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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\HE31
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0038852
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
H31
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Imprecise excision of the P{lacW} element, removing the 5' P-element end, the Ecol\lacZ gene and part of the w+mC sequence. The deletion extends from position -2046 in w+mC to position +3101 of H, deleting sequences encoding the first 804 amino acids of the H protein.

Deletion of about two thirds of the protein coding region.

Insertion components
P{3'lacW}HE31
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

Heterozygous HE31 mutant flies exhibit a mild double-socket macrochaetae phenotype and a weak bristle loss phenotype.

HE31/+ mutants exhibit socket-to-shaft transformations in mechanosensory organs, particularly evident amongst head macrochaetes.

Heterozygotes show a double-socketing phenotype in a few macrochaetae on the notum.

Homozygous clones in the adult notum lack external sensory organ structures.

Whereas wild-type intestinal stem cell (ISC) clones proliferate over time, homozygous ISC clones fail to grow, forming either very small groups of cells or remaining as single cells at 14 days after clone induction. Cell fate appears to be affected in the mutant clones; many of the mutant cells appear to have lost ISC characteristics without properly differentiating into enteroblasts when marker expression is analysed at 6 days after clone induction.

Heterozygotes show developmental defects in the macrochaetae (shaft-to-socket conversions or bristle loss).

Mutants show a small amount of wing vein truncation mostly at the tip of wing vein L5.

Heterozygotes have a shortened wing vein L5.

Heterozygotes show a few double socket bristles on the notum.

Heterozygotes have several missing or double socket sensory organs, particularly on the head.

Homozygous clones in the notum are characterised by a loss of bristle phenotype. The ratio between wild-type bristles and wild-type epidermal cells along the clone border is 0.1 (compared to 0.05 for control clones) suggesting that HE31 cells produce a weaker inhibitory signal than wild-type cells. No veins form in the wings of homozygous pharate adults. Double sockets are seen at the position of the stout bristles on the anterior wing margin. Homozygous clones interrupt vein formation in a cell autonomous manner. The ventral nerve cord appears similar to wild-type in stage 14 homozygous embryos. A single socket cell per external sense organ is seen in most positions in homozygous embryos. Occasionally, missing or extra socket cells are seen.

The bristle loss phenotype of H20/HE31 can be suppressed by deleting components of the E(spl)-complex. The degree of suppression depends on both the number and identity of E(spl)-complex transcription units removed. Rescued bristles display a double socket phenotype. Clonal analysis revealed that the gro mutant bristle tufting phenotype is epistatic to the H null bristle loss phenotype.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

HE31 has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by insvunspecified

HE31 has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by groE73/gro[+]

HE31 has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by CtBP[+]/CtBP87De-10

HE31 has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHK1K2mut

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

HE31 has visible | dominant phenotype, non-enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHtLa

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor of visible | dominant phenotype of Bx1

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor of visible | heat sensitive phenotype of Nl1N-ts1

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor of visible phenotype of rgγ6

Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

HE31 has macrochaeta phenotype, enhanceable by insvunspecified

HE31 has trichogen cell phenotype, enhanceable by insvunspecified

HE31 has macrochaeta phenotype, enhanceable by groE73/gro[+]

HE31 has ocellar bristle phenotype, enhanceable by groE73/gro[+]

HE31 has anterior orbital bristle phenotype, enhanceable by CtBP[+]/CtBP87De-10

HE31 has macrochaeta phenotype, enhanceable by CtBP[+]/CtBP87De-10

HE31 has macrochaeta phenotype, enhanceable by Pros26[+]/Prosβ61

HE31 has microchaeta phenotype, enhanceable by Pros26[+]/Prosβ61

HE31 has macrochaeta phenotype, enhanceable by Prosβ21/Prosbeta2[+]

HE31 has microchaeta phenotype, enhanceable by Prosβ21/Prosbeta2[+]

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

HE31 has sense organ | adult stage phenotype, non-enhanceable by E(spl)m8-HLHtLa

Suppressed by
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

H[+]/HE31 is an enhancer of macrochaeta phenotype of Prosβ21

H[+]/HE31 is an enhancer of microchaeta phenotype of Prosβ21

H[+]/HE31 is an enhancer of macrochaeta phenotype of Prosβ61

H[+]/HE31 is an enhancer of microchaeta phenotype of Prosβ61

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor of wing margin phenotype of Bx1

