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General Information
D. melanogaster
FlyBase ID
Feature type
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Key Links
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
Additional Notes
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
Progenitor genotype
Nature of the lesion
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease-implicated variant(s)
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description

The regularity of DLM spiking is affected in Hk1 mutants, with a significant increase in the DLM inter-spike interval CV.

Hk1 mutants sleep less on day day and the severity of the short sleeping phenotype increases after the first week, peaking at day 18. Hk1 flies cease being consistently short sleepers after day 60.

Walking activity is not affected by age in Hk1 flies, which remain hyperactive relative to their wild-type siblings from day 2 until death. Late in life, Hk1 flies are hyperactive but are no longer short-sleepers.

Hk1 flies exhibit an approximate 29% decrease in life-span compared to wild-type.

70-day old Hk1 flies sleep more during both day and night, compared to 70-day old wild-type flies that exhibit increased sleep primarily during the day.

When exposed to 10mM paraquat for 48hr, mutants show 48% survival (wild type shows 97% survival).

The rate of habituation of the giant fiber escape pathway is reduced and attainment of five consecutive failures is delayed in Hk1 flies compared to wild-type. The refractory period of the long-latency response is shorter than normal. The refractory period of the short-latency response is longer than normal for the tergotrochanteral muscle. The short-latency response of the dorsal longitudinal muscle occurs earlier than in wild-type flies. Habituation in Hk1 Sh5 double mutants is markedly retarded, as in Hk1 single mutants, rather than more rapid as in Sh5 single mutants.

Hemizygous males exhibit an anesthesia-induced leg shaking phenotype, females appear wild type.

Homozygous adults are more sensitive to paraquat than control flies. Homozygous adults have a reduced lifespan compared to wild-type flies.

The life expectancy of Hk1 hemizygous males is shortened, as compared to controls.

Leg-shaking phenotype.

The delivery of a short electrical buzz to the brain has no significant effect on Hk1 mutant flies. The delivery of a long electrical buzz to the brain can cause abnormal spontaneous activity ("seizures") in the dorsal longitudinal muscle.

Mutant flies show a shortened life span due to a normal, but accelerated, course of aging at 18oC and 25oC.

Leg shaking while under ether anaesthesia.

Recessive mutation. eag1 Hk1 double mutant larvae show an increased number of axonal branches and varicosities over muscles 12 and 13. eag1 Hk1 double mutant larval muscles show periods of activity not organised into bursts (tonic activity) in contrast to wild-type.

Homozygous flies show rapid-leg shaking under ether anesthesia.

Phenotype is similar to that of Flu1.

Ether-dependent leg shaking and wing scissoring.

Hemizygous males show a 22% reduction in lifespan. Heterozygous females show only a slight reduction in lifespan.

Isolated as a dominant allele that induces ether-induced leg shaking in flies (FBrf0020572); later, Hk alleles showed recessive behavior, both in regard to the adult leg shaking phenotype and to the larval electrophysiological phenotype (FBrf0050361). The vigorous leg shaking of flies can be induced by nitrogen or triethylamine, as well as ether, but not by chloroform (FBrf0038065); ether also induces rhythmic bursts of impulses in certain cells of the thoracic ganglia of adults (summarized in FBrf0025830). The "patch clamp" experiments on neurons from Hk1 larvae reveals inward currents of unusually high conductance (FBrf0043568). In Hk1 larvae, the amplitude and duration of the postsynaptic response to a brief high frequency nerve stimulation is increased up to the level characteristic of Sh mutants (FBrf0050361). Shadow stimuli induce jump response, which maps to the head in mosaic experiment (FBrf0073517). Hk1 can overcome heat-induced paralytic effects of parats1 (i.e. strobe light stimuli to the double mutant elicit jumps). Courtship performed by Hk1 males is abnormal (FBrf0025875). Lifespan is shorter than normal and rate of oxygen consumption is greater than normal in Hk1 (FBrf0021491). Mutant focus of life-shortening effect maps to ventral anterior part of thorax as does leg shaking (FBrf0036553). Mutant shows weak orientation to spots in Y-maze test (FBrf0063339).

External Data
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by

Hk1 has chemical sensitive phenotype, enhanceable by eag1

Hk1 has chemical sensitive phenotype, enhanceable by qvr1

Hk1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by qvr1

Enhancer of

Hk1 is an enhancer of chemical sensitive phenotype of eag1

Hk1 is an enhancer of chemical sensitive phenotype of qvr1

Hk1 is an enhancer of visible phenotype of qvr1

Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by

Hk1 has wing phenotype, enhanceable by qvr1

NOT Enhanced by

Hk1 has wing phenotype, non-enhanceable by Sh21

Hk1 has wing phenotype, non-enhanceable by Sh5

Suppressed by

Hk1 has phenotype, suppressible by para103

Enhancer of

Hk1 is an enhancer of wing phenotype of qvr1

Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions

10% of Hk1, qvr1 double mutants show the wings down phenotype. Hk1, Sh5 and Hk1, Sh21 double mutants do not show the wings down phenotype.

The Hk1 leg shaking phenotype is suppressed by para103.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Complementation and Rescue Data
Rescued by
Not rescued by

Leg-shaking phenotype can be almost completely rescued by Hk17K-X194 but not rescued by Hk17K-XΔB194.

Images (0)
Stocks (5)
Notes on Origin



The reduced lifespan focus appears to map to the anterior ventral region of the blastoderm, possibly to the anterior part of the thoracic ganglion. This focus is submissive; mosaic flies containing one mutant and one wild-type focus have a normal lifespan.

Phenotype suppressed by mlenap-ts1, even at permissive temperatures. Shaking and suppressed phenotypes are evident in severed legs as well as in the whole organism.

Adenylate cyclase activity normal.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (2)
References (35)