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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\spis.UAS
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
secreted
FlyBase ID
FBal0046516
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
UAS-sSpi, UAS-sSpitz, UAS-sSpi4a, Sspi, UASp-sSpi
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Carried in construct
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

UASt regulatory sequences drive expression of a secreted form of spi (a stop codon has been introduced at K129, the putative cleavage site of the precursor protein).

Allele components
Product class / Tool use(s)
Encoded product / tool
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In

bract & leg | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4

embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & denticle, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E

lamina & neuron, with Scer\GAL4hs.PB

mesothoracic tarsal segment 1 & bract | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4

taste bristle & leg | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4Dll-md23

taste bristle & leg | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4

Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

Adult flies expressing spis.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4esg-NP7397 combined with tub-Gal80[ts] (for temporal control) display significant increase in midgut stem cell proliferation (assessed by number of pH3-positive cells).

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Su(H).GBE results in enteroblast-like tumors in the intestine.

Expression of spis.UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4repo.PL result in significantly increased axon wrapping index (proportion of axon clusters wrapped by wrapping glia), whereas expression under Scer\GAL4elav.PU does not affect the axon wrapping by the wrapping glia in third instar larvae.

Somatic clones in eye imaginal discs that express spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PU recruit ectopic photoreceptors.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS in the midgut, under the control of Scer\GAL4esg-NP7397 results in the generation of many new midgut cells, including enterocyte-like cells.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS in mature enterocytes, under the control of Scer\GAL4Myo31DF-NP0001 and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B results in the generation of many new midgut cells, including enterocyte-like cells. However, expression in enterocyte cells, under the control of Scer\GAL4Myo31DF-NP0001 and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B fails to affect midgut mitosis.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS in the posterior signalling center (PSC) under the control of Scer\GAL4Dot.PK leads to an increase in the number of circulating lamellocytes

Stage 13 embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4sim.P3.7 have approximately 8 anterior midline glia (AMG) compared to six in wild type. By stage 16 the number of AMG has reduced to 5, compared to 3 in wild type.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS in precursor cells under the control of Scer\GAL4esg-NP5130 and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B induces high level intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation.

Induction of spis.Scer\UAS by Scer\GAL4esg-NP7397 results in extensive overproliferation of adult midgut progenitor cells, while limiting their dispersal, thus reducing the number of AMP clusters in wandering third instar larval midguts.

Over-expression using Scer\GAL4fkh.PH leads to ectopic cells within the salivary glands and glands positioned too anteriorly without a discernible duct. Whereas control salivary gland placode cells at stages 12-13 do not undergo division, Scer\GAL4fkh.PH spis.Scer\UAS placode cells are actively dividing.

Animals expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF show defects in migration and localisation of glia in the eye. Basal glia in the mutant retinas migrate anterior to the morphogenetic furrow past differentiating photoreceptors. In addition, glia are also found apical to the photoreceptors and along the Bolwig nerve. These animals have more plasmatocytes on the developing retina than wild type.

Primordial germ cell numbers are significantly reduced when spis.Scer\UAS is expressed in the primordial germ cells, under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16.

Border cells are found off their normal migration pathway on the side of the egg chamber when spis.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4cb41 in follicle cell clones. Due to the lethality caused by expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4cb41, this phenotype was observed in adult flies for whom expression of spis.Scer\UAS was initially inhibited by Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B and this inhibition was relieved by a temperature shift after the lethal stage.

Expression of one copy of spis.Scer\UAS in the border cell cluster, driven by Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6, results in the inhibition of border cell migration in around 80% of egg chambers.

In spis.Scer\UAS Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6 egg chambers, 70% of border follicle clusters fail to migrate.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS in embryos after posterior spiracle specification, using Scer\GAL4ems.HRE, results in stigmatophores that are reduced in size and filzkorpers that do not elongate properly. Expression of this transgene with Scer\GAL4salm-459.2 causes stronger defects in stigmatophore size and filzkorper elongation.

Stage 16 spis.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4repo embryos have increased numbers of lch5 ligament attachment cells. When Scer\GAL469B is used instead as a driver then ectopic cells are formed near to endogenous lch5 ligament attachment cells, but these don't express all ligament attachment cell markers.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4kni.L2 results in ectopic veins forming 2-3 cell diameters away from the L2 wing vein.

The second mitotic wave is completely inhibited in spis.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4GMR.PF 3rd instar eye discs.

Stage 17 spis.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4hs.PB embryos have increased numbers of midline glial cells compared to wild-type.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E or Scer\GAL4ato.3.6 results in the formation of ectopic oenocytes in the T1-T3 segments (they are normally only found in segments A1-A7).

