The clonal expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PI (together with Dicer-2, for efficient RNAi) within mosaic third instar larval wing discs leads to the basal delamination/extrusion in some expressing cells in both the wing pouch and hinge regions of the wing disc, as compared to controls.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4sev.EP results in a rough eye phenotype with disruption of ommatidial arrangement.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4VT039046 results in a severe degradation of circadian locomotor activity rhythms under constant darkness conditions compared to controls: only approximately 2% of flies have strong rhythms and approximately 60% are completely arrhythmic.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4SIFa.PT results in a degradation of circadian locomotor activity rhythms under constant darkness conditions compared to controls.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF causes 100% fly lethality at 24[o]C. When rprScer\UAS.C is expressed at 18[o]C 32.5% of pupae eclose. Eye size is reduced to ~50% compared to controls.
Targeted ablation of Ccap neurons through expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ccap.PP results in severe behavioral defects at pupal ecdysis. Although pre-ecdysis behavior appears normal and the duration of the period between the start of pre-ecdysis and anterior pullback is similar to that of controls, this anterior pullback is quite weak and is not followed by ecdysis behavior. Instead, it is followed by progressively weaker pre-ecdysis-like movements. As a result, most animals fail to properly evert their heads and extend their appendages, causing most to have reduced or non-existent heads and shorter than normal legs and wings.
Female flies expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp3.PB live significantly longer than controls, with an approximate 30% increase in median and 20% increase in maximum lifespan.
Scer\GAL4da.G32>rprScer\UAS.C females show reduced egg laying compared with controls.
Flies expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp3.PB all survive for significantly longer on food supplemented with 20mM paraquat compared to controls.
Flies expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp3.PB survive for longer in the presence of DTT, compared to controls.
Females expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp3.PB do not exhibit a delay in development but do display a significantly smaller body size compared to controls.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.215-3 results in flies that have ablated median neurosecretory cells. Female flies lacking these cells show a significantly reduced re-mating rate 24 hours after mating to wild-type flies, compared to flies that have intact median neurosecretory cells.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C in VA2 muscle founder cells under the control of Scer\GAL4slou.S59 does not result in a change in the number of SBM nuclei.
The decline in lifespan found upon increasing food concentration is almost completely disrupted by median neurosecretory cell ablation through expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR. The maximal lifespan of ablated flies at the peak of the dietary restriction response is higher than that of controls. These flies do not live longer than control flies under starvation conditions but do exhibit a significantly longer lifespan under low sugar conditions.
Median neurosecretory cell (mNSC) ablation through expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR results in decrease egg laying compared to controls at various food concentrations. No significant differences in feeding behavior are observed between mNSC ablated flies and controls. rprScer\UAS.C-Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR flies show in increase in total locomotor activity when on high-yeast food compared to controls (indicating that the mNSCs may normally act to suppress the negative effect of yeast on activity). mNSC-ablated flies show a significant decrease in night sleep when on a low-nutrient diet (while wild-type controls show no effect).
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4ey.PH results in the lack of eclosion of flies. When flies are removed from their pupal casings, ablation of cephalic structures is found.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4msn.PL results in substantial lamellocyte cell death, but only a few small melanotic masses, as expected with normal clearance of cells undergoing apoptosis. Blood smears of third instar larvae demonstrate a significant reduction in circulating lamellocytes, with other hemocyte population unaffected.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4He.PZ results in a reduction in hemocyte cells, however, some third instar larvae still display aggregating hemocytes. Melanotic masses are rarely seen.
Scer\GAL4HCH.Hand>rprScer\UAS.C induced cell death commences at about embryonic stages, leaving the lymph glands freely floating by the beginning of first larval instar stage.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4HCH.Hand results in the complete ablation of the dorsal vessel. Compared with controls, these flies show reduced life span, with precipitous increase in death on average at about five days post-eclosion.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4elav-C155 is not very effective in ablating cells. However, stage 17 embryos expressing Scer\GAL4elav-C155>rprScer\UAS.C show the absence of the salivary glands. However, the ventral ganglion remains intact through the end of the larval first instar stage.
Scer\GAL4Switch1.PC-driven expression of rprScer\UAS.C induces apoptosis of midgut peripheral cells by the mid L3 stage. Subsequently, by late L3, adult midgut progenitor cells differentiate into polyploid enterocyte-like cells.
Newly eclosed males (within 24 hours of eclosion) expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR show a reduction in the number of stage S2b spermatocyte cysts in the testis compared to wild-type males.
The average diameter of stage S6 spermatocytes in males expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR is smaller than that of control spermatocytes at this stage.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp3.PB ablates approximately half the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) specifically at the postlarval stage (larval IPCs are not ablated).
Larval growth and viability is not affected by expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp3.PB.
