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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\spz4
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0016062
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
spzrm7, spatzlerm7, spaetzlerm7, spzm7
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
point mutation
Nucleotide change:

T27065973A

Reported nucleotide change:

T694A

Amino acid change:

C288S | spz-PA; C262S | spz-PB; C215S | spz-PC; C235S | spz-PD; C189S | spz-PI; C206S | spz-PJ; C252S | spz-PK; C232S | spz-PL

Reported amino acid change:

C232S

Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Amino acid replacement: C232S.

Nucleotide substitution: T694A.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

spz4 mutants show significantly increased mortality upon infection with the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis (wild type or the protease-deficient strain TX5128), with the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, with the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium or with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, as compared to controls.

spz4 mutant flies show reduced survival rate upon infection with bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes or fungi Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus fumigatus compared to wild-type.

spz4/spz4 adult flies have significantly reduced survival in response to Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), compared to controls.

spz4/spz4 mutants exhibit a significant decrease in survival in response to P. rettgeri or L. monocytogenes infection, as compared to wild type.

spz4 mutants display increased sensitivity to radiation exposure as their eclosion rate following irradiation during third larval instar is significantly reduced compared to controls.

spz4 adult mutant flies show significantly lower survival rate upon infection with Gram-positive bacteria compared to controls.

Mutant adults show reduced survival compared to wild type after septic injury with Gram positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis or Staphylococcus aureus).

Mutant adults show reduced survival compared to wild type after septic injury with fungi (Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus) and after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae).

spz4/spz4 adult flies have a severely reduced survival after inoculation with either Providencia rettgeri or Enterococcus faecalis bacteria.

Mutant flies show reduced compared to wild type after injection with E. faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium).

spz4 mutants show no effect on mortality within 24 hours of mild wounding in 7-8 days old adults.

Mutant flies are highly susceptible to infection with E. faecalis.

spz4 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in E. faecalis quickly succumb to the infection, whereas wild-type flies survive.

spz4 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in L. monocytogenes quickly succumb to the infection, whereas wild-type flies survive.

spz4 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in C.albicans quickly succumb to the infection, whereas wild-type flies survive.

spz4 mutant flies, infected by septic injury with a needle dipped in E. carotovorado not succumb to the infection.

All spz4 mutant flies succumb to infection by Enterococcus faecalis within 28 hours.

spz4 mutant flies show an increased susceptibility to challenge by Staphylococcus aureus compared to wild type flies.

Homozygous spz4 mutant adults are more sensitive to fungal infection (B. bassiana) than wild type controls. This increase in sensitivity is seen following both natural infection and infection through septic injury.

spz4 mutant adults are more sensitive to fungal infection than wild type flies, with 100% lethality at 7 days. This compares to only 55-70% at 30 days in wild type. spz4 mutant larvae show a reduced eclosion rate following injection with M. luteus and E. coli.

spz4 mutants survive well post-infection with E.coli. Both sexes are less healthy without infection, and 10-days after infection, males survive somewhat better than females (77.9% versus 71.5%).

spz4 mutant males can withstand B.bassiana fungal infection to a greater level than spz4 mutant females.

Mutant flies show reduced survival compared to control flies after infection with either E.faecalis or A.fumigatus, but show normal levels of survival after infection with E.coli.

Homozygous spz4 mutants exhibit a severely reduced response to gram-negative bacteria and fungal attack.

spz4 mutant animals are sensitive to infection by gram-positive bacteria and fungi, and over 75% of mutant animals die within 25 hours of septic injury.

spz4 flies show similar mortality levels to wild-type flies in response to feeding with both the ROS-resistant KNU53775 yeast strain and a standard yeast strain (W303).

Mutant flies show reduced survival rates compared to control flies after bacterial (E.faecalis) and fungal (B.bassiana) infection.

Mutant flies show similar survival rates as control flies following natural infection (feeding with contaminated food) with either "Ecc-15" (P.carotovorum.carotovorum), S.cerevisiae or M.luteus.

spz4 flies show a normal survival rate after natural infection with "Ecc15" (P.carotovorum.carotovorum).

Mutant flies show reduced survival compared to wild-type controls after infection with Cryptococcus neoformans.

