Polytene chromosomes normal.
Deletion of 2.7kb removing the first exon.
deletion of 2 kb at 5' end of gene
embryonic/larval dorsal vessel & embryonic myoblast
embryonic/larval somatic muscle & embryonic myoblast | dorsal
embryonic leading edge cell & actin filament
embryonic leading edge cell & filopodium
embryonic leading edge cell & microtubule
embryonic leading edge cell primordium & microtubule
larval hindgut & ectoderm
The highly prevalent duplication of mesanotum structures observed upon the expression of domeKK104700 under the control of Scer\GAL4sd.PU is slightly enhanced by wgl-17 heterozygosity (and Dicer-2, for more efficient RNAi).
The increase in average cell number in the stalks between egg chambers which is seen in Mmp2Y53N/Df(2R)BSC132 and in Mmp2Y675N/Df(2R)BSC132 females after being shifted to the restrictive temperature is dominantly suppressed if the females also carry a single copy of wgl-17.
The wgl-17 denticle phenotype is modified in combination with any of ckAN9, ckCB16, ckKT9, ckPS10, ckPT14, ckPJ17 or ck7, such that the double mutants have denticles with a rounded appearance and no distinctive hook.
wgl-17 ckKT9 SoxNNC14 triple mutant embryos show a dramatic reduction in denticle size and many of the denticles are fragmented into one or two short projections. Actin bundles in the epidermal cells are split into two or sometimes three separate aggregates.
Expression of pnrSA.Scer\UAS.β under the control of Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237 results in greater rescue of the loss of dorsocentral bristles seen in wgSp-1/wgl-17 flies than expression of pnrScer\UAS.β under the control of Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237.
Expression of scSA.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DC results in greater rescue of the loss of dorsocentral bristles seen in wgSp-1/wgl-17 flies than expression of scScer\UAS.cUa under the control of Scer\GAL4DC.
The leading edge cell in the anterior compartment just anterior to the parasegment boundary is transformed into an ectopic mixer cell in wgl-17 embryos expressing armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E assayed by marker expression (in the abdominal segments of wild-type embryos at the end of dorsal closure, the "mixer cell" moves across the segment boundary from the anterior compartment to the posterior compartment, but the cell in the equivalent position relative to the parasegment boundary does not show this "mixing" behaviour).
Stage 15 ptc9 wgl-17 double mutant embryos have the same number of genital disc precursor cells as wgl-17 single mutants. This is a reduction compared to wild type, and a huge reduction compared to ptc9 single mutant embryos.
Expression of Nrt::wgScer\FRT-.Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 under the control of Scer\GAL4wg.PM rescues the slou expressing founder cell phenotype in wgl-17 embryos. In fact, there is an expansion of slou cluster II in 57% of hemisegments examined, indicating that the mesoderm is experiencing increased wg signalling.
The excess naked cuticle phenotype seen in nkd2 embryos is partially suppressed by wgl-17/+. The ability of wgl-17/+ to suppress the excess naked cuticle phenotype of nkd2 embryos is suppressed by RacGAP50CAR2 or RacGAP50CDH15; the triple mutant embryos secrete uniform cuticle with no denticle belts. Expression of nkdScer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4e22c in a wgl-17/+ background results in fusions between denticle belts due to loss of intervening naked cuticle. This effect is suppressed if the embryos are also heterozygous for RacGAP50CAR2; the triple mutant embryos have a wild-type cuticle pattern.
armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4da.G32 suppresses the transformation of naked ventral cuticle to denticles in wgl-17 homozygous embryos. Many of the resulting embryos have the armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4da.G32 overexpression phenotype of a completely naked ventral cuticle. armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4da.G32 suppresses the dorsal-ventral elongation and orientation of microtubule bundles in the leading edge cells of stage 13 wgl-17 homozygous embryos. armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4332.3 completely fails to suppress these phenotypes. dshScer\UAS.cAa; Scer\GAL4da.G32 partially suppresses he transformation of naked ventral cuticle to denticles and the shortening of the cuticle seen in wgl-17 homozygous embryos. The dorsal side of these cuticles have some 'warts'. dshScer\UAS.cAa; Scer\GAL4da.G32 suppresses the loss of dorsal ventral polarity in the leading edge cells of stage 13 wgl-17 homozygous embryos, but only weakly rescues elongation of these cells. dshΔDEP+.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4da.G32 partially suppresses the transformation of naked ventral cuticle into denticles and reduction in cuticle length seen in cuticles from wgl-17 homozygous embryos, and an completely suppress the dorsal hole in these cuticles. dshΔDEP+.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4da.G32 suppresses, the loss of dorsal ventral polarity in the leading edge cells of stage 13 wgl-17 homozygous embryos but fails to rescue elongation of these cells. However, initiation of the anterior zipper during dorsal closure is rescued. dshΔDIX.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4da.G32 does not suppress the transformation of naked ventral cuticle into denticles in cuticles from wgl-17 homozygous embryos. The resulting cuticles are even shorter and more puckered than those from wgl-17 homozygous embryos, have an enlarged dorsal hole.
hhScer\UAS.cIa; Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 fails to rescue metameric furrow formation in Df(2R)enE; wgl-17 double homozygous embryos. enScer\UAS.cGa; Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 rescues metameric furrow formation in Df(2R)enE; wgl-17 double homozygous embryos, but these furrows disappear prematurely (before stage 13) on the ventral side of the embryo. Failure of metameric furrow formation in armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4en-e16E embryos homozygous for hhAC is not suppressed by wgl-17/wgl-17. In stage 13+ armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4en-e16E embryos homozygous for wgl-17, the metameric furrows are duplicated - forming on both sides of the en expression stripes. In the lateral regions of these embryos, en expression is broken up into islands, each surrounded by an ectopic furrow.
The loss of segmentation and lack of smooth cuticle due to wgl-17/wgl-17 is partially maternally suppressed by AxnS044230/AxnS044230. If these embryos are also zygotically AxnS044230/AxnS044230, they produce cuticles consisting entirely of smooth cuticle, just as they would if they were wild-type for wg. arr::fz2arr.intra.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 restores smooth cuticle formation in wgl-17/wgl-17 embryos. No such effect is seen with fz2Scer\UAS.cCa; Scer\GAL4prd.RG1, fz2Scer\UAS.cTa.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 or fz2Scer\UAS.T:Avic\GFP-ECFP; Scer\GAL4prd.RG1.
The dorsal hole phenotype, loss of leading edge actin cable, and loss of adhesion between the amnioserosa and dorsal epidermis of hep1 mutant embryos are all partially suppressed by Scer\GAL469B with wgScer\UAS.cGa.
The addition of wgl-17 to dallygem/dally06464 flies, leads to enhancement of the posterior supraalar bristle phenotype seen in dallygem/dally06464 flies alone: 30% of flies have the phenotype, rather than 1%.
Many of the phenotypes caused by wgl-16/wgl-17 can be rescued by expression of Wnt4Scer\UAS.cGa under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1; wing rescue is seen at high frequency, halteres appear well developed, leg morphology is often rescued, but partial rescue of the antenna is only occasionally seen. The wing disc defect caused by shifting wgl-12/wgl-17 wing discs to the restrictive temperature for 24 hours at the beginning of the second larval instar can be rescued by expression of Wnt4Scer\UAS.cGa under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1 during the 24 hour period. When wgl-12/wgl-17 wing discs expressing Wnt4Scer\UAS.cGa under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1 are continuously maintained at the restrictive temperature from the second until the late third instar stage, the resulting discs fail to develop normally and remain very small.
