Adult flies expressing spis.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4esg-NP7397 combined with tub-Gal80[ts] (for temporal control) display significant increase in midgut stem cell proliferation (assessed by number of pH3-positive cells).
Expression of spis.UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4repo.PL result in significantly increased axon wrapping index (proportion of axon clusters wrapped by wrapping glia), whereas expression under Scer\GAL4elav.PU does not affect the axon wrapping by the wrapping glia in third instar larvae.
Expression of spis.Scer\UAS in the posterior signalling center (PSC) under the control of Scer\GAL4Dot.PK leads to an increase in the number of circulating lamellocytes
Stage 13 embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4sim.P3.7 have approximately 8 anterior midline glia (AMG) compared to six in wild type. By stage 16 the number of AMG has reduced to 5, compared to 3 in wild type.
Induction of spis.Scer\UAS by Scer\GAL4esg-NP7397 results in extensive overproliferation of adult midgut progenitor cells, while limiting their dispersal, thus reducing the number of AMP clusters in wandering third instar larval midguts.
Over-expression using Scer\GAL4fkh.PH leads to ectopic cells within the salivary glands and glands positioned too anteriorly without a discernible duct. Whereas control salivary gland placode cells at stages 12-13 do not undergo division, Scer\GAL4fkh.PH spis.Scer\UAS placode cells are actively dividing.
Animals expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF show defects in migration and localisation of glia in the eye. Basal glia in the mutant retinas migrate anterior to the morphogenetic furrow past differentiating photoreceptors. In addition, glia are also found apical to the photoreceptors and along the Bolwig nerve. These animals have more plasmatocytes on the developing retina than wild type.
Border cells are found off their normal migration pathway on the side of the egg chamber when spis.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4cb41 in follicle cell clones. Due to the lethality caused by expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4cb41, this phenotype was observed in adult flies for whom expression of spis.Scer\UAS was initially inhibited by Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B and this inhibition was relieved by a temperature shift after the lethal stage.
Expression of one copy of spis.Scer\UAS in the border cell cluster, driven by Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6, results in the inhibition of border cell migration in around 80% of egg chambers.
Expression of spis.Scer\UAS in embryos after posterior spiracle specification, using Scer\GAL4ems.HRE, results in stigmatophores that are reduced in size and filzkorpers that do not elongate properly. Expression of this transgene with Scer\GAL4salm-459.2 causes stronger defects in stigmatophore size and filzkorper elongation.
Stage 16 spis.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4repo embryos have increased numbers of lch5 ligament attachment cells. When Scer\GAL469B is used instead as a driver then ectopic cells are formed near to endogenous lch5 ligament attachment cells, but these don't express all ligament attachment cell markers.
Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4kni.L2 results in ectopic veins forming 2-3 cell diameters away from the L2 wing vein.
When spiScer\UAS.cSa is driven by Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 the number of bristles with extra bracts averages about 1.5 per tibia, 7 per basitarsus, and 25 per leg overall. Most of the affected bristles have two adjacent bracts of normal size, while a few (one or two bristles per leg) have three adjacent bristles in a proximal arc. Also in 3 and 1 in 10 legs (when driven by Scer\GAL4Dll-md23 and Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 respectively) a transformation of the huge 'apical' bristle into a chemosensory bristle of ordinary size is seen.
The peripheral nervous system is highly disorganised in embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E. Excess lateral chordotonal organs are formed with the number of lateral chordotonal organs in the cluster frequently being 6 or 7 (instead of the wild type 5). The oenocyte precursor whorl is enlarged and by stage 16 oenocyte clusters containing 21-39 cells are seen.
Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Act.PU at 25[o]C results in a variable number of supernumerary infoldings within the stomatogastric nervous system anlagen in stage 11 embryos.
Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Dll-md23 completely eliminates wing disc formation in embryos and causes a malformation of the leg disc (the leg disc has an elongated shape).
Embryos overexpressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4unspecified show a 'cyclops' phenotype in which the optic lobes are enlarged and show dorsal fusion.
When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4GMR.PF at lower levels, ommatidia are prevented from forming, as happens in Egfr Elp mutants. At higher levels causes all retinal cells to differentiate as photoreceptors.
In spis.Scer\UAS/Scer\GAL471B wing discs, the wing pouch and the surrounding hinge region are somewhat distorted. Males dies as pupae, and females as pharate adults. In the female wings, pigmentation and trichome density suggest that they have ectopic vein material that spans the region between L3 and L2, and between L4 and L5.
Triggers ectopic neuronal differentiation in the lamina, when expression is driven by Scer\GAL4hs.PB. Cells which were destined for apoptosis assume a proper L-neuron identity.
Scer\GAL455B-mediated expression causes non-autonomous effects, the production of dorsal appendages around the anterior circumference of the egg. A small fraction of the eggs are fertilised and develop into dorsalised embryos (absence or complete elimination of denticle bands and expansion of dorsal hairs).
Scer\GAL4bs-1348-mediated expression causes a strong extra-vein phenotype. Scer\GAL4GMR.PF-mediated expression causes small disorganised eyes with blisters.
Scer\GAL4sim.PS-mediated expression increases the number of dorsal medial cells. The implantation of one or two midline cells from these donors into wild type embryos induces a large number of additional dorsal medial cells. This increase in number is due to a trigger of additional mitoses, not by recruiting additional dorsal medial cell progenitors. Transplantation about 50 minutes after onset of gastrulation does not induce additional medial cell formation, the ability of mesodermal progenitors to respond to the spi signal appears to have already ceased after the early gastrula stage. Scer\GAL4rho.PL-mediated expression does not increase dorsal medial cell number. Transplantation of one or two midline cells into wild type embryos induces a large number of additional dorsal medial cells.
Neither Scer\GAL4sim.PS-mediated expression nor transplantation of single midline cells that secrete spi into the CNS midline of wild type hosts causes an increase in the number of lateral CNS neurones in each abdominal hemineuromere. Transplantation can increase the number of aCC/pCC neurons.
Embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E have approximately two rows of ectopic denticles anterior to the denticle belts.
Produces larvae with widened denticle belts and narrowed regions of naked cuticle between the belts, when expressed ubiquitously in embryos using Scer\GAL4arm.PS. Within the denticle belts, rows 1-4 appear normal. Posterior to this, row 5 and 6 denticles are absent; they are replaced by a wide field of small denticles that appear to be of the row 1-4 type. In addition, 1-2 extra rows of similar small denticles are located anteriorly to the normal row 1.
Scer\GAL4btl.PS-mediated expression does not give rise to a tracheal phenotype.
Scer\GAL4GMR.PF induced expression causes dramatic overrecruitment of photoreceptors. Scer\GAL4hs.PB induced expression causes a complex eye phenotype, even without heat shock: additional recruitment of photoreceptor in one area and loss of entire ommatidia in another.