amnchpd mutants do not exhibit any behavioral memory at 24 hours and only a small amount is present at 9 hours after conditioning. Unlike wild-type, there is no significant increase in odor-evoked calcium influx into the α branch of the mushroom body neurons in amnchpd mutants at either 9 or 24 hours after conditioning.
amnchpd flies have a defective olfactory memory. These flies fail to produce the increased calcium influx seen in the dorsal paired medial neurons of wild-type flies at 30 minutes after a conditioning of 3s exposure to odour, followed by a 60s odour stimulus applied simultaneously with 12 electric-shock pulses.
amnchpd mutant flies show similar response profiles to wild-type flies in response to ethanol: flies have an initial startle response, a brief moment of quiescence followed by a sustained period of hyperactivity and a reduction in locomotor speed leading to eventual immobility. However, the amnchpd mutants have a more intense hyperactive phase and reach maximal hyperactivity more quickly, leading to a faster onset of immobility. During the hyperactive phase, amnchpd mutants initiate activity bouts less often than wild-type flies, but stay active for longer and spend more time moving fast. As these mutants begin to sedate, their bout frequency actually increases but their bout length is shorter.
Hemizygous males and homozygous females show increased sensitivity to ethanol; they elute from an inebriometer with a mean elution time (MET) of approximately 15 minutes compared with an MET of 20 minutes for wild-type controls. amnchpd flies show normal geotaxis and locomotor activity. Ethanol absorption and metabolism is normal in these flies. The ethanol-sensitive phenotype is reversed by treatment of the flies with forskolin (an adenylate cyclase activator) for 2 hours. A 4 hour treatment with forskolin further reduces ethanol sensitivity of amnchpd flies compared with control flies. Treatment of amnchpd flies with a cAMP analog that activates PKA also reverses the ethanol-sensitive phenotype. Treatment of amnchpd flies with an antagonist of cAMP that inhibits PKA partially reverses the ethanol-sensitive phenotype.