In wgl-17 Wnt2unspecified double mutants in 40-45% of hemisegments, the dorsal trunk is completely missing, and in the remaining hemisegments only some reduced and thin dorsal trunk forms. Expression of armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS can substantially rescue the dorsal trunk which is missing in wgl-17 Wnt2unspecified double mutant embryos. Expression of Wnt2Scer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4wg.PM in a wgl-17 Wnt2unspecified double mutant background rescues some dorsal trunk in the trachea. However when Wnt2Scer\UAS.cSa is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS there is strong rescue, and more dorsal trunk is made. Expression of wgScer\UAS.cLa under the control of Scer\GAL4wg.PM in a wgl-17 Wnt2unspecified double mutant background rescues some dorsal trunk in the trachea. However when wgScer\UAS.cLa is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS there is strong rescue, and more dorsal trunk is made.
Expression of slp1hs.PC in wgl-17 embryos rescues the RP2/sib lineage in as many as 85% of hemisegments. Rescue of NB4-2 is seen in approximately 43% of hemisegments. Expression of slp2hs.PC in wgl-8 or wgl-17 embryos rescues the RP2 lineage in approximately 50% of hemisegments.
Dominantly enhances the wing notching phenotype caused by expression of argos::shgi.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E. Dominantly suppresses the wing phenotype caused by expression of armScer\UAS.cWa under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E. Also, wing margin bristles are lost between veins 4 and 5.
The addition of wgl-17 also enhances the wing phenotype seen in mamN.Scer\UAS, Scer\GAL4C96 flies, in a partially penetrant manner, exhibiting loss of additional wing blade material along the posterior margin and bristle loss along the anterior margin. A small percentage of more sever strap wings is also observed.
The wgl-17 lawn of denticles phenotype is partially rescued if the embryos are also maternally and zygotically homozygous for Apc2ΔS; the normal diversity of cuticular pattern elements and small expanses of naked cuticle are restored.
Overexpression of fz2Scer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4e22c in a wgl-17/+ background results in cuticle patterning defects in 60% of embryos; ectopic denticles appear in the domain of cells that normally secrete naked cuticle.
Expression of Nrt::wgScer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 driven by Scer\GAL4en-e16E in a wgl-17 background rescues an expanse of naked cuticle only 1-2 cells wide. Cuticle posterior to row 6 that would be naked in wild type are covered in additional denticles.
The wingless phenotype of wg1/wgl-17 flies is partially rescued by fz3G10; the fraction of flies with two wings increases from 46% to 87%, while the fraction of one wing and wingless flies reduces from 44% and 10% to 13% and 0.5% respectively.
Heat shock expression of dallyhs.PJ cannot rescue wgl-17. wgl-17 dominantly suppresses the genitalia defects seen in about 70% of dally06464/dallygem flies, so that abnormalities are only seen in less than 10% of flies.
The supernumerary wing bristle phenotypes of fz2Scer\UAS.cZa, Scer\GAL469B can be dominantly suppressed by wgl-17, though the polarity phenotype of fzScer\UAS.cZa, Scer\GAL469B cannot. The wing margin loss phenotype of fz2Scer\UAS.N, Scer\GAL469B can be slightly dominantly enhanced by wgl-17.
The denticle phenotype of wgl-17 homozygous larvae is not altered if the larvae are also homozygous for Egfrf1 or are carrying EgfrDN.Scer\UAS (expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS). Homozygous wgl-17 larvae derived from embryos in which spis.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS have lawns of denticles; these denticles are clearly smaller than those present in homozygous wgl-17 larvae that do not carry spis.Scer\UAS, and probably correspond to row 1-4 denticles.
