause notching with loss of margin bristles.
Homozygous clones in the eye produce two distinct effects that occur at roughly the same frequency. Firstly, homozygous clones induce ectopic differentiation of the retina ahead of the morphogenetic furrow. Secondly, clones that do not induce ectopic differentiation show clear repolarising effects in the equatorial/polar axis, inducing polarity reversals on their equatorial side. At the poles, the clones exert their maximal influence into surrounding wild-type tissue, inverting the polarity over many ommatidial rows. This effect diminishes progressively with the distance of the clone from the pole, disappearing at the equator. Within the clone, the chiralities of the ommatidia are not randomly arranged; in the equatorial region of the clone the ommatidia are inverted into the inappropriate form found in neighbouring wild-type tissue, but in the polar regions of the clone, the ommatidia are of the correct chiral form (the form found polar to the clone).
External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhanced by
Suppressed by
NOT suppressed by
Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
Phenotype Manifest In
NOT Enhanced by
Suppressed by
NOT suppressed by
Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
NOT Suppressor of
Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
The segment polarity phenotype and the lack of naked cuticle between denticle belts, resulting in a lawn of denticles on the ventral epidermis, characteristic for maternally and zygotically mutant arr2 embryos is not modified by Scer\GAL4da.PU-driven expression of any of the following: sggScer\UAS.T:Myr-Src64B,T:Ivir\HA1, sggKK-MI.Scer\UAS.T:Myr-Src64B,T:Ivir\HA1, or sggScer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1.
The increase in average satellite bouton number at the neuromuscular junction which is seen in nwk2 larvae is suppressed if they are also carrying arrk08131/arr2.
None of the embryos that are mutant for both maternal and zygotic arr2 and express Scer\GAL4prd.RG1>dshScer\UAS.cAa exhibit broad stripes of excess cuticle. Some of the embryos show occasional small patches of naked cuticle within their denticle lawns. Expression of dshDIX.Scer\UAS.T:ctail-arr in arr2 mutants under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS produces embryos with completely naked cuticles.
Recovery of arr2 homozygous somatic clones in third instar wing discs (induced at around 60 hours after egg laying) is reduced by the presence of pucE69/+ (10/25 twinspots vs 21/29 in a wild-type background). pucScer\UAS.cMa; Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL only partially rescues arr2 homozygous somatic clone size in the wing disc: these clones are on average 32% of twin-spot clone size, compared to 17% in the absence of pucScer\UAS.cMa. Recovery of arr2 M(2)53+ homozygous somatic clones in a M(2)531/+; arr2/+ background is less than arr+; M(2)53+ controls in the same background (clone survival assayed in third instar wing discs; induced at around 60 hours after egg laying).
Recovery of arr2 homozygous somatic clones in third instar wing discs (induced at around 60 hours after egg laying) is reduced by the presence of pucE69/+ (10/25 twinspots vs 21/29 in a wild-type background). pucScer\UAS.cMa; Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL only partially rescues arr2 homozygous somatic clone size in the wing disc: These clones are on average 32% of twin-spot clone size, compared to 17% in the absence of pucScer\UAS.cMa. BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa; Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL only partially rescues arr2 homozygous somatic clone size in the wing disc: These clones are on average 56% of twin-spot clone size, compared to 17% in the absence of BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa. Many mutant clone cells sort out below the disc epithelium. Flow cytometry analysis of these mutant clone cells shows an increase in the fraction of cells in G2 at the expense of cells in G1 compared to wild-type control cells. Recovery of arr2 M(2)53+ homozygous somatic clones in a M(2)531/+; arr2/+ background is less than arr+; M(2)53+ controls in the same background (clone survival assayed in third instar wing discs; induced at around 60 hours after egg laying).
Clone size is substantially increased in arr2 mutant clones in the wing disc if they are also expressing BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL.
The periodic character of the cuticles made by sggM11; arm8 maternal/zygotic double mutant embryos is suppressed by arr2/arr2, with the resulting cuticle tending toward denticle cell fates. The loss of naked cuticle in arr2/arr2 embryos is partially suppressed by arr::fz2arr.intra.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4prd.RG1. Suppression is more robust in more anterior segments.
The notching and loss of margin bristles seen in arr2 clones in the wing is not suppressed if fz2Scer\UAS.cCa is expressed in these flies under the control of Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096.
Flies expressing wgGMR.PW have very small eyes consisting almost entirely of pigment cells. arr2 clones induced in these eyes show an autonomous rescue of ommatidia.
Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa; Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL only partially rescues arr2 homozygous somatic clone size in the wing disc: these clones are on average 56% of twin-spot clone size, compared to 17% in the absence of BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa. Many mutant clone cells sort out below the disc epithelium. Flow cytometry analysis of these mutant clone cells shows an increase in the fraction of cells in G2 at the expense of cells in G1 compared to wild-type control cells.
Complementation and Rescue Data
Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (4)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (4)
References (29)