When spiScer\UAS.cSa is driven by Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 the number of bristles with extra bracts averages about 1.5 per tibia, 7 per basitarsus, and 25 per leg overall. Most of the affected bristles have two adjacent bracts of normal size, while a few (one or two bristles per leg) have three adjacent bristles in a proximal arc. Also in 3 and 1 in 10 legs (when driven by Scer\GAL4Dll-md23 and Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 respectively) a transformation of the huge 'apical' bristle into a chemosensory bristle of ordinary size is seen.

spis.Scer\UAS (driven by Scer\GAL4unspecified) has no effect on Malpighian tubule cell number.

Extra denticles are produced in spis.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4arm.PS embryos.

Clones in the prospective notum or wing hinge in the wing disc expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PC have wiggly borders.

When spis.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4hs.PB and heatshocked all trichomes are transformed into bracts.

The peripheral nervous system is highly disorganised in embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E. Excess lateral chordotonal organs are formed with the number of lateral chordotonal organs in the cluster frequently being 6 or 7 (instead of the wild type 5). The oenocyte precursor whorl is enlarged and by stage 16 oenocyte clusters containing 21-39 cells are seen.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ey.PB can result in homeotic transformation of the eye to antenna.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Act.PU at 25[o]C results in a variable number of supernumerary infoldings within the stomatogastric nervous system anlagen in stage 11 embryos.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Dll-md23 completely eliminates wing disc formation in embryos and causes a malformation of the leg disc (the leg disc has an elongated shape).

Embryos overexpressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4unspecified show a 'cyclops' phenotype in which the optic lobes are enlarged and show dorsal fusion.

When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4GMR.PF at lower levels, ommatidia are prevented from forming, as happens in Egfr Elp mutants. At higher levels causes all retinal cells to differentiate as photoreceptors.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 results in extensive outgrowth of the wing pouch.

Ubiquitous expression of spis.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4e22c or Scer\GAL469B induces ectopic rows of denticles.

In spis.Scer\UAS/Scer\GAL471B wing discs, the wing pouch and the surrounding hinge region are somewhat distorted. Males dies as pupae, and females as pharate adults. In the female wings, pigmentation and trichome density suggest that they have ectopic vein material that spans the region between L3 and L2, and between L4 and L5.

Embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4twi.PG show a marked overproduction of eve-positive mesodermal founder cells.

Triggers ectopic neuronal differentiation in the lamina, when expression is driven by Scer\GAL4hs.PB. Cells which were destined for apoptosis assume a proper L-neuron identity.

Scer\GAL455B-mediated expression causes non-autonomous effects, the production of dorsal appendages around the anterior circumference of the egg. A small fraction of the eggs are fertilised and develop into dorsalised embryos (absence or complete elimination of denticle bands and expansion of dorsal hairs).

Scer\GAL4bs-1348-mediated expression causes a strong extra-vein phenotype. Scer\GAL4GMR.PF-mediated expression causes small disorganised eyes with blisters.

Scer\GAL4sim.PS-mediated expression increases the number of dorsal medial cells. The implantation of one or two midline cells from these donors into wild type embryos induces a large number of additional dorsal medial cells. This increase in number is due to a trigger of additional mitoses, not by recruiting additional dorsal medial cell progenitors. Transplantation about 50 minutes after onset of gastrulation does not induce additional medial cell formation, the ability of mesodermal progenitors to respond to the spi signal appears to have already ceased after the early gastrula stage. Scer\GAL4rho.PL-mediated expression does not increase dorsal medial cell number. Transplantation of one or two midline cells into wild type embryos induces a large number of additional dorsal medial cells.

Neither Scer\GAL4sim.PS-mediated expression nor transplantation of single midline cells that secrete spi into the CNS midline of wild type hosts causes an increase in the number of lateral CNS neurones in each abdominal hemineuromere. Transplantation can increase the number of aCC/pCC neurons.

Embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E have approximately two rows of ectopic denticles anterior to the denticle belts.

Produces larvae with widened denticle belts and narrowed regions of naked cuticle between the belts, when expressed ubiquitously in embryos using Scer\GAL4arm.PS. Within the denticle belts, rows 1-4 appear normal. Posterior to this, row 5 and 6 denticles are absent; they are replaced by a wide field of small denticles that appear to be of the row 1-4 type. In addition, 1-2 extra rows of similar small denticles are located anteriorly to the normal row 1.

Scer\GAL4btl.PS-mediated expression does not give rise to a tracheal phenotype.

Scer\GAL4GMR.PF induced expression causes dramatic overrecruitment of photoreceptors. Scer\GAL4hs.PB induced expression causes a complex eye phenotype, even without heat shock: additional recruitment of photoreceptor in one area and loss of entire ommatidia in another.