Df(2R)enE wgl-17 embryos are small, spherical, carry a lawn of unpolarised denticles (A cell type denticles), have no Keilin's organs (presumably due to lack of functional parasegment boundaries) and the thoracic and abdominal identities are differentiated. Scer\GAL4arm.PS mediated expression of wgScer\UAS.cLa in wgl-17 Df(2R)enE embryos does not rescue segmentation, the embryos lengthen only a little and no Keilin's organs form. Instead of a lawn of denticles the ventral abdomen now makes naked cuticle. The T1 becomes largely covered by fine denticles normally found in the beard, the beard is not small and localised. Scer\GAL4arm.PS mediated expression of both wgScer\UAS.cLa and enScer\UAS.cGa in wgl-17 Df(2R)enE embryos causes a small beardless, near-spherical and unsegmented embryo with extruded organs (believed to be foregut and hindgut), i.e. less phenotypic rescue than for Scer\GAL4arm.PS mediated expression of wgScer\UAS.cLa alone. Scer\GAL4arm.PS mediated expression of both wgScer\UAS.cLa and hhScer\UAS.cIa in wgl-17 Df(2R)enE embryos causes naked cuticle to form in the place of the T1 beard. Scer\GAL4arm.PS mediated expression of wgl-12.Scer\UAS in wgl-17 Df(2R)enE embryos at varying temperatures can be used to study the dose response to wg for A cells. At 17.5oC wgl-12.Scer\UAS produces the same phenotype as when wild type wg (wgScer\UAS.cLa) is added. At 20oC there are only a few ventral denticles and some beard in T1. At 22oC there are two lateral stripes of ventral denticles and some beard in T1. At 23oC the abdomen is completely covered in denticles but there is no beard in T1. At 25oC the abdomen is completely covered in denticles, weak thoracic denticles are present, but there is no beard in T1. At 28.5oC embryos are indistinguishable from wgl-17 Df(2R)enE embryo. Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 mediated expression of wgScer\UAS.cLa in wgl-17 Df(2R)enE embryos causes a lengthening of the whole embryo and instead of a lawn of denticles alternate stripes of naked and denticulate cuticle appear. Two types of denticle form in each band, small ones on the outside and larger ones inward. Individual denticles tend to point towards the nearest naked domain.
Heart formation does not occur in dshhs.PA, wgl-17 flies reared at 25oC or 27oC. Heat shock for 30 minutes between 3 and 4 hours of development rescues heart development, often flies exhibit cardiac hyperplasia.
Partially suppression of the defects caused by Pka-C1H2 clones in the ventral regions of the leg, without affecting the majority of pattern defects in the wing, notum, halteres and antennae.
FlyBase curator comment: The neoplastic tumours induced by wgl-17 mutant cells blocked for apoptosis (described in FBrf0191458) appear to be due to the loss of l(2)gl function from the mutant chromosome studied and not due to an affect of the wgl-17 mutation (see FBrf0207678).
X-ray irradiated wing disc clones expressing BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4tub in wgl-17 contain a mixture of two types of cell: `live' cells, which have not initiated apoptosis due to the irradiation, and `undead' cells (between 20 and 70% of the clone), which have initiated apoptosis, but have failed to complete programmed cell death. No such cells persist outside the clones in which BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa is expressed. X-ray irradiated wing disc clones expressing BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4tub in dppd12 wgl-17 mutants contain a mixture of two types of cell: `live' cells, which have not initiated apoptosis due to the irradiation, and `undead' cells (between 20 and 70% of the clone), which have initiated apoptosis, but have failed to complete programmed cell death. No such cells persist outside the clones in which BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa is expressed. Unlike BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa (Scer\GAL4tub) wing disc clones, BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa (Scer\GAL4tub) dppd12 wgl-17 clones appear to be associated with extra proliferation or growth after stress (such as X-ray irradiation). Clones expressing BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4tub in wgl-17 X-ray irradiated wing discs fall into two classes. Clones in the first class do not contain `undead' cells and grow normally. Clones in the second class contain clusters of `undead' cells and overgrow dramatically, forming disorganised masses of tissue that lose the original monolayer organisation characteristic of the wing disc epithelium and instead behave like neoplastic tumors that often bulge out from the main body of the disc. These overproliferating clones tend to fuse, forming large single patches that cover the greater part of the disc, and in many cases (approximately 27%) they seem to constitute the entire disc. BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa (Scer\GAL4tub) wgl-17 clones that include `undead' cells proliferate at a much higher rate than the surrounding tissue. However, `undead' cells within these clones divide only rarely, indicating that it is the remaining, live cells within the clones that overgrow. In contrast, no such overgrowth or overproliferation is observed in corresponding control discs containing unstressed clones, or BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa (Scer\GAL4tub) dppd12 wgl-17 clones. Co-expression of rprScer\UAS.cZa with BacA\p35Scer\UAS.cHa (both under the control of Scer\GAL4unspecified) in wgl-17 wing disc clones results in most or all of the cells in the clone being `undead'. None of these clones are associated with large, neoplastic outgrowths, and they grow slowly, forming abnormally small clones.