HE31 is a suppressor of wing disc phenotype of PsnI2/PsnI2

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor | partially of eye phenotype of eyg1/eygM3-12

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor | partially of head phenotype of eygM3-12

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor of chaeta | heat sensitive phenotype of Nl1N-ts1

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor of eye phenotype of rgγ6

HE31 is a suppressor of wing disc phenotype of PsnI2, PsnI2, PsnB3

HE31 is a suppressor of wing margin phenotype of PsnI2, PsnI2, PsnB3

HE31 is a suppressor | partially of wing disc phenotype of apUGO35

H[+]/HE31 is a suppressor of wing margin phenotype of sno71e3

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

HE31/HE31 is a non-suppressor of wing disc phenotype of aprK568/apUGO35

HE31 is a non-suppressor of wing disc phenotype of Su(H)8/Su(H)2

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The bristle loss phenotype seen in HE31/+ mutant flies is enhanced by loss of insb (using insbΔ1, in which the function of CG14478, Tes and qkr54B has been restored using P{CG14478-Tes-qkr54B-mCherry} (which comprises of the CG14478T:Disc\RFP-mCherry, TesT:Disc\RFP-mCherry and qkr54BT:Disc\RFP-mCherry alleles). Expression of insbT:Avic\GFP rescues this phenotype, returning the number of transformed macrochaetae to levels seen in HE31 heterozygotes alone.

insv23B enhances the double-socket macrochaetae phenotype seen in HE31/+ mutants. The bristle loss phenotype is further enhanced by loss of insb, using insbΔ1, in which the function of CG14478, Tes and qkr54B has been restored using P{CG14478-Tes-qkr54B-mCherry} (which comprises of the CG14478T:Disc\RFP-mCherry, TesT:Disc\RFP-mCherry and qkr54BT:Disc\RFP-mCherry alleles).

Expression of insvScer\UAS.cDa under the control of Scer\GAL4sca.PU partially suppresses the socket-to-shaft transformations in mechanosensory organs observed in HE31/+ mutants.

insvunspecified ; HE31/+ flies show double socketing of nearly all external sensory organs on the notum.

Homozygous HE31 clones in the adult notum which are also expressing insvScer\UAS.cDa under the control of Scer\GAL4tub.PU can develop external sensory organ structures.

HE31 Su(H)del47 double mutant intestinal stem cell (ISC) clones show an overproliferation of small ISC-like cells, as occurs in Su(H)del47 single mutant clones.

HE31 Df(3R)E(spl)δ-6 double mutant intestinal stem cell (ISC) clones show an overproliferation of small ISC-like cells, as occurs in Su(H)del47 single mutant clones.

In contrast to PsnI2 single mutants, the dorsal/ventral boundary forms correctly in HE31; PsnI2 double mutants.

CtBP87De-10 dominantly enhances the bristle defects seen in HE31/+ flies. This enhancement is almost entirely due to shaft-socket transformations, with only a mild effect on bristle loss. groE73 dominantly enhances the bristle defects seen in HE31/+ flies. Both the shaft-to-socket and bristle loss phenotypes are enhanced.

The shortening of wing vein L5 seen in HE31/+ flies is suppressed by CG6194P0997/+.

apUGO35,HE31 double mutants have large wing pouches with no margin structures.

Double heterozygotes of HE31 with Pros261 or Prosβ21 show strong synergistic enhancement of the double socket bristle and microchaete phenotypes.

pbhs.PB HE31/Ras85De1F triple heterozygotes have deletions of the distal portions of wing veins L4 and L5, up to and including the posterior crossvein. The spacing and position of the campaniform sensilla along the proximo-distal axis of wing vein L3 is altered.

The heterozygous phenotype is enhanced by a single copy of E(spl)K1K2mut or E(spl)K:CAACdel but not by E(spl)tLa.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

Expression of Mmus\Bend6Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4sca.PU partially suppresses the socket-to-shaft transformations in mechanosensory organs observed in HE31/+ mutants.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Comments
Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (0)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

Germ line clonal analysis indicates that H activity is not essential for embryogenesis.

Double mutant analysis fails to establish a strict epistatic relationship between H and Su(H) for the specification of sensory organ precursor fate.

H20/HE31 is used as the standard null genotype.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (3)
References (30)