Homozygous Sin3A08269 embryos display a range of muscle phenotypes. Defects are observed in 100% of embryos and 100% of hemisegments. Early defects are not observed and a recognizable muscle pattern is generated. All die as embryos. Mature tendon cells are properly specified and positioned and embryos display a wild type cuticle pattern, indicating that ectodermal patterning is normal. Lateral transverse muscles (LTs 1-4) are often misshapen and frequently attach incorrectly; missing or unattached LTs are also frequently observed. Ventral acute muscles (VA1 and VA2) show less frequent defects, but muscle mis-attachment and mild changes in muscle shape are detected. Expression of 'identify genes' shows that the LT and VA muscles are specified correctly in Sin3A08269 mutants; myoblast fusion also occurs.
Sin3A08269 flies reared on 62.5, 125, and 250υM rotenone-supplemented food display a robust resistance to rotenone-induced early mortality after 3 and 7 days and show a significant improvement in the odds of survival as compared to wild-type flies at 62.5 and 125υM rotenone doses after 3 days and at 125υM rotenone dose after 7 days.
Sin3A08269 flies reared on 62.5, 125, and 250υM rotenone-supplemented food for 3 days exhibit a robust improvement in climbing ability and show a significant improvement in the odds of reaching the top section of the apparatus as compared to wild-type flies reared on 125υM rotenone-supplemented food.
Sin3A08269 flies reared on 10mM sodium butyrate and 10mM sodium butyrate and 62.5, 125, and 250υM10mM sodium butyrate and 62.5, 125, and 250υM rotenone-supplemented food show a significant improvement in the odds of survival as compared to flies reared on rotenone-supplemented food without sodium butyrate. There is no additive effect of sodium butyrate-supplementation in Sin3A08269 flies on rotenone-induced locomotor impairment.
Sin3A08269 flies reared on 125&ugrM rotenone-supplemented food show a significant dopamine deficiency as compared to vehicle-treated flies. However, Sin3A08269 flies reared on 125υM rotenone-supplemented food display a non-significant trend for moderately higher dopamine content as compared to wild-type flies reared on 125υM rotenone-supplemented food.
One copy of Sin3A08269 has no effect on hemocyte proliferation in third instar larvae.
The average number of crystal cells per embryo is reduced (to 14.1) in homozygous stage 13-14 embryos compared to wild type (36 +/- 2.2 cells on average).