The survival of spz4 mutants infected with B.bassiana is significantly reduced compared to wild-type flies.

spz4 flies are susceptible to infection by Gram-positive bacteria (E.faecalis, S.aureus or M.luteus) and fungal infection (A.fumigatus or B.bassiana).

The mean ln (natural logarithm) circulating hemocyte concentration (CHC) value of homozygous larvae is significantly lower than that of control siblings. The ability of homozygous larvae to encapsulate L.boulardi eggs is significantly reduced compared to that of control larvae.

When homozygous mutant larvae are treated with L-NAME (to inhibit Nos) their immune defense mechanisms to the gram-negative bacteria Erwinia carotova is compromised.

Mutant flies are more susceptible to natural infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and direct injection of either Aspergillus fumigatus or Neurospora crassa spores than controls.

spz4 flies are highly susceptible to fungal infection (B.bassiana) and also to infection by Gram-positive bacteria (E.faecalis previously known as 'Streptococcus faecalis').

spz4 mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to E.faecalis infection.

Homozygous flies show a reduced resistance to infection by the fungus B. bassiana and the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus faecalis compared to controls.

imd1; spz4 double homozygotes show 90% lethality in response to infection with M.luteus, compared to no significant lethality in infected wild-type animals. imd1; spz4 double homozygotes infected with B.subtilis or S.aureus die significantly more rapidly than infected wild-type animals.

A small proportion of embryos derived from spz4/Df(3R)Bd females and injected with high levels of spz1.9 RNA invaginate two ventral furrows. Injection of spzbcd.3'UTR RNA into embryos derived from spz4/Df(3R)Bd females can result in embryos with ventralised cuticles.

Mutant adults are not highly susceptible to infection by M.luteus. Mutant adults are highly sensitive to natural infection by B.bassiana or injection of A.fumigatus spores.

spzD1-RPQ/spz4 larvae have significantly higher levels of muscle defects than wild-type larvae.

Level of Drs induction of bacterially challenged mutants is lower than in wild type. Pattern of response of CecA1 and CecA2 parallels that of Drs. Dpt and Dro remain fully inducible and pattern of expression of AttA and Def in intermediate. Infection of spz4/spz2 mutants with A.fumigatus causes 3% survival 3 days postinfection, infection with E.coli causes 84% survival 3 days postinfection.

Dorsalized embryos differentiate an elongated hollow tube of dorsal cuticle missing all ventral and lateral structures. Injecting transcripts from Tl8 into dorsalized spz4 mutant embryos causes ventralization near the site of injection indicating that Tl acts downstream of spz. Females doubly heterozygous for spz4 and Tlr2 lay weakly dorsalized eggs at 29oC. Approximately half the embryos laid by females heterozygous for spz4 and for a deficiency of tub are weakly dorsalized.

Perivitelline fluid from Tl and dl donors was capable of restoring polarized gastrulation movements and cuticular elements.

strong allele

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

spz4 has radiation sensitive phenotype, non-enhanceable by RelE20

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

spz4 is a non-enhancer of visible phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

spz4 is a suppressor of lethal | adult stage phenotype of nec1/nec2

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

spz4 is a non-suppressor of visible phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

spz[+]/spz4 is an enhancer of embryonic epidermis phenotype of cactE10

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

spz4 is a non-enhancer of eye phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

spz4 is a non-suppressor of eye phenotype of upd1GMR.PB

Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The increased sensitivity to radiation characteristic for spz4 mutants (whose eclosion rate following irradiation during third larval instar is significantly reduced compared to controls) is not significantly changed by combination with RelE20.

Wandering third-instar lwr4-3; spz4 double mutant larvae are almost free of microtumors and show a significant reduction in fat body infiltration by blood cells.

The melanisation of the adult tracheal system caused by expression of Spn77BadsRNA.WIZ.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS is not suppressed by spz4.

Embryos derived from Spn27Aex32/Df(2L)BSC7 ; spz4/spz4 females are completely dorsalised.

