mutant third instar larvae have more eve
-positive neurons in the ventral nerve cord compared to wild-type controls.
flies do not exhibit significantly different survival rates in response to Staphylococcus aureus infection, as compared to control flies.
flies infected with Pythium insidiosum show significantly lower survival rates than wild-type. As evidenced by histopathological studies, injected P. insidiosum zoospores germinate rapidly in fly hemolymph to form hyphae that subsequently disseminate and invade the thorax, abdomen and head of the mutants. No histopathological alterations are found in wild-type flies after P. insidiosum infection.
flies show a reduced survival rate compared to control flies after infection with either S. aureus or A. fumigatus.
Infection with the S. aureus 'ItaS' mutant causes earlier death than infection with its parent RN4220 strain in Tlrv1
flies, similar to the findings with wild type flies.
Injection of Tlr3
mutant fruit flies, with either Rhizopus or Mucor spp. results in a higher mortality rate at 48 hours (95%) when compared with injection of wild-type fruit flies.
Infection of Tlr3
mutant fruit flies, with C. bertholletaie causes hyperacute mortality (as in wild-type).
mutant males survive well 10 days post-infection with E.coli, with an 85% survival rate, compared to 96% in wounded controls. Females also survived equally well.
mutant males can withstand B.bassiana fungal infection to a greater level than Tlr3
embryos display abnormal positioning of cardioblasts and gaps in the dorsal vessel.
Adult females transheterozygous for Tlr3
display increased sensitivity to infection with various strains of Candida albicans: the survival rate of infected flies is significantly decreased compared to wild-type. Tlr3
also show significantly higher post-infection fungal load, which unlike in wild-type flies progressively increases with time when infected with a wild-type strain of C. albicans.
The ability of hemizygous larvae to encapsulate L.boulardi
eggs is significantly reduced compared to that of control larvae. The ability of Tlr2
larvae to encapsulate L.boulardi
eggs is significantly reduced compared to that of control larvae.
The concentration of circulating hemocytes in Tlrv1
larvae is reduced compared to controls.
Shows brain tumours when heterozygous with the MBT chromosome. Shows third larval instar lethality when heterozygous with the MBT chromosome.
Level of Drs
induction of bacterially challenged Tlr3
mutants is lower than in wild type. Pattern of response of CecA1
parallels that of Drs
remain fully inducible and pattern of expression of AttA
in intermediate. Inducibility of all antimicrobial genes by bacterial challenge in imd1
double mutants is severely reduced. Septic injury (pricking with a needle under nonsterile conditions) or infection with E.coli
does not noticeably affect Tlr3
survival, infection with A.fumigatus
results in death after 2-3 days clearly associated with uncontrolled fungal development. 40% homozygous double mutant flies survive after septic injury but only a few individuals survive 3 days postinfection with E.coli
. Infection of Tlr3
mutants with A.fumigatus
causes 8% survival 3 days postinfection, infection with E.coli
causes survival rates similar to wild type.
Dorsalized embryos at the restrictive temperature.
Embryos derived from females are dorsalised.
embryos derived from dl1
mothers have a weak dorsalizing phenotype: numerous ventral like setae.
temperature-sensitive for the maternal effect, showing stronger dorsalization of the embryonic pattern at 29o
C than at 18o
C; also temperature-sensitive for viability. TSP for the maternal effect begins slightly before pole cell formation and ends in midsyncytial blastoderm in the offspring of Tlr7
females. TSP for zygotic viability begins late in embryogenesis and extends into the second larval instar in Tlr5