rut2080 homozygous mutant adults have a similar increase in aversive olfactory 24 h memory observed when the recall environment better matches the training environment (presence of copper grid) to controls.
rut2080 homozygous adults display a significant decrease in intermediate-term (3h after conditioning) olfactory memory, regardless of whether the individuals are subjected or not to cold-shock anesthesia after conditioning, as compared to controls.
rut2080 mutant larvae have a significantly reduced ability to form aversive associative olfactory memories in response to high salt concentration compared to wild-type controls.
As in wild type, rut2080 mutant males exhibit inhibition of female contact-induced male-male aggression seen in wild type males that have previously been exposed to females.
rut2080 mutant adults fail to form 3 h aversive memory, unlike controls; they do not have difference in naive preferences for odors, shock or sugar, compared to controls.
Mutant third instar larvae show a significant decrease in the number of natural synaptopods (motile filopodia-like extensions) at type II neuromuscular junctions compared to wild type, but the number of type II boutons is normal.
rut2080 mutant third instar larval neuromuscular junctions display significantly fewer natural synaptopods than wild-type flies.
Application of 10υM octopamine induces synaptopod formation in rut2080 homozygous neuromuscular junctions.
rut2080 mutant larvae display normal locomotor activity but exhibit an elimination of the starvation response.
In training trial assays, where flies are repeatedly trained with odor avoidance assays, rut2080 flies perform poorly even after 15 trials, at which point their performance is not significantly different to controls. As early as 30 minutes after training, the memory of rut2080 flies is abolished.
rut2080/Y males show a defect in 2 hour memory compared to wild type.
Mutants show a significant impairment in 3 minute memory after olfactory conditioning compared to wild-type flies.
Homozygous and rut1/rut2080 adults show severely reduced 2 minute memory after a single aversive Pavlovian training session. These adults also show severely reduced memory performance 24 hours after either ten massed or ten spaced sessions of training.
Mutant flies trained by associating an odour with an electric shock do not avoid the odour after training, in contrast to wild-type flies.
Mutant flies are defective in action-contingent olfactory learning.
Recently eclosed flies, mutant for rut2080 show increased sleep after social enrichment, although sleep in 3-4 day old adult rut2080 mutants does not respond to changes in the social environment.
rut2080 flies show significantly lower learning after aversive olfactory conditioning (flies trained to associate odors with an electric shock) compared to controls.
Immediate memory after one training session and one-day memory after spaced training is impaired in homozygous flies in a Pavlovian olfactory learning assay.
rut2080 mutants exhibit significantly shorter life spans compared to controls.
Mutant flies show some responsiveness to a novel visual stimulus after a transition (assayed by measuring local field potential activity in the brain), but without the sustained 9-second selection characteristic of wild-type flies, and the mutant flies also respond strongly in the 10- to 20-Hz range.
Mutant animals are not distracted by a competing visual stimulus added to an optomotor assay, in contrast to wild-type flies.
rut2080 abolishes the ability of socially enriched adult flies to show decreases in sleep after exposure to social impoverishment.
Mutant flies have normal visual flight control, heat avoidance and pattern discrimination in a visual pattern memory assay, but visual pattern memory is impaired.
rut2080 mutant flies show resistance to V. cholerae infection compared to controls.
rut2080 mutant larvae, trained with LIN/SUC, LIN with DW, or SUC alone fail to exhibit a Response Index (RI) increase, unlike wild-type flies. The gustatory response for SUC is slightly lower in rut2080 larvae than in wild-type flies.
rut2080 flies show a lower calcium response from the dorsal paired neurons than wild-type flies following training consisting of 10s of CS odour, a single electric shock 9s late, 30s fresh air and a further 10s of CS odor.
Shows normal anasthesia resistant memory (ARM).
rut2080 mutants show significantly impaired performance in tests of 3 minute memory after classical conditioning for odors.
When raised at room temperature or at 25oC, the motor axon terminals of rut2080 larvae show a similar level of arborization to wild-type larvae. However, the motor nerve termini of wild-type larvae raised at 30oC show greatly increased levels of branching and variscosities, while no such large increase in terminal projection.
The volume of the antennal lobe and of individual DM2, V and DM6 glomeruli in 6 day old adults is not altered compared to wild type.
The response of mutant flies to benzaldehyde is not affected by previous exposure to the odorant. The volume of the antennal lobe neuropile and the DM2, V and DM6 glomeruli is not altered in response to benzaldehyde, in contrast to the adaptive response seen in wild-type flies in response to benzaldehyde.
rut2080 flies have impaired olfactory learning compared to wild-type flies; they are less likely to learn to avoid an odor having experienced it together with an electric shock and are also less likely to be attracted to an odor if it has been combined with a sugar reward. These flies have the same ability as wild type to respond spontaneously to electric shocks, sugar and the odorants EA and IA.
rut2080 mutant flies exhibit memory defects that increase over time, decaying from about 30% of the wild-type level at 3 mins to 20% at 30 mins, and to about zero by 3 hours after training.
Single-trial short program training in an olfactory learning assay shows that rut2080 flies perform poorly immediately after conditioning. The mutants are sensitive to two-trial, spaced conditioning over two-trial, massed conditioning, behaving in this respect qualitatively like control flies. After mock training, odour avoidance to benzaldehyde or octanol is not significantly different to wild-type flies.
Both training and memory test avoidance performances are lower in rut mutant flies. The test is based on a spatial learning paradigm with a heat punishment procedure. Thermosensitivity of rut2080 flies is indistingushable from that of wild type flies over the temperature ranges employed in the paradigm.
Mutants show defective olfactory short term memory.
Hemizygous males show increased sensitivity to ethanol in an inebriometer assay.
After presentation of electric shock with a first odour, rut2080 flies show a strongly reduced avoidance of a second, different odour compared to wild-type flies.
In an odour avoidance paradigm exhibits significantly reduced learning.