ISNb axons often show a "bypass" phenotype (failing to enter the normal muscle target domain just outside the ventral nerve cord and instead following the intersegmental nerve towards dorsal targets) in Larbypass/LarE55 embryos.
Truncation phenotypes of the ISN. Most ISNs reach PT1 (persistent twi cell 1) but have small terminal arbors. Combining Ptp69D or Ptp99A mutants increases the penetrance and severity of the ISN defects, the ISN pathway is truncated at specific branchpoint positions. Triple mutants lacking Lar, Ptp69D or Ptp99A exhibit much stronger ISN phenotypes than any single or double mutant. Mutation affects SNb guidance and synaptogenesis within the VLM (ventrolateral muscle) field, a parallel bypass phenotype is observed (SNb axons grow alongside the ISN). SNbs fail to form the normal pattern of synaptic branches and exhibit navigation errors at the muscle field entry point. Growth alongside the ISN is likely to be due to inappropriately active Ptp99A rather than a failure of Lar-mediated VLM recognition. Penetrance of the parallel bypass phenotype of the mutation is beyond the levels observed in null mutants, penetrance is still reduced by Ptp99A mutants. Lar, Ptp69D or Ptp99A triple mutants also exhibit fusion bypass phenotype of the SNb axons. Fusion bypass is seldom observed in any genotype in which Ptp69D is wild type. Removal of Ptp99A or Lar produces a 10- to 20- fold increase in the frequency of fusion bypass and an increase in complete stall phenotypes.