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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\gig109
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0009630
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
TSC2109
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

The neuromuscular junctions of homozygous gig109 mutant larvae (muscle 4 of segment A2-4) show a significant increase in synaptic growth compared to controls. Boutons are larger than in controls.

The neuromuscular junctions of gig109/Df(3L)BSC830 mutant larvae (muscle 4 of segment A2-4) show a significant increase in synaptic growth compared to controls. Boutons are larger than in controls.

The amplitude and frequency of the mini excitatory junction potentials (mEJPs) recorded from muscle 6 of gig109 mutant third instar larval neuromuscular junctions are similar to wild type. Quantal content (EJP/mEJP) is also similar to wild type, indicating that there is no difference in the number of vesicles released.

The average size of adult wing cells in homozygous clones is 25.1% larger than surrounding wild-type cells. All intervein sectors with a mutant clone are larger in area than normal; the average increase in area compared to controls is 2.8%, although the increase can reach 7% if the clone occupies more than 50% of the mosaic sector. The increase in area is almost exclusively due to an increase in cell size, and in fact, the average cell number for a sector carrying a mutant clone is 11.1% less than control sectors. Mutant cells show reduced viability compared to control clones. In addition to the reduction in the number of cells seen in intervein sectors containing a mutant clone compared to controls (autonomous effect), there is also a reduction in the number of cells of non-mutant sectors of the same wing compared to controls (non-autonomous effect). The reduction is greater the larger the mutant clone is. Macro- and microchaetae in mutant clones in the notum are further apart than in wild-type homologous regions; in the acrostical region the density of microchaetae is reduced by 21.1% compared to wild type. The mutant chaetae are separated by less (but larger) cells in the mutant territory (3.85 cells in mutant tissue compared to 5.34 in wild type). Heminota containing large clones are larger than non-mutant contralateral controls (although they contain less cells than normal) and they contain more chaetae than in the control heminota.

In homozygous mutant clones that cover the whole antenna, the mutant antenna is approximately twice the size of its wild-type counterpart. Despite this the number of sensillae in the mutant antenna is about the same as seen in wild-type. The distribution of different types of sensillae of the funiculus is also unaltered. Each sensillum is enlarged in the mutant clone in approximately the same proportions as the wild-type antenna. the antennal nerve and antennal lobe of the brain is also bigger in these clones. In these mosaics, no differences are seen between the glomerular projection patterns and sibling controls. The only noticeable change is an increase in volume in the three glomeruli ipsilateral to the mutant antenna with respect to the contralateral homologs. The antennal glomerulus V shows an increase in volume of 42% and exhibits two to three-fold more synapses than the contralateral homolog. Mutant olfactory neurons exhibit normal sensory transduction. In Olfactory behavioural response tests using Ethyl Acetate (EA), mutant flies are sensitive to lower concentrations of EA, and elicit a more intense response to EA.

Cells in mutant clones in the eye and wing are larger than wild type siblings.

The axon of the neuron of homozygous anterior scutellar bristles (ASCs) is two to three times thicker than wild-type in mosaic flies, generates more collaterals and boutons, and projects into areas that the wild-type neuron never reaches. The distinction between the major and minor branches seen in wild-type flies is maintained in the homozygous neurons. The terminal bend in the metathoracic neuromere characteristic of wild-type ASC neurons is often either present in the fused abdominal ganglion or is duplicated in both the normal location and in the fused abdominal ganglion in homozygous ASC neurons. The neurons of homozygous anterior and posterior notopleural bristles often show an extended projection along the anterior branch towards the brain. Sometimes the extension is along the posterior branch, in which case the anterior branch has a normal length. The neuron of homozygous humeral bristles has an extended projection in the same direction as in wild-type, that reaches the very posterior region of the mesothoracic neuromere. The neuron of homozygous vertical bristles of the head branches at the brain mechanosensory center (its normal target) and continues towards the thorax. Homozygous mechanosensory neurons of the antenna sometimes project towards the thoracic ganglion, and show extended and more profuse branching compared to wild-type. Mosaic adults often show defects in the grooming reflex when a mutant bristle is touched.

Eye clones are identified by enlarged facets (enlarged receptor, pigment and cone cells) that usually lack interommatidial bristles. Cellular architecture within these cells is partially disorganised. Rhabdomeres sometimes lack the normal separation between individual rhabdomeres to produce a large interrhabdomeric space. The photoreceptors have synaptic terminals with more synaptic sites than those of gig+ photoreceptors.

Homozygous cells are 2-3 times normal size.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
NOT Enhanced by
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by TorE161K/Tor[+]

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by Tor[+]/TorΔP

Tor+t9.4, gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by Tor2L1/Tor[+]

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by Tor2L1/Tor[+]

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by Tor[+]/TorA948V

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by TorV2148D/Tor[+]

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by Tor[+]/TorW1251R

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

Tor+t9.4, gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, non-suppressible by Tor[+]/TorΔP

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, non-suppressible by Tor[+]/TorEP2353/Scer\GAL4[-]

gig193/gig109 has lethal phenotype, non-suppressible by Tor[+]/TorG2256D

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, non-suppressible by Tor[+]/TorG2256D

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, non-suppressible by Tor[+]/Tork17004

gig193/gig109 has lethal | larval stage phenotype, non-suppressible | partially by Tor[+]/TorΔP

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

gig109 is a non-suppressor of visible phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

Other
Phenotype Manifest In
NOT Enhanced by
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

gig109 is a non-suppressor of eye phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The small underdeveloped wing characteristic for adult flies expressing MitfScer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 is significantly suppressed by combination with a single copy of gig109.

The synaptic growth defects seen in rictorΔ42 gig109 double mutants are similar to those seen in either mutant alone.

The neuromuscular junctions of Akt104226/+ gig109/+ mutant larvae (muscle 4 of segment A2-4) exhibit increased synaptic growth in comparison with the single heterozygote controls.

The induction of autophagy in the fat body of normally fed animals that is caused by expression of Atg1Scer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.PH is significantly reduced if the animals are also carrying gig109/gig192.

The percentage of gig109/gig193 mutants that survive to adult stages is increased from 0 to around 30% when flies are also TorE161K/+, to around 45% when flies are also TorA948V/+ or TorW1251R/+ and to 60% when they are Tor2L1/+. Around 2% of TorV2148D/+; gig109/gig193 flies survive to adulthood. Around 60% of gig109/gig193; TorΔP/+ flies survive to the pupal, but not the adult stage. However, one copy of the Tor+t9.4 transgene blocks the ability of TorΔP/+ to rescue gig109/gig193 flies to pupal viability. The Tor+t9.4 transgene reduces the amount of Tor2L1/+; gig109/gig193 flies that survive to the pupal stage from around 85% to around 65%.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by
Comments

Presynaptic expression of gigScer\UAS.T:Zzzz\FLAG under the control of Scer\GAL4elav.PLu restores the synaptic overgrowth seen in gig109 mutant flies to nearly wild type levels. No rescue is seen when gigScer\UAS.T:Zzzz\FLAG is expressed postsynaptically under the control of Scer\GAL4G7.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (2)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
References (19)