Expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa in the dorsal mesoderm in stage 11-12 embryos, driven by Scer\GAL4tin.cBa, results in the production of a few extra cardioblasts.
Ectopic expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa in the lateral domain of the cardiogenic mesoderm, driven by either Scer\GAL4Mef2.PR or Scer\GAL4twi.PG, causes a marked reduction of lymph-gland progenitors and pericardial cells in stage 16 embryos.
Flies expressing pnrScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237 are virtually wild type. The entire epidermis becomes dorsalised in embryos expressing pnrScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS. The abdominal segments have a continuous belt of dorsal triangles around their circumference, indicating that the transformation is towards the mediodorsal pattern. Expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC results in transformation of the ventral epidermis into dorsal epidermis; the ventral denticles of most of the abdomen are replaced by dorsal spinules. Transformation from ventral to dorsal structures is also seen in segment T3 and the posterior part of T2 (the anterior part of T2 is the same as wild type). The ventral nerve cord is affected. The amnioserosa develops normally and germband retraction is normal. Expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E results in transformation of ventral to dorsal epidermis in the P compartments. Expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4wg-MD758 results in transformation of ventral to dorsal epidermis in a portion of the anterior compartment of segments. The amnioserosa develops normally and germband retraction is normal in embryos expressing pnrScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4LP1.
When expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa is driven in clones by Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC in the lateral (LAT) region of the notum, they are eliminated or grow abnormally, in the medial (MED) region they grow almost normally. In clones that overlapped the regions, the cells situated in the MED region differentiated normally, in the LAT region, they tend to sort out from surrounding cells to form vesicles with sharp boundaries. pnrScer\UAS.cHa when driven by Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237 produces no defects except supernumerary bristles in the scutellum. When driven by Scer\GAL4ost-em462, there is an enlargement of the MED region as indicated by the increased number of dorsocentral bristles. When driven by Scer\GAL4ap-md544, only structures that correspond to the MED region are formed, the LAT region does not develop. The MED pattern is normal except for an increase in the number of dorsocentral bristles and a higher density of microchaetae in the dorsocentral region. When expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa is driven in clones by Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC in the wing, the clones develop structures typical of the notum with the characteristic trichome density of the notum as well as notal bristles. Notal structures are formed in a cell-autonomous manner. These wing to notum transformations appear anywhere in the wing, except the distal end, but are found preferentially in the more proximal regions. Clones induced during the larval first instar can build large portion of the notum pattern. Clones differentiating notal structures appear exclusively in the anterior compartment. In the posterior compartment clones differentiate patches of pigmented cuticle devoid of bristles interpreted as being postnotum. Expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa by Scer\GAL4ap-md544, Scer\GAL4nub-AC-62, Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096, Scer\GAL4C-765, Scer\GAL4bi-omb-Gal4, or Scer\GAL4vg.quadrant produce wing to notum transformations. Expression of pnrScer\UAS.cHa when driven by Scer\GAL4MD743 leads top sternites that acquire pigmentation and bristle patterns similar to those of the tergites. In some cases the entire set of sternites are transformed into tergites, resulting in flies with an almost complete dorsoventral transformation of the abdomen.
Embryos expressing pnrScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4twi.PB have an enlarged heart, due to the overspecification of cardial cells (both within the heart tube and throughout the dorsal region of the embryo). There is a decrease in the number of eve-expressing pericardial cells, and a decrease and abnormal organisation of dorsal body wall muscles. There is an apparent loss of cells within the visceral mesoderm lineage.
When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4C-765, many macrochaetae develop in the region lateral to the usual dorsocentral (DC) area bristles.