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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dpphr56
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0003068
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
dpp56
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
deletion
Comment:

Deletion of GCA such that CGCAAC becomes CAC. Consequently RN becomes His at amino acid 399.

Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology

Polytene chromosomes normal.

Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Alteration in amino acids 397 to 400; H replaces QRNY.

Deletion of GCA at position 2383 such that CGCAAC becomes CAC. Consequently RN becomes His at amino acid 399. Amino acid 399 falls in the N-terminal pro region of the dpp protein.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In

cytoneme & dorsal mesothoracic disc | somatic clone (with dpphr4)

Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

dpphr56 heterozygous females show the expected mating-induced increase in germline stem cells in the germarium.

The anterior crossvein is absent in dpphr56/dppd5 wings.

dppd5/dpphr56 mutants show abnormal wing phenotypes and reduced viability.

7-day old dpphr56/+ germaria have normal numbers of germline stem cells (GSCs), but at 63-days old, these germaria have significantly lower GSC numbers compared to controls - most have only one or no GSCs. 35-day old and 63-day old heterozygous germaria also contain significantly fewer cysts than controls, although cap cells are maintained at normal numbers.

dppd5/dpphr56 flies show reductions in wing vein spacing and loss of wing veins.

The wings of dppd5/dpphr56 transheterozygotes show a truncation of the L2 vein (40% penetrance), reduction of the L4-L5 intervein (48% penetrance) and partial fusion of the L4-L5 intervein (52% penetrance).

The wing pouch of dppd12/dpphr56 wing discs is reduced to essentially a dorsal/ventral margin with no detectable vein primordia.

When single cell dpphr4/dpphr56 clones are made in the wing imaginal disc, cytonemes in the wing primordium are affected. At the non-permissive temperature (29oC) cytonemes emanating from cells at the lateral flanks of discs do not orient themselves towards the anterior posterior organiser (as those see in wild-type do). Cytonemes in these discs are also more numerous than in wild-type, and unlike in the wild-type, are sometimes seen to be bent, curved or crossing over each other. These effects are not observed if mutant larvae are heatshocked and returned to permissive temperatures.

In females carrying the temperature sensitive allelic combination dpphr56/dppe90 raised at 18oC and shifted to 29oC (the non-permissive temperature) for 10, germaria are agametic but contain only slightly less follicle cells than control agametic germaria (bamhs.PO 10 days after two 2 hour heat shock treatments.

dppe90/dpphr56 or dpphr4/dpphr56 males raised at 18oC to eclosion and then shifted to 29oC, show no significant loss of germline stem cells after 1 week.

In mutant embryos, the dorsal medial head epidermis fails to develop as reflected by the presence of a continuous optic placode across the dorsal midline. Cell death is decreased in the dorsal midline region of the embryo.

dpphr27/dpphr56 males that have been raised at 18oC and then shifted to the restrictive temperature of 29oC upon eclosion do not have any overt morphological abnormalities in the testes after 7 days at 29oC and the testes contain germ cells in all stages and in quantities indistinguishable from that of controls.

dppd5/dpphr56 flies show loss of wing veins L2 and L4 and loss of the intervein region between veins L4 and L5.

Heterozygotes show a mild reduction in size compared to wild type.

dpphr56/dppd5 flies occasionally show notching of the wing margin.

dppd8/dpphr56 flies show a small notching of the wing tip in less than 10% of cases.

Eggs laid by dpphr56/+ show 99.1% wild type dorsal appendages, 0.7% broad dorsal appendages and normal egg length and 0.2% abnormal dorsal appendages with short egg length.

Females carrying temperature sensitive combinations dppe90/dpphr56 or dpphr4/dpphr56 after shifting to the restrictive temperature for one week show 40-50% of germaria that are significantly smaller than wild type. The effect is more pronounced in older females. Stem cell number is reduced, stem cells have differentiated into cysts. Some effect on egg chamber budding is seen.

Eye discs from dpphr4/dpphr56 larvae grown at 29oC for 48 hrs show several phenotypes including failure of retinal differentiation or partial ommatidial differentiation, ommatidia are retricted to the posterior part of the disc and absent from the lateral margins. Occasionally eye discs show normal size and morphology. These eye discs show anterior-most ommatidia that are abnormal mature in comparison to wild type ommatidia at similar positions. Also, cell death is observed ahead of the differentiated region. Surviving adults show slightly roughened eyes that are reduced along the anterior-posterior axis, consistent with a failure of normal morphgenetic progression.

