Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4twi.PG results in a substantial reduction in the number of primordial germ cells (PGCs)in the coalesced gonad. PGCs also display migration defects, with a significant fraction scattering through the embryo instead of making contact with the somatic gonad precursor cells.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa in the germline, under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16, does not generate any abnormalities in somatic development. There are little if any defects in germ cell migration and most primordial germ cells are properly aligned with the somatic germ cell precursors in stage 13 embryos. These mutants exhibit a substantial reduction in the number of germ cells on the coalesced gonad, apparently due to apoptosis.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4vg.int2.1 results in extensive overproliferation in both anterior and posterior compartment cells in the wing disc.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa in inner germarium sheath (IGS) cells under the control of Scer\GAL4C587 results in tumorous germaria that are filled with bam-negative GSC-like cells.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa in every epidermal segment under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E, or in the posterior gut under the control of Scer\GAL4cad-md509, both result in mis-routing of the anterior pair of Malpighian tubules towards the ectopic source of dpp.
Females expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4GR1 produce eggs with enlarged dorsal appendages that are shifted towards the posterior compared to wild-type eggs.
Females expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4CY2 produce eggs showing an expansion of the operculum at the expense of the dorsal appendages.
Mothers that express dppScer\UAS.cSa, driven by Scer\GAL4hs.PH following a heat shock, produce eggs that in 89% of cases have eggshells with giant opercula and reduced or absent dorsal appendages. Germaria from these females contain tumorous arrays of germline stem cells and aberrant follicles with large numbers of germ cells engulfed in the same follicular epithelium.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4twi.PG causes mislocalisation of crystal cells to more posterior positions in the embryo than normal.
Testes of males expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16 contain massive numbers of small early germ cells. The number of germ cells with a spectrosome dot (characteristic of gonialblasts) and of germ cells interconnected by small fusomes (characteristic of spermatogonial cysts) is increased compared to wild type. The testes contain large numbers of clusters of germ cells surrounded by somatic cyst cells. Clusters of more than 8 cells in a single cyst undergoing synchronous mitosis are often seen in the mutant testes (wild-type cysts never contain more than 8 cells undergoing synchronous division) as are cysts containing more than 16 spermatogonia interconnected by highly branched fusomes. The testes contain fewer spermatocytes than normal. Freshly eclosed males show signs of massive cell death in the more distal regions of the testes, while in testes of older males, often only dead or dying tissue is detected. Testes expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16 show a statistically significant increase in the number of germline stem cells around the apical hub compared to wild type. The somatic hub is expanded compared to wild type in larval and adult testes of males expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16 and in 38% of adult testes it is displaced away from the apical tip. In 6% of adults two somatic hubs are detected at different positions in the same testis.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16 results in testes in which all germ cells resemble germ line stem cells and spermatogonia, and no spermatocytes or mature spermatids are present. The mutant testes contain a similar number of spectrosome-containing cells to wild-type testes, but the number of fusome-containing cells is much higher than wild type in the mutant testes (this suggests that the ectopic cells have spermatogonial identity). Cysts of germ cells in the mutant testis undergo synchronous mitotic division (another characteristic of spermatogonia), but the number of rounds of mitotic division exceeds the usual number of four. The mutant testes show significantly more cell death than wild-type testes.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4byn-Gal4 does not affect formation of the hindgut boundary cell rows or the posterior boundary cell ring. The anterior boundary cell ring is missing in these embryos.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4da.G32 results in embryos with a much wider amnioserosa and head epidermis than normal. Dorsolateral structures, such as the visual primordium, are relatively normal in size and shape, but are shifter to lateral or ventrolateral levels. Ventral tissues are partially missing. A high number of embryos heat pulsed between 3 and 5 hours post fertilisation (to express dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.PB) show a dorsalisation phenotype very similar to that caused by expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4da.G32. Later heat pulses have no effect on head patterning.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa in the follicle cells using Scer\GAL4c532 at 29oC results in eggs which completely lack respiratory appendages and have an enlarged operculum which extends over more than half the dorsal side of the eggshell. Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa in the follicle cells using Scer\GAL4c532 at 18oC results in eggs with an enlarged operculum surrounded by up to six respiratory appendages with significant variations in length and/or width.
When dppScer\UAS.cSa is driven by Scer\GAL4GMR.PF or Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP, a pronounced increase in the density of glial cell is seen in the entire optic system. In eye discs in which dppScer\UAS.cSa is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF, the glial population migrates beyond its normal axonal boundary along the entire front. In milder cases, the glia migrate only a few rows beyond the normal anterior boundary of 2-4 rows posterior to the morphogenetic furrow. In a few cases they migrate even beyond the morphogenetic furrow. When clones of cells expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP are made in the developing eye, ectopic differentiation of photoreceptors can sometimes be seen. In those eye discs where ectopic differentiation of photoreceptors is not seen, glial cells do not overshoot anteriorly, either in a broad front or a narrow stream. This mismigration is not preferentially directed toward the dppScer\UAS.cSa clones. In those eye discs where ectopic differentiation of photoreceptors is seen, glial cells migrate specifically to such patches.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4btl.PS changes the identity of the presumptive dorsal trunk cells in the embryonic tracheal system and causes them to adhere to and migrate with the dorsal branch cells and form narrow diameter tubes like the dorsal branch.
