|Feature type||allele||Associated gene||Dmel\ci|
|Allele class||loss of function allele|
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|Nature of the Allele|
|Mutations Mapped to the Genome|
|Associated Sequence Data|
|Nature of the lesion|
5kb deletion, from nucleotides 10,997 to 15,927 (numbering according to FBrf0099048). This removes the promoter and first exon.
|Phenotype Manifest In|
wing vein L4 & sensillum campaniformium | ectopic | somatic clone
wing vein L4 & wing sensillum | ectopic | somatic clone
Homozygous clones in the ocelli primordium give rise to adult flies have either small ocelli or no ocelli at all.
In homozygous clones induced in the anterior compartment of the eye disc, ectopic morphogenetic furrow-like cell responses are seen, including ectopic apical constriction.
ci94 embryos have a ventral phenotype in which the naked regions of cuticle are replaced by mirror-image duplications of denticles.
ci mutants exhibit a characteristic ventral phenotype in which the regions of naked cuticle are replaced by mirror-image duplications of denticles. Expression of ci[Scer\UAS.T:SV40\nls2] under the control of Scer\GAL4[ci.PC] in ci mutants results in a loss of naked cuticle between some denticle belts. There are a range of phenotypes, ranging from a complete loss of the denticle belts to a reduction in the number of denticles and a change in the overall shape of the denticle belts.
G1 arrest occurs almost normally in ci eye disc cells - G1 arrest is slightly but reproducibly precocious.
R8 photoreceptor differentiation is normal in somatic clones of ci94 mutant cells. ci94 clones in the eye go on to develop normally, as assayed by expression neural markers during eye development and morphological analysis of the adult eye.
When ci94 large somatic clones are made in the eye disc, morphogenetic furrow initiation, progression and photoreceptor differentiation still occur. Furthermore, rhabdomere organisation and spacing appear to be normal in adult eyes. However, wing discs and adult wings containing clones develop anterior compartment abnormalities.
The cuticles of mutant embryos have reduced bands of naked cells, though they are not totally lost and the number of denticles is increased. This is due to an increase in numbers of denticle types 2,3 and 4.
Ectopic polar cells are not seen in egg chambers containing homozygous follicle cell clones.
Homozygous clones in the wing result in several defects, including perturbations of veins L2, L3 and L4 and wing duplications. Clones can survive in the region between veins L1 and L2. Vein L4 is affected only by mutant clones of anterior origin that migrate posteriorly. An L4 vein that is disrupted by a mutant clone will often have an ectopic campaniform sensilla (which is normally found in association with vein L3). Mutant tissue in wing margin territory in the region of the disrupted L4 vein can form socketed bristles (these are normally only found in the anterior compartment). Homozygous embryos are almost of wild-type size and show a considerable amount of naked cuticle between denticle belts. Homozygous embryos derived from homozygous female germline clones are indistinguishable from homozygous embryos derived from heterozygous females.
Using clonal analysis, a dependence of mitosis in the ovariole on hh function has been demonstrated.
Homozygous clones of posterior cells in the wing disc exclusively occupy posterior territory and define a straight border with anterior cells in the normal position of the anterior/posterior (A/P) boundary. In contrast, clones of homozygous cells which are derived from anterior cells often occupy areas overlapping the normal position of the A/P boundary, forming straight borders both with neighbouring anterior and posterior cells. In the wing disc, 13 out of 25 anterior ciCe-2/ci94 clones that originate in the vicinity of the compartment boundary sort entirely within the normal posterior territory. These clones define straight borders to anterior cells at the normal position of the anterior/posterior boundary. ciCe-2/ci94 clones of posterior origin remain exclusively in the posterior territory.
Obvious segmentation is apparent in ci94 mutant embryos. A reduction of naked cuticle is seen. Some denticle diversity is seen, the cuticles show mirror image duplications of denticle types 2-5, with type 1 denticles occasionally developing in segments where naked cuticle persists. There are fewer type 4 denticles than in wild type. ci94 embryos expressing ci76.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1 have a cuticular phenotype close to that of ciCe-2 embryos. Denticle diversity is still seen. Type 4 denticles are still present, although they are sometimes reduced in some segments.
Bolwig's organ formation occurs normally in mutant embryos.
Hsap\GLI3αTub84B.T:Hsap\MYC,T:Ivir\HA1, Hsap\GLI1αTub84B.T:Hsap\MYC,T:Ivir\HA1, ci94 has lethal | pupal stage phenotype
Mad1-2, Su(H)del47, ci94 has mitotic cell cycle defective | somatic clone | cell autonomous phenotype
Mad12, Su(H)del47, ci94 has mitotic cell cycle defective | somatic clone | cell autonomous phenotype
|Phenotype Manifest In|
|NOT suppressed by|
ci94 is a suppressor | partially | somatic clone of photoreceptor cell R8 & eye disc | ectopic | somatic clone phenotype of Su(H)del47
ci94 is a suppressor | somatic clone of photoreceptor cell R8 & eye disc | somatic clone phenotype of smo3
ci94 is a suppressor of embryonic abdominal segment 3 & denticle belt | supernumerary phenotype of Scer\GAL4prd.RG1, hhScer\UAS.cIa
ci94 is a suppressor of embryonic abdominal segment 5 & denticle belt | supernumerary phenotype of Scer\GAL4prd.RG1, hhScer\UAS.cIa
ci94 is a suppressor of embryonic abdominal segment 7 & denticle belt | supernumerary phenotype of Scer\GAL4prd.RG1, hhScer\UAS.cIa
|NOT Suppressor of|
Eye disc cells simultaneously mutant for Mad, ci and Su(H)[del47] continue proliferating instead of arresting in G1 ahead of the morphogenetic furrow. The same phenotype is seen in cells mutant for Mad and ci - the presence of Su(H)[del47] has no autonomous effect on G1 arrest. Eye disc cells simultaneously mutant for Mad[1-2], ci and Su(H)[del47] arrest in G1 after a severe delay but they never enter the second mitotic wave.
