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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\prd4
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0013967
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
prd2.45, prd2.45.17
Mutagen
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
complex substitution
Comment:

5 bases deleted and replaced with a 1.1 kb insertion.

Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

1.1kb insertion after amino acid 45 of the paired-domain.

N-terminal insertion of a 1.1kb fragment of repetitive DNA.

Base pairs 1065-1069 inclusive are deleted and replaced with a 1.1kb insertion in the second exon of the prd gene. The 1.1kb insertion is present over a hundred times in the genome, scattered over all four chromosomes.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

prd4/Df(2L)Prl mutants lose half of the segmental equivalents and show the pair-rule phenotype in larval cuticle, compared to heterozygotes.

When wild-type females previously mated to wild-type males are mated with Tm1gs1 males (which ejaculate seminal fluid but no sperm) the proportion of females with no stored sperm is significantly less than for females that have not undergone a second mating. However when the second mating is with prd4/Df(2L)Prl; prdwt males (which do not ejaculate at all) the proportion of females with stored sperm is no different to that seen when the second mating is with Tm1gs1 males, suggesting that seminal fluid is not necessary for the loss of stored sperm on mating.

Wild-type females mated to prd4/Df(2L)Prl males rescued by prdwt extrude their ovipositors when subsequently challenged with wild-type males. The frequency of ovipositor extrusion elicited by the prd4/Df(2L)Prl males rescued by prdwt is almost the same as that elicited by control males. However, wild-type females that had been mated to prd4/Df(2L)Prl males rescued by prdwt and then challenged with wild-type males all remate within an hour, in contrast to wild-type females that had been mated to wild-type males and then challenged with wild-type males, which do not remate within an hour.

prd4/Df(2L)Prl flies rescued by one copy of prdwt survive to adulthood, but display highly underdeveloped or absent accessory glands. Males are sterile. If prd+t18 or prdmf5 is used to rescue however, the flies are wild-type.

Females mated with sons of prdwt; prd4/Df(2L)Prl mothers only show a partial stimulation of oviposition during the first day after mating and lay about 25% of the clutch induced by mating with wild-type males. This stimulation is enhanced slightly, but remains constant at 30-35% of oviposition induced by wild-type for at least 5 days. These females' post copulation receptivity is indistinguishable from wild-type. When wild-type virgin females are mated with prdwt; prd4/Df(2L)Prl males (who are normally sterile, lacking accessory glands) followed by tud1 males (which are also normally sterile, lacking sperm) a few offspring are produced. However when this experiment is performed in reverse (copulation with tud1 males first) no restoration of fertility is seen.

Mutant cuticular phenotype of prd4/Df(2L)Prl transheterozygous embryos is rescued partially by one copy of and completely by two copies of P{prd-Gsb} and P{prd-Pax3}, two copies of P{prd-Gsb} can rescue embryos to adult flies. Single copy of P{prd-SN20} can rescue prd4/Df(2L)Prl transheterozygous embryos to adulthood.

prd4/Df(2L)prd1.7 and prd4/Df(2L)Prl transheterozygotes only survive to adulthood in the presence of a copy of P{prd-SN20}. These adults give rise to fertile offspring.

Interacts with RpII140wimp maternal effect.

Antp, Scr and Ubx genes can function in homozygous mutant embryos. Double mutants with ftz13 display a complete lack of segmentation, and double mutants with opa1 seem unsegmented.

strong allele

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

Df(2L)Prl/prd4, prdmf9 has male sterile phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3L)th102

Df(2L)Prl/prd4, prdmf9 has male sterile phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3L)H99

Df(2L)Prl, prd4, prdmf9 has male sterile phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3L)th102

Df(2L)Prl, prd4, prdmf9 has male sterile phenotype, non-suppressible by Df(3L)H99

Df(2L)Prl/prd4 has male sterile phenotype, non-suppressible by gsb::prd+PRD

Df(2L)Prl/prd4 has male sterile phenotype, non-suppressible by gsb::prdGsbN+PrdC

Df(2L)Prl/prd4 has male sterile phenotype, non-suppressible by gsbint.prd

Other
Statement
Reference
Phenotype Manifest In
Suppressed by
NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

Df(2L)Prl/prd4 has male accessory gland phenotype, non-suppressible by gsbprd.PX

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

When gsbprd.PX is added to Df(2L)Prl/prd4 animals, males survive to adulthood but are sterile and have smaller or no accessory glands. The addition of prdmf5 to prd4/Df(2L)Prl animals that have been partially rescued by gsbprd.PX, fully rescues the male sterility phenotype. When CycEScer\UAS.cLa or dmScer\UAS.cZa (driven by Scer\GAL4mf9) is added to Df(2L)Prl/prd4, (partially rescued by a weakly expressing prdmf9 line), the accessory gland phenotype is reduced, and male fertility is restored. When CycEScer\UAS.cLa or (driven by Scer\GAL4prd.3.1) is added to Df(2L)Prl/prd4, however, no rescue is seen. When Df(3L)H99, Df(3L)th102 or Pi3K92EScer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC is added to Df(2L)Prl/prd4 animals (already partially suppressed by the addition of prdmf9) no suppression is seen in the accessory gland or make sterility phenotypes.

The addition of gsbprd.PX to prd4/Df(2L)Prl flies produces male flies that are sterile. These males exhibit normal copulatory behaviour. The testes, the ejaculatory duct, and the ejaculatory bulb are without obvious morphological defects. In addition, a normal amount of sperm is transferred to females during copulation. However, accessory glands are completely absent in these flies.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by

Df(2L)Prl/prd4 is partially rescued by prd+mXa

Df(2L)Prl/prd4 is partially rescued by prdΔPBC

Df(2L)Prl/prd4 is partially rescued by prdwt

Df(2L)Prl/prd4 is partially rescued by prdwt

Not rescued by
Comments

prdΔPBC or prd+mXa rescues the larval pair rule phenotype and embryonic lethality seen in prd4/Df(2L)Prl animals; however rescue with prdΔPBC leads to a distorted segmentation phenotype in adult cuticles. prdΔPBC rescues accessory gland development and male fertility (not fully) to a similar extent as prd+mXa in prd4/Df(2L)Prl; however rescue with prdΔPBC leads to significantly reduced fecundity (fewer progeny) compared to rescue with prd+mXa. prdwt fails to rescue accessory gland development in prd4/Df(2L)Prl males. prd4/Df(2L)Prl males rescued with prdΔPBC show lower mating success compared to those rescued with prd+mXa, though they show no significant difference in climbing ability. Females mated to prd4/Df(2L)Prl males rescued with prdΔPBC (even two copies) behave like virgins, with low egg-laying, high receptivity and low rejection; mutant males rescued with prd+mXa behave similar to controls.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

Removes odd numbered en stripes.

prd RNA expression has been studied in prd4 embryos.

The expression of l(1)sc is altered during stage 9 in homozygous mutant embryos.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 4 )
Crossreferences
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (3)
References (37)