The ablation of all TA- and OA-containing neurons expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Tdc2.PC leads to a profound decrease in flight initiation, flight duration per stimulation, and extended flight. Moreover, these mutants resume flight less often after stimulation compared with control animals. However, these flies are still able to fly and wing-beat frequencies are as wild-type.
Animals expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ccap.PA have severe defects at both the larval and pupal ecdyses, rarely yielding viable adult flies.
Larvae expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4sal.BO lack oenocytes from the first instar onwards, grow less than control larvae after the first-to-second instar transition and die before reaching pupariation, showing polyphasic lethality. Most second instar larvae expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4sal.BO show aberrant feeding behaviour, dispersing away from a yeast food source (the larvae enter and exist the yeast source multiple times). These larvae also retain food in the gut.
Larvae expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4sal.BO have a a higher density of lipid droplets in the fat body after starvation compared to control larvae.
Animals expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4sal.BO together with Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B at 25oC can develop until pupal stages, as approximately 50% of oenocytes do not show apoptosis in these animals (due to attenuation of Scer\GAL4 activity by Scer\GAL80). These animals fail to complete pupal development, with many failing to separate from the puparial case during eclosion.
Socially enriched flies expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF do not show a change in sleep when exposed to a period of social isolation, in contrast to control socially enriched flies which show a decrease in sleep requirement after exposure to social isolation.
When rprScer\UAS.C is driven by Scer\GAL4Ilp2.215-3 the median neurosecretory cells are ablated. These adults are only slightly smaller than controls and show no developmental delay. These flies exhibit a longer lifespan and reduced fecundity. The median lifespan is increased by 10.5% in males and 18.5% and 33% in virgin and mated females respectively. Aging related mortality starts later in mutants but proceeds at the same rate as controls. Decreases are seen in age specific egg laying for virgin and mated females. Mutant animals also have altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Mutants contain levels of trehalose 64% higher than wildtype; glycogen is 44% higher and lipids 10% higher. Mutant animals also survive longer than controls when fed paraquat in their food, exhibit greater sensitivity to heat and cold shock, and are moderately starvation resistant.
Females in which insulin-like peptide (ILP)-producing brain cells have been ablated (by expression of rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR) have a severely impaired ability to upregulate follicle cell proliferation in response to a protein-rich diet. The rate of germline development is also reduced, in coordination with follicle cell divisions, because no abnormalities are seen in previtellogenic egg chambers.
rprScer\UAS.C overexpression in Gr5a-expressing cells under the control of Scer\GAL4Gr5a.853 results in a marked decrease in trehalose consumption and an increase in sucrose consumption, leading to similar consumption of both sugars.
Flies expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Gr5a.853 exhibit a decrease in trehalose consumption at a variety of trehalose concentrations.
The lch5 chordotonal organs of stage 16 rprScer\UAS.C; Scer\GAL4repo embryos lack not only the repo expressing scolopidial ligament cells, but also the non-repo expressing ligament attachment cells. The resulting lch5 chordotonal organs are not fully stretched and have shorter than normal cap cells.
When rprScer\UAS.C is driven by Scer\GAL4Akh.PG, the corporia cardiaca (CC) cells are ablated. When these mutant larvae are grown on dextrose supplemented medium the mean total haemolymph glucose is reduced. The presence of rprScer\UAS.C and Scer\GAL4Akh.PG in larvae blocks the hyperglycaemic effect of tolbutamide.
Expression of rprScer\UAS.C, under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR, leads to a slightly elevated risk of stress-induced cardiac failure for one-week-old flies, compared to wild-type flies of the same age. However, five-week-old flies expressing rprScer\UAS.C, under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR, have a significantly reduced risk of cardiac failure compared to wild-type flies of the same age. Flies expressing rprScer\UAS.C, driven by Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR, are smaller as adults and their development is delayed. Although their median survival rate is not significantly different from wild-type flies, a higher proportion of these flies are still alive at 80 days, while a lower proportion survive to 20-40 days, compared to wild-type flies.
When rprScer\UAS.C is driven by Scer\GAL4Ilp2.215-3, flies are viable but eclose one day later than control flies. Freshly eclosed flies show a slight but significant reduction in body weight and also reduced wing area. The change in size of the female abdomen is the most marked. This difference becomes further enhanced during the first three days of adult life. During this phase, egg production is stimulated by feeding and mating in wild-type females. There is a striking difference in ovary size in mutants: mutant females possess at most a single vitellogenic oocyte, unlike the multiple ones seen in wild-type. This phenotype leads to a reduced fecundity in mutant females, laying only 109 eggs per day (compared to about 60 in wild-type).
Larvae expressing rprScer\UAS.C under the control of Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR are only 58% of normal size at 120 hours of development. The developmental time to reach wandering third instar and puparium formation is 12 days in these larvae, compared to approximately 5 days in wild type. The adults produced have smaller wings than normal with both cell number and cell size being reduced.