The regularity of DLM spiking is affected in Hk1 mutants, with a significant increase in the DLM inter-spike interval CV.
Hk1 mutants sleep less on day day and the severity of the short sleeping phenotype increases after the first week, peaking at day 18. Hk1 flies cease being consistently short sleepers after day 60.
Walking activity is not affected by age in Hk1 flies, which remain hyperactive relative to their wild-type siblings from day 2 until death. Late in life, Hk1 flies are hyperactive but are no longer short-sleepers.
Hk1 flies exhibit an approximate 29% decrease in life-span compared to wild-type.
70-day old Hk1 flies sleep more during both day and night, compared to 70-day old wild-type flies that exhibit increased sleep primarily during the day.
When exposed to 10mM paraquat for 48hr, mutants show 48% survival (wild type shows 97% survival).
The rate of habituation of the giant fiber escape pathway is reduced and attainment of five consecutive failures is delayed in Hk1 flies compared to wild-type. The refractory period of the long-latency response is shorter than normal. The refractory period of the short-latency response is longer than normal for the tergotrochanteral muscle. The short-latency response of the dorsal longitudinal muscle occurs earlier than in wild-type flies. Habituation in Hk1 Sh5 double mutants is markedly retarded, as in Hk1 single mutants, rather than more rapid as in Sh5 single mutants.
Hemizygous males exhibit an anesthesia-induced leg shaking phenotype, females appear wild type.
Homozygous adults are more sensitive to paraquat than control flies. Homozygous adults have a reduced lifespan compared to wild-type flies.
The life expectancy of Hk1 hemizygous males is shortened, as compared to controls.
The delivery of a short electrical buzz to the brain has no significant effect on Hk1 mutant flies. The delivery of a long electrical buzz to the brain can cause abnormal spontaneous activity ("seizures") in the dorsal longitudinal muscle.
Mutant flies show a shortened life span due to a normal, but accelerated, course of aging at 18oC and 25oC.
Leg shaking while under ether anaesthesia.
Recessive mutation. eag1 Hk1 double mutant larvae show an increased number of axonal branches and varicosities over muscles 12 and 13. eag1 Hk1 double mutant larval muscles show periods of activity not organised into bursts (tonic activity) in contrast to wild-type.
Homozygous flies show rapid-leg shaking under ether anesthesia.
Phenotype is similar to that of Flu1.
Ether-dependent leg shaking and wing scissoring.
Hemizygous males show a 22% reduction in lifespan. Heterozygous females show only a slight reduction in lifespan.
Isolated as a dominant allele that induces ether-induced leg shaking in flies (FBrf0020572); later, Hk alleles showed recessive behavior, both in regard to the adult leg shaking phenotype and to the larval electrophysiological phenotype (FBrf0050361). The vigorous leg shaking of flies can be induced by nitrogen or triethylamine, as well as ether, but not by chloroform (FBrf0038065); ether also induces rhythmic bursts of impulses in certain cells of the thoracic ganglia of adults (summarized in FBrf0025830). The "patch clamp" experiments on neurons from Hk1 larvae reveals inward currents of unusually high conductance (FBrf0043568). In Hk1 larvae, the amplitude and duration of the postsynaptic response to a brief high frequency nerve stimulation is increased up to the level characteristic of Sh mutants (FBrf0050361). Shadow stimuli induce jump response, which maps to the head in mosaic experiment (FBrf0073517). Hk1 can overcome heat-induced paralytic effects of parats1 (i.e. strobe light stimuli to the double mutant elicit jumps). Courtship performed by Hk1 males is abnormal (FBrf0025875). Lifespan is shorter than normal and rate of oxygen consumption is greater than normal in Hk1 (FBrf0021491). Mutant focus of life-shortening effect maps to ventral anterior part of thorax as does leg shaking (FBrf0036553). Mutant shows weak orientation to spots in Y-maze test (FBrf0063339).