At 25oC, dppe87/dpphr56 animals die, while at 18oC many survive to adulthood. Surviving females shifted to 25oC lay eggs of which some show anterior eggshell defects: reduced opercula, slightly reduced dorsal appendages and some show reduced egg length. The operculum defects are often accompanied by small protrusions of ectopic eggshell extending off the anterior pole, and more rarely malformations of the micropyle.

Embryos show cuticular holes, disorganization of the head skeleton, internalization of the seventh and eighth abdominal segments and the filzkorper and a thoracic constriction. A significant percentage of surviving transheterozygotes between dpphr56 and dpphr4 or dpphr27 have a split notum. dpphr56 shows a temperature sensitive embryonic lethality: percentage embryonic lethality drops from 26% at 25oC to 5% at 18oC. Temperature sensitivity is evident in denticle pattern as well as survival. dpphr56 is differentially temperature sensitive to embryonic and imaginal requirements for dpp. Outcrossed lines retain lethality at 18oC, though this lethality acts at the pharate/pupal adult stage. Homozygotes exhibit canonical dpp disc phenotypes, with small roughened eyes, reduced wings and short truncated legs. dpphr56 is affecting a dpp function that is required differentially in embryonic and imaginal tissue.

Survival of heterozygotes is reduced if also heterozygous for certain alleles of tld.

dpphr56/+ embryos derived from sax1/+, sax2/+ or tkv7/+ females show ventralized phenotypes.

Clonal analysis in the developing eye (using the FLP/FRT system) revealed nonautonomous phenotypes with large clones showing posterior-lateral eye parts missing.

Dominant lethality less than 50%. Homozygous and transheterozygous embryos were examined with respect to 25 cuticular markers, results demonstrate a graded requirement for dpp along the dorso-ventral axis.

Fully rescued to adulthood by two wild type copies of dpp.

Trans-heterozygotes display normal dorsal ventral polarity but show defects in head and cauda formation.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

dppd5/dpphr56 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by gbb1/gbb[+]

dpphr56/dppd8 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by pucE69/puc[+]

dpphr56/dppd8 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by hep[+]/hepCA

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

dpphr56/dpp[+] is an enhancer of visible | recessive phenotype of Mer3

Suppressor of
Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

dppd5/dpphr56 has crossvein phenotype, enhanceable by gbb1/gbb[+]

dppd5/dpphr56 has wing vein L2 phenotype, enhanceable by gbb1/gbb[+]

dpphr56/dppd8 has wing phenotype, enhanceable by pucE69/puc[+]

dpphr56/dppd8 has wing phenotype, enhanceable by hep[+]/hepCA

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Df(3L)66C-G28/+

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad10

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad11

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad12

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad1

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad2

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad3

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad4

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad5

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad6

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad7

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad8

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by Mad9

dpphr56 has phenotype, enhanceable by MadP1

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

dppSal20, dpphr56 has phenotype, non-enhanceable by Df(3L)66C-G28/+

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

dppd5/dpphr56 has wing phenotype, suppressible | partially by Df(2R)H23

dppd5/dpphr56 has wing phenotype, suppressible | partially by sax4

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

dppd5/dpphr56 has wing phenotype, non-suppressible by sax5

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

dpphr56/dpp[+] is an enhancer of eye phenotype of Mer3

dpphr56/dpp[+] is an enhancer of ommatidium phenotype of Mer3

dpphr56/dpp[+] is an enhancer of interommatidial bristle phenotype of Mer3

dpphr56/dpp[+] is an enhancer of adult head & cuticle phenotype of Mer3

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

dpphr56/dpp[+] is a suppressor | partially of germarium phenotype of Scer\GAL4C587, ph-pGD17398

dpphr56/dpp[+] is a suppressor | partially of germarium phenotype of PscGD4481, Scer\GAL4C587, Su(z)2GD16388

dpphr56/dpp[+] is a suppressor | partially of germarium phenotype of Cul2GD8913, Scer\GAL4ptc.PU

dpphr56/dpp[+] is a suppressor | partially of spectrosome phenotype of Cul2GD8913, Scer\GAL4ptc.PU

dpphr56/dpp[+] is a suppressor | partially of wing vein phenotype of DdG0269

dpphr56/dpp[+] is a suppressor of germarium phenotype of stet1A3

dpphr56/dpp[+] is a suppressor of spectrosome | supernumerary phenotype of stet1A3

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

NPFRsk8, dpphr56 double heterozygous females fail to show the expected mating-induced increase in germline stem cells in the germarium, as compared to heterozygous controls.

