InRE19/InR93Dj-4 mutant embryos contain a reduced number of somatic gonad precursor (SGP) cell number at hatching (L0) compared to wild type. Transheterozygotes contain significantly fewer terminal filaments (TFs) and TF cells at the larval-pupal transition stage compared to controls, and TF cell size is also reduced. While each of the heterozygotes displays reduced SGP cell number and TF cell size, neither displays differences in either TF number or TF cell number.
Swarm cell migration is unaffected in InRE19/InR93Dj-4 mutants, and the proportion of cells anterior/posterior to the germline is also similar. However, the proportion of anterior cells that differentiate into TF cells is elevated in InRE19/InR93Dj-4 larvae compared to controls.
Heterozygous InR93Dj-4 mutant flies reared on food containing 7.5% ethanol exhibit reduced adult viability compared to controls. Viability is comparable with controls when flies are raised on conventional media.
InRE19/InR93Dj-4 transheterozygotes show a temperature sensitive growth phenotype. The wing size of InRE19/InR93Dj-4 transheterozygotes is similar to that of wild-type controls when flies are raised at 18oC. However, when flies are raised at 25oC, the wing area of InRE19/InR93Dj-4 is much smaller than that of controls. Additionally, very few InRE19/InR93Dj-4 flies survive to adulthood when raised at 25oC and none survive when raised at 29oC.
The adult wing area of InRE19/InR93Dj-4 flies is only sensitive to temperature during late third instar and early pupation. Switching InRE19/InR93Dj-4 flies from 17oC to 24oC changes adult wing size between day 9 and 20 with earlier shifts resulting in smaller wings. The difference in wing size between flies raised at 17oC and 24oC is due to fewer, but not smaller, cells.
Total developmental time for InRE19/InR93Dj-4 transheterozygotes is sensitive to temperature only before the middle of the third larval instar. Switching InRE19/InR93Dj-4 flies from 17oC to 24oC changes the time to reach adult eclosion during the first 9 days of development with earlier switches causing greater delays in eclosion. A switch after the ninth day does not delay adult eclosion. At 17oC, InRE19/InR93Dj-4 flies show a slight delay in eclosion relative to controls.
The adult body mass of InRE19/InR93Dj-4 flies is sensitive to a temperature change from 17oC to 24oC between day 9 and day 13. Shifting flies to the restrictive temperature after pupariation has no effect on adult body mass.
InRE19/InR93Dj-4 flies reared at 17oC up to pupariation then switched to 24oC results in an approximate doubling of free-sugar concentration compared to flies that are not switched to 24oC. Lipid levels, however, are elevated in InRE19/InR93Dj-4 flies whether or not they are raised at the restrictive temperature either after pupariation or for the whole of their development time.
InRE19/InR93Dj-4 male flies raised at 17oC show a reduction in the size of the maxillary palp, wing, and genital arch compared to wild-type flies. The size of the maxillary palp and wing is further reduced when these males are raised at 24oC, but the genital arch size is not further decreased by the restrictive temperature.
InR93Dj-4/InRE19 adults are dwarf in size and are short-lived; life expectancy of both males and females is reduced compared to controls (from 32.3 to 1.7 and from 35.5 to 1.7 days respectively).
Heterozygous adults have slightly reduced body size. Many InR93Dj-4/InRE19 animals survive to adulthood. They eclose with a delay of 8 to 9 days at 25oC, having prolonged second and third larval instar stages compared to control siblings. The number of cells in the wing, eye-antennal, haltere, mesothoracic leg and metathoracic leg discs is reduced compared to wild-type. Pupae and adult flies are reduced in size compared to wild-type. InR93Dj-4/InRE19 males and females are fertile. Ovaries of InR93Dj-4/InRE19 females are reduced in size due to the small size of many underdeveloped ovarioles. The rate of ovariole maturation is slower than wild-type.