When driven by Scer\GAL4Kr.PM or Scer\GAL4rho.PL, embryos become ventralized.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
NOT Enhanced by
NOT suppressed by
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
Other
Phenotype Manifest In
NOT Enhanced by
Suppressed by
NOT suppressed by
NOT Enhancer of
Suppressor of
NOT Suppressor of
Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The increased number of intestinal progenitor cells in mitosis characteristic for adult flies expressing spis.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4esg-NP7397 (combined with tub-Gal80[ts] for temporal control) is not suppressed by co-expression of RetGD45.

The adulthood-only co-expression of NGD14477 and spis.UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4esg-NP7397 (and Gal80[ts], for the temporal regulation of expression) leads to adult posterior midgut hyperplasia in males, as compared to controls.

The high levels of apoptosis (detected by Caspase-3 staining) observed in Rbf15aΔ;Stam19 double homozygous somatic MARCM clones in third instar larval eye disc is strongly suppressed by expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of the Scer\GAL4Act.PU driver in the mutant clones.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS does not suppress the photoreceptor differentiation defects seen in Vps43B1 mutant clones, but induces ectopic photoreceptor differentiation in the wild type cells surrounding the clones.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4vn.GAL4 rescues the lethality of vnL6/vnGAL4 mutants to the pharate adult stage. The wings have fused L3 and L4 veins and extra vein material. The wing disc phenotype is partially rescues and no leg defects are observed. The extent of the rescue depends on the level of expression, but viable flies are never seen. Very high levels of expression are toxic, with animals dying as larvae.

mamΔC does not suppress the extra anterior midline cells seen in stage 13 embryos when spis.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4sim.P3.7. At stage 16, embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4sim.P3.7 in a mamΔC mutant background contain a similar number of extra anterior midline glia cells as in either mutant alone.

Cardiac-specific expression of spis.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4tin.CΔ4 restores normal cardiac function in Df(3L)ED4238/+ mutants.

Cardiac-specific expression of spis.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4tin.CΔ4 restores normal cardiac function in homozygous ru1 mutants.

The rough eye phenotype caused by expression of GlΔ.Scer\UAS.P\T under the control of two copies of Scer\GAL4Act5C is significantly suppressed by coexpression of spis.Scer\UAS.

Coexpression of spis.Scer\UAS and Krns.Scer\UAS.cUa, under the control of Scer\GAL4cb41, in follicle cell clones results in a higher penetrance of the border cell misguidance phenotype compared to expression of either transgene alone, although the effect is additive rather than synergistic.

Somatic clones of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP cells in the eye disc in animals carrying rhoScer\UAS.cGa and spis.Scer\UAS cause ectopic photoreceptor differentiation. This phenotype is completely suppressed by raspT392/raspT802.

Expression of spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E or Scer\GAL4ato.3.6 rescues the formation of oenocytes in abd-AM1 mutant embryos.

Coexpression of spis.Scer\UAS and salmScer\UAS.cKa under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E results in a chordotonal phenotype identical to that seen when salmScer\UAS.cKa alone is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E. Giant clusters of oenocyte cells are induced dorsally, as is seen when spis.Scer\UAS alone is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E.

Co-expression of dppScer\UAS.cSa partially restores the formation of wing discs in embryos expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Dll-md23 and rescues the leg disc phenotype of these embryos.

Addition of spis.Scer\UAS when driven by Scer\GAL4sim.P3.7 in a rhoPΔ38 background produces double the number of midline glial cells seen compared to wild-type.

There is no expansion of the wing pouch in animals expressing spis.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 if they are also homozygous for vg1.

The ectopic rows of denticles induced by expression of spis.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4e22c or Scer\GAL469B are suppressed by ovosvb-2.

Photoreceptor differentiation and growth is weakly rescued in flies expressing wgScer\UAS.cAa under the control of Scer\GAL4ey.PH if they are also co-expressing spis.Scer\UAS.

Homozygous wgl-17 larvae derived from embryos in which spis.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS have lawns of denticles; these denticles are clearly smaller than those present in homozygous wgl-17 larvae that do not carry spis.Scer\UAS, and probably correspond to row 1-4 denticles. Homozygous arm2 larvae derived from embryos in which spis.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS have denticle lawns composed of small denticles.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Comments
Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (0)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

The normal protocol for creating transgenic flies caused excessive embryonic lethality. Reducing the concentration of injected DNA to 0.2mg/ml allowed 7% embryonic survival. Injection of the same coding region driven by an Hsp70 promoter results in 100% embryonic lethality.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (4)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
spis.Scer\UAS
spis.UAS
spitzsecreted
Name Synonyms
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    References (88)