spz4 mutants show significantly increased mortality upon infection with the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis (wild type or the protease-deficient strain TX5128), with the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, with the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium or with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, as compared to controls.
spz4 mutant flies show reduced survival rate upon infection with bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes or fungi Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus fumigatus compared to wild-type.
spz4/spz4 adult flies have significantly reduced survival in response to Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), compared to controls.
spz4/spz4 mutants exhibit a significant decrease in survival in response to P. rettgeri or L. monocytogenes infection, as compared to wild type.
spz4 mutants display increased sensitivity to radiation exposure as their eclosion rate following irradiation during third larval instar is significantly reduced compared to controls.
spz4 adult mutant flies show significantly lower survival rate upon infection with Gram-positive bacteria compared to controls.
Mutant adults show reduced survival compared to wild type after septic injury with Gram positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis or Staphylococcus aureus).
Mutant adults show reduced survival compared to wild type after septic injury with fungi (Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus) and after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae).
spz4/spz4 adult flies have a severely reduced survival after inoculation with either Providencia rettgeri or Enterococcus faecalis bacteria.
Mutant flies show reduced compared to wild type after injection with E. faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium).
spz4 mutants show no effect on mortality within 24 hours of mild wounding in 7-8 days old adults.
Mutant flies are highly susceptible to infection with E. faecalis.
spz4 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in E. faecalis quickly succumb to the infection, whereas wild-type flies survive.
spz4 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in L. monocytogenes quickly succumb to the infection, whereas wild-type flies survive.
spz4 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in C.albicans quickly succumb to the infection, whereas wild-type flies survive.
spz4 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in E. carotovorado not succumb to the infection.
All spz4 mutant flies succumb to infection by Enterococcus faecalis within 28 hours.
spz4 mutant flies show an increased susceptibility to challenge by Staphylococcus aureus compared to wild type flies.
Homozygous spz4 mutant adults are more sensitive to fungal infection (B. bassiana) than wild type controls. This increase in sensitivity is seen following both natural infection and infection through septic injury.
spz4 mutant adults are more sensitive to fungal infection than wild type flies, with 100% lethality at 7 days. This compares to only 55-70% at 30 days in wild type. spz4 mutant larvae show a reduced eclosion rate following injection with M. luteus and E. coli.
spz4 mutants survive well post-infection with E.coli. Both sexes are less healthy without infection, and 10-days after infection, males survive somewhat better than females (77.9% versus 71.5%).
spz4 mutant males can withstand B.bassiana fungal infection to a greater level than spz4 mutant females.
Mutant flies show reduced survival compared to control flies after infection with either E.faecalis or A.fumigatus, but show normal levels of survival after infection with E.coli.
Homozygous spz4 mutants exhibit a severely reduced response to gram-negative bacteria and fungal attack.
spz4 mutant animals are sensitive to infection by gram-positive bacteria and fungi, and over 75% of mutant animals die within 25 hours of septic injury.
spz4 flies show similar mortality levels to wild-type flies in response to feeding with both the ROS-resistant KNU53775 yeast strain and a standard yeast strain (W303).
Mutant flies show reduced survival rates compared to control flies after bacterial (E.faecalis) and fungal (B.bassiana) infection.
Mutant flies show reduced survival compared to wild-type controls after infection with Cryptococcus neoformans.
The survival of spz4 mutants infected with B.bassiana is significantly reduced compared to wild-type flies.
The mean ln (natural logarithm) circulating hemocyte concentration (CHC) value of homozygous larvae is significantly lower than that of control siblings. The ability of homozygous larvae to encapsulate L.boulardi eggs is significantly reduced compared to that of control larvae.
When homozygous mutant larvae are treated with L-NAME (to inhibit Nos) their immune defense mechanisms to the gram-negative bacteria Erwinia carotova is compromised.
Mutant flies are more susceptible to natural infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and direct injection of either Aspergillus fumigatus or Neurospora crassa spores than controls.
spz4 flies are highly susceptible to fungal infection (B.bassiana) and also to infection by Gram-positive bacteria (E.faecalis previously known as 'Streptococcus faecalis').
spz4 mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to E.faecalis infection.
Homozygous flies show a reduced resistance to infection by the fungus B. bassiana and the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus faecalis compared to controls.
imd1; spz4 double homozygotes show 90% lethality in response to infection with M.luteus, compared to no significant lethality in infected wild-type animals. imd1; spz4 double homozygotes infected with B.subtilis or S.aureus die significantly more rapidly than infected wild-type animals.
A small proportion of embryos derived from spz4/Df(3R)Bd females and injected with high levels of spz1.9 RNA invaginate two ventral furrows. Injection of spzbcd.3'UTR RNA into embryos derived from spz4/Df(3R)Bd females can result in embryos with ventralised cuticles.
Mutant adults are not highly susceptible to infection by M.luteus. Mutant adults are highly sensitive to natural infection by B.bassiana or injection of A.fumigatus spores.
spzD1-RPQ/spz4 larvae have significantly higher levels of muscle defects than wild-type larvae.
Level of Drs induction of bacterially challenged mutants is lower than in wild type. Pattern of response of CecA1 and CecA2 parallels that of Drs. Dpt and Dro remain fully inducible and pattern of expression of AttA and Def in intermediate. Infection of spz4/spz2 mutants with A.fumigatus causes 3% survival 3 days postinfection, infection with E.coli causes 84% survival 3 days postinfection.
Dorsalized embryos differentiate an elongated hollow tube of dorsal cuticle missing all ventral and lateral structures. Injecting transcripts from Tl8 into dorsalized spz4 mutant embryos causes ventralization near the site of injection indicating that Tl acts downstream of spz. Females doubly heterozygous for spz4 and Tlr2 lay weakly dorsalized eggs at 29oC. Approximately half the embryos laid by females heterozygous for spz4 and for a deficiency of tub are weakly dorsalized.
Perivitelline fluid from Tl and dl donors was capable of restoring polarized gastrulation movements and cuticular elements.