Perivitelline fluid from embryos laid by spz4/Df(3R)Bd females does not show axis-inducing activity when injected into the perivitelline space of embryos derived from pip1/pip2 females. Perivitelline fluid from embryos laid by Tlrv13 spz4/Tlrv4 spz2 females does not show axis-inducing activity when injected into the perivitelline space of embryos derived from pip1/pip2 females. Perivitelline fluid from embryos laid by eaD3 spz4/ea1 spz2 females does not show axis-inducing activity when injected into the perivitelline space of embryos derived from pip1/pip2 females. Perivitelline fluid from embryos laid by eaD1 spz2/ea4 spz4 females shows axis-inducing activity when injected into the the perivitelline space of embryos derived from pip1/pip2 females.

The addition of spz4 or Tlrv1/Tlr3 enhances the susceptibility of RelE20 mutants to E.coli and M.luteus infection. The addition of RelE20 slightly enhances the susceptibility of spz4 to M.luteus infection.

Lethality in imd1; spz4 double homozygotes in response to M.luteus infection in suppressed by DptScer\UAS.cTa; Scer\GAL4da.G32, and partially suppressed by DroScer\UAS.cTa; Scer\GAL4da.G32.

90% of embryos produced by cactE10/+, spz4/+ are weakly dorsalized.

imd1 ; spz4 adults are highly susceptible to infection by E.coli or M.luteus (survival rate is reduced after pricking with an infected needle compared to survival rate of control flies). The adults are highly sensitive to natural infection by B.bassiana or injection of A.fumigatus spores.

The zygotic semi-lethality of cact7 homozygotes is not suppressed by spz4.

Double mutant combinations with eaD1 are strongly dorsalizing.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by
Not rescued by
Comments

Injection of spz1.9 or spz2.1 transcripts rescues spz4/Df(3R)Tl-I embryos to hatching, injection of spz2.2 weakly rescues and spz1.8 fails to rescue.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (2)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
SpatzleRM7
spzrm7
(Hanson et al., 2019, Alpar et al., 2018, Kenmoku et al., 2017, Patrnogic and Leclerc, 2017, Guillou et al., 2016, Iatsenko et al., 2016, Liu et al., 2016, Morris et al., 2016, Kanoh et al., 2015, Xiao et al., 2015, Binggeli et al., 2014, Chambers et al., 2014, Obata et al., 2014, Nam et al., 2012, Bou Aoun et al., 2011, Fullaondo et al., 2011, Glittenberg et al., 2011, Narbonne-Reveau et al., 2011, Zaidman-Rémy et al., 2011, Paddibhatla et al., 2010, Buchon et al., 2009, Buchon et al., 2009, Charroux and Royet, 2009, Geuking et al., 2009, Shia et al., 2009, Gordon et al., 2008, Jin et al., 2008, Ratnaparkhi et al., 2008, Tang et al., 2008, Brennan et al., 2007, Taylor and Kimbrell, 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Chien et al., 2006, Jang et al., 2006, Ryu et al., 2006, Scherfer et al., 2006, Tang et al., 2006, Zaidman-Remy et al., 2006, Apidianakis et al., 2005, Ha et al., 2005, Ha et al., 2005, Ha et al., 2005, Bischoff et al., 2004, Pili-Floury et al., 2004, Sorrentino et al., 2004, Bach et al., 2003, Foley and O'Farrell, 2003, Leulier et al., 2003, Ligoxygakis et al., 2003, Chang and Morisato, 2002, De Gregorio et al., 2002, De Gregorio et al., 2002, Ligoxygakis et al., 2002, Ligoxygakis et al., 2002, Rutschmann et al., 2002, Tauszig-Delamasure et al., 2002, Tzou et al., 2002, Michel et al., 2001, Morisato, 2001, Vidal et al., 2001, Wakabayashi-Ito et al., 2001, Green et al., 2000, Lagueux et al., 2000, Leulier et al., 2000, Rutschmann et al., 2000, Levashina et al., 1999, Manfruelli et al., 1999, Ferrandon et al., 1998, Halfon and Keshishian, 1998, Levashina et al., 1998, Misra et al., 1998, Qiu et al., 1998, Lemaitre et al., 1996, Lemaitre et al., 1995, Morisato and Anderson, 1994, Chasan et al., 1992, Roth et al., 1991, Tearle and Nusslein-Volhard, 1987)
Name Synonyms
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    References (101)