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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dppd12
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0003009
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
dpp12
Mutagen
Nature of the Allele
Mutagen
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Deletion of control elements.

Disrupts 3' regions controlling disc expression.

Alterations in the disk regulatory region of dpp gene.

Breakpoint allele.

Caused by aberration
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

Somatic dppd12 mutant clones at the anterior/posterior (A/P) compartmental boundary do not interfere with cell growth and proliferation of adjacent cell populations in third instar larval wing disc. Inducing the mutant clones in a Minute background gives them a growth advantage and in some such discs the A/P stripe of dpp expression is almost completely lacking, yet the cell proliferation in the wing pouch is unperturbed. Severely reduced wing discs are observed only when the mutant clones are induced very early in development.

The wings of dppd8/dppd12 mutants do not develop at all, only rudimentary stubs are formed, this can be rescued by expression of Ecol\lexALG.dpp>dpplexAop.cHa.EGFP : the wings of these adults display venation defects (extra vein material at the anterior crossvein, loss of distal part of L4) and the have slightly elongated shape but their sizes are comparable to that of control wings. The wing size of these rescued flies can in turn be reduced again by hindering the spreading of the dpp morphogen: completely blocking it by co-expressing Zzzz\vhhGFP4Ecol\lexAop.morphotrap.ext.T:Disc\RFP-mCherry at the source, i.e. within the dpp expression domain or reducing it by expressing Zzzz\vhhGFP4Scer\UAS.morphotrap.ext.T:Disc\RFP-mCherry under the control of Scer\GAL4hh.PU (i.e. in the posterior compartment). The former blocks the wing blade development completely, with the latter the blade size is strongly decreased and the patterning in its posterior part is lost.

Blocking dpp spreading at its source however does not interfere with the uniform proliferation pattern in larval imaginal discs as the density of mitotic cells (pH3-positive) is comparable between the rescue and morphotrap discs. Clonal growth rates are also not generally affected (assessed by utilizing the Raeppli tissue-labelling tool), but in the morphotrap wing discs low numbers of very small clones (1-3) are found next to the A/P boundary and these are not observed in the control discs.

In wing discs where dpp spreading is blocked within the dpp expression domain, the growth of the lateral part of the wing compartments shows similar width increase and similar growth rate as in the control discs with dpp spreading unhindered. However, the proliferation of the medial cell population (marked by low brk) is abolished, so the overall size of wing disc is visibly decreased compared to controls.

Similarly, hindering the dpp spreading at its (anterior) source reduces the size of the posterior wing pouch by more than 60%, blocking the dpp spreading in the posterior compartment (by expressing the morphotrap under the control of Scer\GAL4hh.PU) decreased the posterior pouch size by about 40%.

The wings of dppd5/dppd12 mutants are so small that the identification of patterning defects is obscured.

dppd12/dppd6 flies show a considerable loss of taste bristles but do not show a loss of pseudotrachae or a significant change in gross mediproboscis morphology.

The size of the capitellum of the haltere is reduced in dppd5/dppd12 adults compared to wild type.

dppd5/dppd12 females have normal vaginal plates and tergite eight, showing discretely reduced analia in a few cases. dppd5/dppd12 males have extensively reduced terminalia and the penis apparatus can be duplicated or triplicated.

The genital disc is severely reduced in dppd12/dppd14 larvae.

The wing blade is almost entirely missing in dppd8/dppd12 animals. Some wing hinge structures are present.

dppd8/dppd12 flies have rudimentary wings.

dppd6/dppd12 flies have a reduced number of ommatidia. The adults are weak, short-lived (live for 2-3 days) and have abnormalities in the wing, leg, antenna and external genitalia. The tarsal and meta-tarsal segments of all legs are abnormal in dppd6/dppd12 flies, due to loss of claws and fusion of the tarsal segments. The dorsal parts of the leg are sometimes ventralised. The tibia and femur are progressively less affected, while the trochanter and coxa are almost wild type. The number of sex comb bristles is generally higher than normal. dppd6/dppd12 flies have defects in the distal segments of the antenna. The arista is usually absent and a conical projection is present on the third segment (which presumably represents the fused 4th, 5th and 6th antennal segments). The leg and antennal discs of dppd6/dppd12 larvae are deformed. Most dppd6/dppd12 males completely lack external genitalia while some have abnormal external genitalia. There is little effect on the female genitalia.

The external genitalia of dppd6/dppd12 and dppd8/dppd12 males are reduced to a small ring like structure. The external genitalia of dpp10638/dppd12 males are highly defective and the penis apparatus is less defective. dppd6/dppd12 and dpp10638/dppd12 females show duplication of the thorn bristles accompanied by an absence of long bristles. dppd8/dppd12 females show a complete duplication of the thorn bristles of the vaginal plate.

Heterozygotes are phenotypically wild-type.