Eggs derived from females expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.PB have an expanded operculum and reduced dorsal appendages. The eggshells are normal in other respects, and normal micropyles are formed at the extreme anterior of the eggshell. The mutant operculum generally has a normal organisation of large cell imprints surrounded by a raised "collar" structure. Expansion of the operculum always occurs over the dorsal side of the egg, indicating that dorsal-ventral patterning is unperturbed.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL430A results in a mirror image duplication of tissue at the anterior and overgrowth at the posterior in the wing.
Ectopic expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4E4 in a wild-type background has no visible effect on chorion structure. Females expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4E4 and treated with colchicine produce eggs with dorsal appendage material posteriorly.
Embryos expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL469B do not show gross defects in dorsal closure. The embryos have poorly differentiated ventral cuticle. The ventral cuticle does not have dorsal hairs, indicating that it is not transformed to a dorsal fate. Wild-type patterns of asymmetric gastrulation are seen in these embryos.
Expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL430A does not result in the induction of ectopic retinal cells in the wing disc.
When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4arm.PS the spiracular chamber does not invaginate, though all the structures of the spiracular chamber (trachea link, filzkorper, spiracular hairs) differentiate, as determined by cell shape markers.
When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4T155 a large lateral region of the tergite is transformed to pleural identity, while the sternite is reduced to approximately 25% of its normal size. The number of bristles remains unchanged. The piment band of the tergite is broadened. No stronger effect can be caused by increasing the dosage of dppScer\UAS.cSa. A similar but weaker phenotype is seen when expression is driven by Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1. Clones induced in the sternite or tergite, driven by Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PP, cause nonautonomous transformations.
Expression driven ubiquitously with Scer\GAL4hs.PB causes an inhibition of S phase in the eye disc and the antennal disc.
Scer\GAL4zen.Kr.PF-mediated expression represses fat body development in parasegments 6-8. Scer\GAL4twi.PGa-mediated expression represses fat body development in parasegments 4-12 but promotes it in parasegment 13 resulting in ectopic fat body precursors in the ventral mesoderm. These cells lie in the mesoderm above the invaginating posterior midgut.
When expressed under the influence of Scer\GAL4how-24B, midgut constrictions are affected.
Embryos expressing dppScer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B lack the first and third midgut constrictions, and have an abnormally deep second midgut constriction.
Scer\GAL4c532-mediated expression generates eggs with more posteriorly located and malformed dorsal appendages. Sometimes more than two chorionic appendages are produced in one egg.
Scer\GAL4-mediated lethality occurs during larval and pupal periods. Scer\GAL4E132-mediated expression causes the development of ectopic morphogenetic furrows (MF). Most ectopic MFs initiated at the anterior edge of the eye disc and propogated posteriorly, few initiate from the ventral margin and propogate dorsally. In some discs the ommatidial array extends into regions of that disc that normally give rise to the head cuticle surrounding the compound eye. The normal and ectopic eye fields fuse forming a lawn of neuronal clusters covering essentially the whole disc. dpp induced clones in the eye disc (expressed from Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP) cause ectopic morphogenetic furrows that propogate posteriorly from the anterior margin. Overgrowth of the anterior eye disc occurs frequently and in some cases a new eye disc is generated. Study of the clone phenotypes confirms that specific regions of the eye are competent to respond to dpp and ectopic dpp exercises its effect at a considerable distance.
Scer\GAL4btl.PS-mediated expression diverts cells of the dorsal trunk and visceral branch primordia to the dorsal branch.
Produces ectopic vein tissue in the wing when expressed using Scer\GAL4C-580 at 17oC or 25oC.
When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4hs.PB, embryos show shifts in the dorsal fate map that are less extreme than those caused by Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1. However there are no changes in dorsal pattern across the segment, the 1o, 2o, 3o and 4o cell types are all present in either case.
When expressed from Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1, wing discs are greatly expanded along the anteroposterior axis of the wing blade region, though the dorsal, notal region remains unaffected.
Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 induced overexpression of dpp induces foreleg bifurcations and foreleg fusions in a dose-dependent manner. Intermediate increase in dpp expression causes supernumerary bifurcations to emerge from the anterior-ventral side of the leg that consist of anterior-ventral leg structures. Higher levels of dpp expression cause fused proximal segments and foreleg pairs become fused along the entire proximal-distal axis. The second and third leg disc pairs exhibit a low frequency of incomplete ventral bifurcations. An intermediate increase in dpp expression has little effect on wing and thorax patterning, except for thickening of the anterior cross vein. Higher levels of dpp expression causes defects in the scutellum. At the highest temperature flies are recovered at pharate adults with the most severely reduced scutellum have wing duplications. The duplications arise from the posterior hinge region and posteior wing blade structures.
When expressed with Scer\GAL469B ventral cells are dorsalised. Expression with Scer\GAL4C-765 results in large overproliferating discs.
Failure of all of the midgut morphogenetic events except formation of constriction 2.
Expression induced by Scer\GAL469B causes the ventral denticle belts to be replaced by fine hairs characteristic of the dorsal surface.