Average Citrate Synthase activity is increased by 9% in heterozygous males
Malpighian tubules are not fully elongated in mutant embryos. Proventriculus morphogenesis and invagination of the pharynx are incomplete. Midgut constrictions do not form. Head involution is incomplete, tracheae are abnormal and there are holes in the epidermis.
Homozygous embryos exhibit severe loss of PNS neurons and a significant increase in size of remaining neurons. Embryos arrest in cycle 16.
Homozygous embryos exhibit pathfinding and organisation defects.