|Feature type||allele||Associated gene||Dmel\Cam|
|Also Known As||Camnull|
|Allele class||amorphic allele - genetic evidence, loss of function allele|
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|Nature of the Allele|
|Mutations Mapped to the Genome|
|Associated Sequence Data|
|Nature of the lesion|
|Phenotype Manifest In|
bouton & abdominal 2 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 3 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 4 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 5 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 6 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
bouton & abdominal 7 ventral longitudinal muscle 2
Sound-evoked compound action potentials in the antennal nerve are not significantly different from wild type in Cam/Cam[n339] flies. However, nonlinear mechanical amplification is significantly increased compared to wild type.
Camn339 heterozygotes exhibit little effect on the average period of free-running.
Homozygous larvae are sluggish and show spontaneous backward locomotion. Cam7/Camn339 larvae are morphologically normal and show normal forward locomotion with no spontaneous backward movement. However, they are sluggish with a body wall contraction (BWC) rate about one-third that of controls. Cam7/Camn339 wandering third instar larvae become progressively incapable of relaxing at the end of each body-wall contraction and show increasing stiffness during locomotion. Third instar body wall muscles that have been treated with ether (to artificially relax them) all show longitudinal muscles that have a "bunched" appearance, with structural disorganisation and misaligned myofibrils. Cam7/Camn339 animals form pupal cases with deep indentations at the larval segment boundaries. On average the mutant larvae decrease their body length by 50% during pupariation, compared to a decrease of one-third in wild-type larvae. Only the long axis is abnormally compressed in the mutant animals. Cam7/Camn339 pupae never eclose, but most develop into pharate adults with head defects. Three types of heads are seen; normal heads with no obvious defects, malformed heads that are partially everted and "inside-out" heads where head eversion has completely failed and head development proceeds in a noneverted head sac buried in the thorax. There is a correlation between the pupal length:width ratio and the degree of head abnormality; the more severe head defects are associated with shorter pupal cases. Cam7/Camn339 animals rescued to adulthood by expression of CamScer\UAS.cWa under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B are behaviourally abnormal; they fail to climb after being gently knocked to the bottom of a vial, and they show poor flight and a reduced ability to right themselves after a brief vortexing. The initial stages of male courtship are normal, but the rescued males cannot bend their abdomens sufficiently to achieve penetration. The amount of backward movement seen in Cam03909/Camn339 larvae is increased by high light intensity. The amount of backward movement seen in Cam352/Camn339 larvae is increased by high light intensity.
Cam7/Camn339 pupal cases are shorter than wild type and have deeply indented rings at the larval segment boundaries. Many animals have head eversion defects and none eclose. Expression of both CamB12Q.Scer\UAS and CamB34Q.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B in Cam7/Camn339 animals results in 100% larval lethality.
Cam3c1/Camn339 flies exhibit reduced locomotion, coordination and flight ability. A slight dominant effect can be detected for both Cam3c1 and Camn339. The recessive mutant effects are more substantial. In the larval neuromuscular junction voltage clamp preparation, working on muscle 6, ejc amplitude for Cam3c1/Camn339 is normal. Ejc amplitude is increased approximately three fold by quinidine at low external calcium concentrations (at 0.4mM external calcium quinidine has no effect. The mejc amplitude and frequency is unchanged, suggesting the increase in ejc reflects increased neurotransmitter release. Cam3c1/Camn339 larvae show structural synaptic abnormalities: the terminal arbor forms a thickened, or large, misshapen structure with few distinct boutons. This results in a reduced number of boutons and a nearly complete lack of terminal branching in pleural external longitudinal muscle 13. Muscle 13 shows the same ejc phenotype as ventral internal longitudinal muscle 6. No abnormalities in nerve terminals on muscles ventral internal longitudinal muscle 6, 7 or pleural external longitudinal muscle 12 have been observed.
Transheterozygous combinations with other Cam mutations produces an incompletely penetrant ectopic wing vein phenotype.
Camn339/Cam352 animals do not eclose from the pupal case. Camn339/Cam352 photoreceptors have dramatic defects in deactivation kinetics, displaying greatly prolonged deactivation times. Similar deactivation kinetics are seen at different concentrations of extracellular calcium ions, in contrast to wild-type. A single photon produces a train of quantum bumps in Cam352/Camn339 double mutant photoreceptors, in contrast to wild-type.
Maternal Cam supports Camn339 individuals throughout embryogenesis but they die within 2 days of hatching as first instar larvae. During feeding larvae show a high frequency of head swinging compared to heterozygous siblings. Larvae exhibit a significant decrease in the number of locomotive contraction waves due to a lower frequency of contraction initiation and most locomotion in the larvae is spontaneous backward movement. This spontaneous avoidance behaviour does not originate from any obvious morphological defects in the neuromuscular apparatus so starvation could be a potential cause of the aberrant locomotion.
|NOT suppressed by|
|Phenotype Manifest In|
|NOT Enhanced by|
|NOT suppressed by|
Rya-r44F16/+ rescues the pupal defects and lethality of Cam7/Camn339 animals; the pupae are smooth and indentation free in the anterior and only have mild ridges in the posterior, their length:width ratios are actually higher than wild type, more than 40% of the pupae eclose and those that do not eclose do not show head defects. Some of the eclosed animals do not show wing expansion and they all perform poorly in a climb test. Df(2R)H3E1/+ has a slight suppressing effect on the Cam7/Camn339 phenotype; pupae show some increase in the pupal length:width ratio, but very few pupal cases have decreased indentations, and fewer head defects are seen in pupae, but they fail to eclose. Ca-α1DX7/+ has a slight suppressing effect on the Cam7/Camn339 phenotype; there is a small but significant increase in the pupal length:width ratio, but no obvious effect on pupal case indentations, and a small fraction of the animals eclose as weak, uncoordinated adults with no wing expansion. Ca-α1DAR66/+ has a slight suppressing effect on the Cam7/Camn339 phenotype; there is an increase in the pupal length:width ratio, but none of the pupae eclose.
In combination with l(2)C43C43 mutants exhibit completely penetrant lethality, mutants survive to pupation.
|Complementation & Rescue Data|
|Fails to complement|
|Partially rescued by|
|Not rescued by|
The lethality and pupariation defects seen in Cam7/Camn339 animals are rescued by expression of CamScer\UAS.cWa under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B; the pupal cases are morphologically wild type and have more normal length:width ratios, almost all of the rescued pupae eclose and no aberrant pharate head structures are seen. The lethality and pupariation defects seen in Cam7/Camn339 animals are not rescued by expression of CamScer\UAS.cWa under the control of Scer\GAL4elav.PLu or Scer\GAL4sca.PU. The sluggish larval locomotion of Cam7/Camn339 animals is incompletely rescued by expression of CamScer\UAS.cWa under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B or Scer\GAL4elav.PLu. The spontaneous backward movement seen in homozygous Camn339 larvae is not rescued by expression of CamScer\UAS.cWa under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B or Scer\GAL4sca.PU. The spontaneous backward movement seen in homozygous Camn339 larvae is rescued by expression of CamScer\UAS.cWa under the control of Scer\GAL4elav.PLu, although the larvae are still sluggish.
|Stocks ( 6 )|
|Notes on Origin|
|External Crossreferences & Linkouts|
|Synonyms & Secondary IDs ( 4 )|
|Secondary FlyBase IDs|
|References ( 11 )|
|Personal communication to FlyBase|