mesothoracic leg & sex comb tooth | ectopic
metathoracic leg & sex comb tooth | ectopic
The penetrance of the ectopic sex comb phenotype seen on the second and/or third legs of Pc3/+ flies (40%) is enhanced if they are also heterozygous for either upSETe00365 (89%) or upSETMB08950 (76%).
The adult size and humeral bristle phenotypes of HcfHR1 mutants are not affected by Pc3/+. The reduced sex comb phenotype of HcfHR1 is not modified by Pc3/+. The ectopic vein phenotype of HcfHR1 mutants is suppressed by Pc3/+.
The frequency of posterior-to-anterior leg transformations is reduced in transheterozygous males when Pc3 is combined with both Bap170G5986/+ and polybromo33.2/+. Hemizygous e(y)34 males display an almost complete suppression of the Pc3 leg transformation phenotype.
The ectopic wing hairs seen on the halteres of RYBPScer\UAS.cBa ; Ubxlac1-GAL4 (Scer\GAL4Ubx-lac1-Gal4) flies are suppressed by Pc3/+. In contrast, the reduced wing phenotype of RYBPScer\UAS.cBa; Scer\GAL4sd-SG29.1 flies is enhanced by Pc3/+.
The addition of Pc3 increases the rate of leg to wing disc transdetermination to 17.7%.
Females transheterozygous for Usp7KG06814 and Pc3 show antenna to leg transformations, which are not observed in Pc3 flies. Usp7KG06814 strongly enhances the frequency and severity of a range of homeotic transformations caused by Pc3 flies. In combination with either hetero- (females) or hemizygous (males) Pc3 flies, Usp7KG06814 significantly increases the penetrance of wing-to-haltere transformations. Likewise, there is a strong increase in the frequency and extent of transformations of the fourth abdominal segment (A4) into the semblance of the fifth (A5), indicated by increased dark pigmentation of the A4. Transheterozygous Usp7kim1/Pc3 flies exhibit partial antenna to leg transformations. Usp7kim1 strongly enhances the frequency and severity of a range of homeotic transformations caused by Pc3 flies. For example, wing-to-haltere transformations occur only very rarely in heterozygous Pc3 flies. However, in combination with either hetero- or hemizygous Usp7kim1, in respectively females or males, the penetrance of wing-to-haltere transformations is significantly increased. Likewise, there is a strong increase in the frequency and extent of transformations of the fourth abdominal segment (A4) into the semblance of the fifth (A5), indicated by increased dark pigmentation of the A4. In males hemizygous for Usp7kim1 and heterozygous for Pc3, the frequency of sex combs on the second leg (L2-L1) is strongly increased compared to flies harboring only a Pc3 mutation. Females transheterozygous for Usp7kim1 and Pc3 exhibit antenna to leg (Ant-L) transformations, which are detected in Pc3 flies, but at a lower penetrance than in Usp7KG06814/Pc3 flies. Flies transheterozygous for burk07130 and Pc3 exhibit very strong wing-to-haltere transformations. In addition, males transheterozygous for burk07130 and Pc3 also show partial transformation of the anterior abdominal segments A4 towards A5 and carry sex combs on the second legs.
The frequency of ectopic sex combs seen in Pc3/+ males is increased by Sir22A-7-11; in Sir22A-7-11/+ ; Pc3/+ double heterozygous males, 98% of T2 legs and 61% of T3 legs have sex combs, while in Sir22A-7-11/Sir22A-7-11 ; Pc3/+ males, 99% of T2 legs and 78% of T3 legs have sex combs. The frequency of ectopic sex combs seen in Pc3/+ males is increased by Sir217; in Sir217/+ ; Pc3/+ double heterozygous males, 94% of T2 legs and 63% of T3 legs have sex combs.
Mutants heterozygous for lolalk02512, lolalk11212, or lolalk07907, when also heterozygous for Pc3, exhibit a contrabithorax phenotype, which is a wing-to-haltere transformation due to ectopic expression of Ubx in the posterior part of the wing disc. This phenotype is further enhanced in specific lolal heteroallelic viable combinations, such as lolalk02512/lolal311a, lolalk11212/lolal311a, and lolalk07907/lolal311a, when also heterozygous for Pc3.
100% of Hsc70-454.1 Pc3 double heterozygotes show transformation of abdominal segment A4 to A5 (extra black pigmentation is seen on the fourth abdominal tergite in males). 100% of Hsc70-454.1 Pc3 double heterozygotes show transformation of abdominal segment A6 to A7 (males have a reduced sixth abdominal tergite). There is an average of 34 extra sex combs (average total number of extra sex comb teeth on the four posterior legs of a male) in Hsc70-454.1 Pc3 double heterozygotes. Transformation of the first abdominal tergite towards A2 segment identity is seen in Hsc70-454.1 Pc3 double heterozygotes. The seventh tergite and sternite are almost completely removed, partially transformed into A8. Patches of wing tissue are transformed to haltere. 50% of flies show partial antenna-to-leg transformations. The progeny of Hsc70-454.1 Pc3 double heterozygous females often die as first instar larvae, even when fathers are wild type, but Hsc70-454.1 Pc3 double heterozygous males give viable offspring when mated to wild-type females.
The homeotic phenotype of Pc3/+ adults is dominantly enhanced by ScmM56, ScmD1, ScmSuz302, ScmM36, Scm4, ScmD2, ScmH1, ScmET50, ScmR5-13, Scm5 or ScmK2. Partially lethal in double heterozygous combination with ScmSuz302, ScmET50 or ScmR5-13, with a higher percentage of males surviving than females.
ssa flies carrying Pc3 exhibit 1-2 sex comb teeth on one of the legs of the second and third pair. ssa40aw in the same genetic background exhibit sex combs on the tarsi of each leg. At lower temperatures, the number of teeth increases and segmentation of the leg is highly suppressed. Introduction of trxB22 completely neutralizes the negative effect of Pc on the formation of tarsal structures.
Transheterozygotes of Pc3 with crm7 die as pharate adults, with second and third legs completely transformed towards the first. Ectopic sex comb teeth are found on the second tarsal segment of all legs.
In combination with ph-p410 (both heterozygous with wild type) an antenna to leg transformation is sometimes observed.
Pcl1/Df(2R)Pcl11B; Pc3/Pc3 embryos show very extreme posteriorly directed segmental transformations, and have a stronger phenotype than +/+ ; Pc3/Pc3 embryos; posterior spiracle-like structures appear in most segments, the mouth hook apparatus is almost completely undeveloped and a region of the head (probably from the labial segment) develops an abdominal type denticle belt.