R8 photoreceptor differentiation is delayed in ci94; Mad1-2 and ci94; Su(H)del47 double mutant clones, and fails in ci94; Mad1-2; Su(H)del47 triple mutant clones. This is despite normal R8 differentiation in any of the single mutants (although it is sometimes early in Su(H)del47 single mutant clones), and in Mad1-2; Su(H)del47 double mutants. Ectopic R8 photoreceptor differentiation in ci94; Su(H)del47 somatic clones in eye discs, is much reduced compared to that seen in Su(H)del47 single mutant clones.
Metameric furrows form normally in armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4en-e16E embryos homozygous for ci94.
When tshScer\UAS.cGa (driven by Scer\GAL469B) is added to ci94 homozygotes, denticles fail to form. When armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC (driven by Scer\GAL469B) is added to ci94 homozygotes, denticles fail to form, except for the T1 beard, (already present and enlarged in armS10.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC embryos), which is enhanced by the addition of ci94.
ptc16 ci94 and ptcS2 ci94 double mutant clones in the anterior of the wing disc have "wiggly" boundaries indistinguishable from wild-type control clones. ptc16 ci94 double mutant clones in the wing show the same features as ci94 single mutant clones. hhAC ci94 double mutant embryos are indistinguishable from ci94 single mutant embryos. ci94 wgl-17 double mutant embryos are short and show a "lawn of denticles" phenotype. ci94 ptc16 double mutant embryos show a higher degree of naked cuticle compared with ci94 single mutants. They also differ from ptc16 single mutant embryos. ci94 ptc16 double mutant embryos derived from ci94 ptc16 female germline clones have the same phenotype as ci single mutant embryos.
Df(2R)enE; ci94 double mutant clones of anterior origin in the wing disc straddle the anterior/posterior (A/P) boundary, similar to ci94 single mutant clones. Unlike Df(2R)enE single mutant posterior clones, however, Df(2R)enE; ci94 double mutant clones of posterior origin only partially sort into anterior territory and straddle the A/P boundary (similar to ci94 or Df(2R)enE; ci94 clones originating in the anterior compartment). Df(2R)enE; ci94 double mutant clones of both anterior and posterior origin define straight borders with neighbouring wild-type anterior and posterior cells. Df(2R)enE; ci94 double mutant clones show smooth borders with adjacent wild-type cells when situated entirely within the posterior compartment.
In ptc9 ; ci94 double mutant embryos, naked cuticle is present but is more limited than in ptc9 single mutant embryos. This double mutant cuticle phenotype is "intermediate", resembling neither single mutant. Some segments are fused, and thoracic segments do not produce any naked cuticle. Abdominal denticle diversity is restored. Expansion of denticle types 2 and 3 is seen and type 4 and 5 denticles are seen laterally. The ectopic groove seen in ptc9 single mutant segments is not seen in the double mutant embryos. The mirror image duplication of denticle belts seen in abdominal segments 3, 5 and 7 of embryos expressing hhScer\UAS.cIa under the control of Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 is rescued if they are also mutant for ci94. hhAC ; ci94 double mutant embryos show a cuticle phenotype that is weaker than hhAC but stronger than ci94 single mutant embryos. Type 4 denticles are present. Cuticle from tsh8 ; ci94 double mutant embryos produces only weakly pigmented, type 5 denticles and no naked cuticle.
Hsap\GLIαTub84B.T:Hsap\MYC,T:Ivir\HA1 rescues ci94 mutants to late larval stages. The wing discs of these animals are grossly enlarged. When Hsap\GLI3αTub84B.T:Hsap\MYC,T:Ivir\HA1 is also added, animals die as pupae or late larvae, and exhibit wing discs of normal shape and size.
|Complementation & Rescue Data|
|Partially rescued by|
Expression of ciScer\UAS.cHb under the control of ciScer\UAS.cHb completely rescues the cuticle phenotype of ci94 embryos. Rescued embryos develop into adults that have normal morphology but are sterile.
Expression of ci[N:Zn.Scer\UAS.T:Ivir\HA1] under the control of Scer\GAL4[ci.PC] in ci mutants completely restores the wild-type repetitive pattern of denticles and naked cuticle in embryos. These animals complete development and eclose into normal-looking, sterile adults. Expression of ci[mutNLS.Scer\UAS] under the control of Scer\GAL4[ci.PC], in ci mutant larvae leads to a slight loss of naked cuticle.
Homozygotes are rescued to adulthood by one copy of ci+t16; the rescued flies are fertile, viable and have no obvious phenotypes. ciCe-2/ci94 animals are rescued to adulthood by one copy of ci+t16. These animals show an extreme form of the dominant ciCe-2 phenotype (fusion of veins L3 and L4). ciCe-2/ci94 animals rescued by two copies of ci+t16 do not show fusion of veins L3 and L4. ci94 animals carrying ciU survive to the early pupal stage, but their wing imaginal discs have grossly enlarged anterior compartments.
|Stocks ( 0 )|
|Notes on Origin|
|External Crossreferences & Linkouts|
|Synonyms & Secondary IDs ( 3 )|
|Secondary FlyBase IDs|
|References ( 27 )|
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|Recent research papers (0)|
|All research papers listed in FlyBase were published before 2011|
|Recent reviews (0)|
|All reviews listed in FlyBase were published before 2011|