Expression of wgScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 in wgl-17 embryos fully rescues naked cuticle in odd-numbered segments and substantially rescues denticle diversity in the epidermal cells adjacent to the Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 expression domain.
Expression of wgS239A.Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 driven by Scer\GAL4hh-Gal4 in posterior wing compartments composed of homozygous wgl-17 mutant cells substantially restores wing size and the rate of cell proliferation. Rescued wings appear well proportioned, but they lack a proper margin in the posterior compartment.
Expression of wgScer\UAS.cGa under the control of Scer\GAL4pros.PMG partially rescues the loss of naked cuticle in wgl-17 larvae, but reduces denticle diversity. This expression restores RP2 neurons to wgl-17 embryos.
wgScer\UAS.cGa; Scer\GAL4da.G32 rescues the loss of naked ventral cuticle in wgl-17 homozygous embryos. About half of the resulting embryos have the wgScer\UAS.cGa; Scer\GAL4da.G32 overexpression phenotype of a completely naked ventral cuticle. wgScer\UAS.cGa; Scer\GAL4da.G32 rescues the dorsal-ventral elongation and orientation of microtubule bundles in the leading edge cells of stage 13 wgl-17 homozygous embryos. wgScer\UAS.cGa; Scer\GAL4332.3 rescues the dorsal-ventral polarity of leading edge cells in these embryos, including orientation of the microtubule bundles. But dorsal-ventral elongation of these cells is not rescued. tkvQ253D.Scer\UAS.cNb; Scer\GAL4da.G32 only weakly rescues polarisation of leading edge cells in stage 13 wgl-17 homozygous embryos, and fails to rescue elongation of these cells.
When wgScer\UAS.T:λ\cI-hinge,T:Arus\HRP is driven by Scer\GAL4wg.PM in wgl-17 mutants, the phenotypes are extensively rescued, the cuticular pattern, including the polarity and shape of individual denticles is completely restored in many segments. In some segments rescue is incomplete, as some denticle belts remain fused.
wgPE6.Scer\UAS fails to rescue the dorsal cuticle pattern of wgl-17 embryos when expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4e22c at 25oC. wgPE6.Scer\UAS substantially rescues dorsal pattern elements in wgl-17 embryos when expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4e22c at 18oC. wgNE1.Scer\UAS fails to rescue the dorsal cuticle pattern of wgl-17 embryos when expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4e22c at 18oC.
wgl-17 embryos expressing wgScer\UAS.cHa or wgScer\UAS.cHa.T:Ivir\HA1 under the control of Scer\GAL4wg.PM show full rescue of the ventral cuticle pattern, although the embryos are slightly distorted as the dorsal pattern elements are not rescued. Expression of wgPE2.Scer\UAS or wgPE2.Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 using Scer\GAL4wg.PM in wgl-17 embryos rescues denticle diversity, but there is no specification of naked cuticle. Expression of wgPE4.Scer\UAS or wgPE4.Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1 using Scer\GAL4wg.PM in wgl-17 embryos rescues naked cuticle, but these embryos show little denticle diversity.