The tumorigenic accumulation of germline stem cell-like cells in germaria, characteristic for females expressing either ph-pGD17398 alone or PscGD4481 and Su(z)2GD16388 simultaneously under the control of Scer\GAL4C587 (together with tub-Gal80[ts] to limit the time of expression to adulthood) is strongly suppressed by combination with a single copy of dpphr56.

The progeny from dpphr56/+ fathers exhibit lethality when mothers are Med15/+, and exhibit semi-lethality when mothers are either Df(2R)Pcl11B/+, lolalk02512/+ or lolal1122/+, but do not exhibit significant mortality when mothers are either Mad12/+, lolal1722/+ or lolalG9603/+, as compared to controls.

The increased number of spectrosome-containing cells in germaria characteristic for adult females expressing Cul2GD8913 RNAi under the control of the Scer\GAL4ptc.PU can be partially rescued by combination with either dpphr92, dpphr56 or tkv7 in a heterozygous state or by knocking-down dpp by co-expression of either dppJF01090 or dppJF01091 RNAi.

dpphr56/+ partially suppresses the Su(var)3-3ΔN mutant supernumerary germline cell phenotype resulting in an increased number of germline cysts with branched fusomes and maturing egg chambers.

The aberrant wing vein phenotype seen in DdG0269/Y animals is suppressed by dpphr56/+.

Df(2R)H23 slightly suppresses the dppd5/dpphr56 wing phenotype.

sax4 slightly suppresses the dppd5/dpphr56 wing phenotype.

sax5 does not suppress the dppd5/dpphr56 wing phenotype. sax5 enhances the lethality associated with dppd5/dpphr56.

dppe90/dpphr56; gbbD4/+ males raised at 18oC to eclosion and then shifted to 29oC for one week have an average of 5.6 germ-line stem cells per testis, compared to 8.6 in gbbD4/+. In identically treated dppe90/dpphr56; gbbD4/+ this is reduced to 3.1 per ovary.

Shows no genetic interaction with lilliunspecified.

Dominantly enhances the phenotype of Mer3 hemizygotes; the eye is smaller and more roughened and there is increased expansion of peripheral head cuticle. Numerous interommatidial bristle duplications are seen. ex697 dpphr56/ex697 flies have truncated legs in which the distal tarsal segments are absent (significant leg defects are not seen in either dpphr56/+ or ex697 single homozygote flies).

The dppd8/dpphr56 phenotype is significantly enhanced by a single copy of pucE69 or hepCA, and in the case of hepCA a wide region of the wing blade is lost, leaving only the base of the wing.

Eggs laid by Mef2424/dpphr56 females show 92.3% wild type dorsal appendages, 0.9% reduced dorsal appendages, 3.0% broad dorsal appendages and short egg length, 0.4% broad dorsal appendages and normal egg length and 2.8% abnormal dorsal appendages with short egg length.

Early embryonic dpp phenotype is dominantly maternally enhanced by Mad mutations.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially complements
Comments

The transheterozygous combination dpphr4/dpphr56 allows development to adult-hood in a temperature-sensitive manner. The permissive temperature is 17oC and the restrictive temperature is 29oC.

Allele class: hin-r

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

Based on considerations of degree of dominant lethality, dpp alleles can be placed in an allelic series. Progressing from weakest to most severe the series is: dppe87 < dppe90 < dpphr56 < dpphr4 < dpphr92 < dpphr27 < dpphr93 < dppH94 < dppH95 < dppH96 = dppH91 = dppH46.

dpphr56 shows interallelic complementation at 18oC with dppe90, dpphr4 and dpphr27.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
References (53)