Homozygous clones induced in first instar larvae produce abnormalities in the dorsal side of the leg. Pattern elements from the dorsal side are missing, and may or may not be replaced with a duplicate version of the remaining ventral part of the leg. Duplications are arranged as mirror images. Homozygous clones doubly mutant for dppd12 and wgl-17 show defects in both the ventral and dorsal sides of the leg. The frequency of duplications is reduced compared to the single mutant homozygous dppd12 or wgl-17 clones.

dppd8/dppd12 dics wing pouch is small, almost no wing tissue remains, except structures for the proximal hinge region. The proximal costa remains in the anterior compartment and a reduced alula in the posterior. Partial rescue of the wing phenotype is achieved by tkvQ253D.Scer\UAS.cLa expression driven by Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1.

Mutation partially suppresses the penetrance of the hhMrt phenotype.

Heterozygotes with dppd5 have reduced wings. dppd5/dppd12 heterozygotes have reduced wings. Some dppd12 ptcG20/dppd5 ptc16 individuals eclose and show a partial rescue of the ptc phenotype (decrease in the numbers of bristles on the notum, legs and antennae and number of teeth in the male sex comb and a reduction in size of overgrown structures).

Heterozygotes of dppd12 and dppd14 have the distal leg structures missing.

A posterior clone runs along the antero-posterior boundary until it reaches a gap in wing vein 4 (a region sensitive to lack of dpp) where the border of the clone becomes irregular.

medulla neuropil ommatidia In dppd12/dppd6 or dppd12/dppd14 flies the medulla neuropil is reduced to a size similar to that produced by inactivating wg prior to 44hr AEL. The number of ommatidia is correspondingly reduced.

Rudimentary imaginal discs.

In dppd12/dppd14 heterozygotes all imaginal discs are extremely reduced, die as early pupae. Imaginal disc transplantation demonstrates that only the anterior notum and most of the proximal anterior wing margin are produced. Wing discs do not have regenerative capacities.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

Df(2L)JS17/+, dppd12 has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by sax[+]/sax1

dppd6/dppd12 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by B1

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

dppd5/dppd12 has visible phenotype, suppressible | partially by Ubx130/Ubx[+]

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

dppd12 is an enhancer of visible | recessive phenotype of gbb4

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
NOT Suppressor of
Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

Df(2L)JS17/+, dppd12 has unguis phenotype, enhanceable by sax[+]/sax1

Df(2L)JS17/+, dppd12 has wing vein phenotype, enhanceable by sax[+]/sax1

dppd6/dppd12 has antenna phenotype, enhanceable by B1

dppd6/dppd12 has arista phenotype, enhanceable by B1

dppd6/dppd12 has femur phenotype, enhanceable by B1

dppd6/dppd12 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by B1

dppd6/dppd12 has male genitalia phenotype, enhanceable by B1

dppd6/dppd12 has ommatidium phenotype, enhanceable by B1

dppd6/dppd12 has tarsal segment phenotype, enhanceable by B1

dppd6/dppd12 has tibia phenotype, enhanceable by B1

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

dppd12/dpp[+] is an enhancer of crossvein | somatic clone phenotype of gbb1

dppd12/dpp[+] is an enhancer of wing vein L5 phenotype of gbb5I/gbb4

dppd12/dpp[+] is an enhancer of wing vein L4 phenotype of gbb5I/gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing vein L4 phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of anterior crossvein phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing vein L2 phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing vein L4 phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing vein L2 phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing vein L3 phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing vein L5 phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing cell phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing vein L3 phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of submarginal cell phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of 2nd posterior cell phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of discal cell phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing basal cell 2 phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of anterior crossvein phenotype of gbb1

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing vein L5 phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing cell phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of submarginal cell phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of 2nd posterior cell phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of discal cell phenotype of gbb4

dppd12 is an enhancer of wing basal cell 2 phenotype of gbb4

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

dppd12/dpp[+] is a non-enhancer of wing vein L5 | somatic clone phenotype of gbb1

dppd12/dpp[+] is a non-enhancer of wing phenotype of MoeC858

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

dppd12/dpp[+] is a suppressor of eye disc phenotype of spin10403

dppd12/dpp[+] is a suppressor of glial cell phenotype of spin10403

dppd12 is a suppressor of arista | supernumerary phenotype of obk1

dppd12 is a suppressor of eye phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

dppd-ho/dppd12 is a suppressor of eye phenotype of CycEJP

dppd5/dppd12 is a suppressor | partially of phenotype of ptc16/ptcG20

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

dppd12/dpp[+] is a non-suppressor of wing phenotype of MoeC858

dppd12 is a non-suppressor of eye phenotype of Scer\GAL4hs.2sev, Tak1UAS.cMa

Other
Statement
Reference

dally[+]/dally06464, dppd12 has eye phenotype

Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

A high frequency of tumour growth occurs below the anal plates of the terminalia in chromosomally female flies homozygous for ix1 and trans-heterozygous for dppd5/dppd12.

The glial overmigration phenotype seen in spin10403 eye discs is significantly suppressed if the animals are also heterozygous for dppd12.

sax1/+ enhances the trans-heterozygous dppd12 Df(2L)JS17 phenotype characterised by missing tarsal claws and abnormal wing venation.

gbb1, dppd12/+ clones induced in the anterior of the wing leads to a greater loss of the L4-L5 intervein than gbb1 clones but no greater loss of the L5 wing vein.

The wing pouch of dppd12/dpphr56 wing discs is reduced to essentially a dorsal/ventral margin with no detectable vein primordia.

The wing defects seen in Moec858 homozygotes are unnaffected by dppd12/+.

The reduced size of the capitellum seen in dppd5/dppd12 adults is partially suppressed by Ubx130/+.

dppd12 heterozygosity does not reduce animal size when dallysec.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC is driven by Scer\GAL429BD.

The small size of dppd-blk/dppd12 eye discs is partially rescued by eyaScer\UAS.cBa expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 and greater numbers of developing ommatidia are seen.

brkM68 clones induced in a dppd8/dppd12 background lead to outgrowths of wing blade material indicating that normal target gene activation occurs without normal dpp levels.

The severity of the leg defects seen in dppd6/dppd16 flies is enhanced by B1. There is an overall shortening in length along the proximal-distal axis of the leg and complete or partial fusion or even total loss of tarsal segments. The tibia and femur are deformed, showing shortening, bulging and disorganised bristle patterns. The coxa and trochanter are not so strongly affected. The sex comb of the prothoracic leg, when present, is always duplicated in these flies. The antenna phenotype of dppd6/dppd16 flies is enhanced by B1; the arista, 4th and 5th segments are completely absent and the 2nd and 3rd segments are widened and deformed and have defects in the bristle pattern. B1 ; dppd6/dppd16 flies completely lack ommatidia. All B1 ; dppd6/dppd16 males completely lack external genitalia.

The gbb4/gbb4 and gbb1/gbb4 phenotypes are dominantly enhanced by dppd12; there is a greater loss of wing vein L4, wing vein L2 and the anterior crossvein than in gbb single mutant flies. There is also loss of intervein tissue, especially between veins L2 and L3 and between veins L4 and L5, resulting in a reduction in the size of the wing. A gap at the distal end of vein L3 is seen in 3% of cases. A reduction in the loss of wing vein L5 is seen in these flies. Viability is reduced. gbb1 dppd12/gbb4 + flies show truncations and/or fusions of the distal-most tarsal segments of the male prothoracic leg.

Double mutant clones with nub1 or nub2 cause dramatic reduction of cell number in the wing pouch.

Flies heterozygous for both dally06464 and dppd12 show eye and antenna abnormalities.

dppd12 Pka-C1E95 also fail to form veins in the anterior compartment.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

X-ray irradiated wing disc clones expressing BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4tub in dppd12 mutants contain a mixture of two types of cell: `live' cells, which have not initiated apoptosis due to the irradiation, and `undead' cells (between 20 and 70% of the clone), which have initiated apoptosis, but have failed to complete programmed cell death. No such cells persist outside the clones in which BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa is expressed. X-ray irradiated wing disc clones expressing BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4tub in dppd12 wgl-17 mutants contain a mixture of two types of cell: `live' cells, which have not initiated apoptosis due to the irradiation, and `undead' cells (between 20 and 70% of the clone), which have initiated apoptosis, but have failed to complete programmed cell death. No such cells persist outside the clones in which BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa is expressed. Unlike BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa (Scer\GAL4tub) wing disc clones, neither BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa (Scer\GAL4tub) dppd12 nor BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa (Scer\GAL4tub) dppd12 wgl-17 clones appear to be associated with extra proliferation or growth after stress (such as X-ray irradiation).

Complementation and Rescue Data
Not rescued by
Comments

Expression of dppαTub84B.PG in clones in the male terminalia in a dppd5/dppd12 background results in the recovery of terminal structures. The degree of recovery depends on the developmental stage at which the clone is induced. Recovery of terminal structures is accompanied by reduced penis apparatus duplications. The rescue is non-autonomous.

dppScer\UAS.T.T:Avic\GFP-EGFP rescues the wing phenotype of dppd8/dppd12 flies when expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1; wing size and pattern are almost normal except that ectopic vein material is seen near vein 3 and the spacing between veins 3 and 4 is slightly increased.

Belongs to the disk-V class of alleles.

Allele class: d-V

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (3)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

dpp class V allele.

Two copies fail to rescue defects of class V heterozygote dppd12/dppd14, individuals fail to form cuticle, most do not eclose from the pupal case, those that do have near full size wings and some legs are missing tarsal segments.

Lacks disc function and retains shortvein function.

Remove most or all of the imaginal disc function of dpp.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
References (72)