Expressing upd1UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.PU induces a germline stem cell-like tumor phenotype in the testes, although cells do not show signs of cyst-cell mis-differentiation (i.e. not Zfh-1-positive).
Expression of hopTum.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4byn-Gal4 results in stage 15 embryonic hindguts having a lower angle of curvature, as compared to controls.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa in wild-type tissue results in a mild overgrowth phenotype.
In the testes expression of upd1UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4VP16.nos.UTR leads to increased number of germline stem cells (Vasa staining) and cyst stem cells (Tj staining) located outside of the niche different than controls.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa in somatic cells under the control of Scer\GAL4A3.eya (restricted to adult stages using Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B) results in testes that are filled with undifferentiated cells. Small early stage germ cells are intermingled with excess somatic cells.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16, in a bgcnQS2 mutant background results in excess germ cells that contain dot fusomes and are thus germline stem cells or gonialblasts. These testes also have a large accumulation of early cyst cells, many of which are likely to be cyst progenitor cells.
In upd1Scer\UAS.cZa; Scer\GAL4C587 ovarioles, there are increased numbers of germline stem cells, escort stem cells and germline cysts compared to wild-type and germaria become disorganised. The diameter of the anterior germarium increases in these ovarioles so that more that two cysts (the usual limit) span it. Frequently these ovarioles have two tips and two parades of downstream cysts within a single sheath. In rare cases ovarioles become completely filled with cells which resemble germline stem cells.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa in border cells, driven by Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6, causes ectopic outer border cells to form. However, the border cell cluster that is also present in wild-type egg chambers migrates normally.
upd1Scer\UAS.cZa expression in the eye under the control of Scer\GAL4ey.PH results in a larger eye compared to wild-type. In third instar larvae, the eye disc is enlarged in size along the dorsal-ventral axis.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 results in an enlarged third instar eye disc along the dorsal-ventral axis. In the adult the eye is enlarged, with stronger overgrowth observed in the dorsal than in the ventral eye.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4bi-omb-Gal4 results in an enlarged eye primarily along the dorsal-ventral axis.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF results in an enlarged eye, with stronger overgrowth observed in the dorsal than in the ventral eye. The number of mitotic cells in the third instar larval eye disc increase significantly before the morphogenetic furrow. The number of R8 photoreceptor cells is increased, as is the number of ommatidium. The cell-composition of these additional ommatidium is wild-type.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa in somatic clones in the eye under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PI results in non-autonomous overgrowth of the eye-disc.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4twi.PG causes the aggregation of pole cells in ectopic locations. Expression driven by Scer\GAL4elav-C155 causes the mislocalization of some pole cells into the nerve cord, while expression driven by Scer\GAL4prd.RG1 causes ectopic localization of pole cells in alternate segments of the embryo.
Somatic clones of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa; Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP in anterior ovarian follicle cells cause the formation of ectopic border cells, both within and adjacent to the clone. This effect is not seen when such clones are present in posterior ovarian follicle cells. Somatic clones of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa; Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP induce main body (oocyte associated) follicle cells to express a centripetal follicle cell marker. This effect is graded: strongest in anterior main body follicle cells; weaker in clones of follicle cells sitting over the middle of the oocyte; and absent in posterior clones.
When upd1Scer\UAS.cZa is driven by Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6, the number of migratory border cells appears to be the same, but appears to induce some border cell markers in a non-cell autonomous manner.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6 results in an increased number of vesicles in the border follicle cells compared to wild type and also results in an increased number of border follicle cells.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16 results in greatly enlarged testes filled with many small cells. Many of the cells contain a spherical spectrosome, and many divide asynchronously, suggesting stem cell or gonialblast identity. Cells with branched fusomes are occasionally seen. The number of tj-positive cyst cells is also increased, suggesting proliferation of somatic cyst progenitor cells (CPCs) or early cyst cells. The apical hub remains intact.
When upd1Scer\UAS.cZa is driven by Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6 and Scer\GAL4c306, numerous slbo expressing border cells are seen compared to wild-type. Some of the extra border cells migrate as single cells, whereas others form multiple small clusters and still others form one large cluster. High levels of ectopic upd1Scer\UAS.cZa results in egg chambers in which both normal and extra border cells frequently fail to migrate.
Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16 or Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP results in a striking accumulation of early-stage cells distant from the hub in the testis. By their morphology and DNA staining characteristics, these cells are a mixture of undifferentiated germ line cells (germline stem cells and/or gonialblasts) and somatic cells (somatic cyst progenitor cells). This is also supported by the increased number of cells containing spherical fusomes (characteristic of germline stem cells and gonialblasts) compared to wild type. The number of bam-positive spermatogonia is also increased. Somatic cells are seen encircling germline stem cell and/or gonialblast cell pairs (similar to the situation seen in wild type).
Homozygous clones in the eye expressing upd1Scer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PI result in inversion of ommatidial polarity in the wild-type tissue on the equatorial side of the clone. The greatest effect is seen in clones closer to the poles of the eye disc. Expression of upd1Scer\UAS.cZa at the poles of the eye using Scer\GAL430A results in the disruption of the regular array of ommatidia at the dorsal and ventral poles of the eye. Ommatidial polarity is normal at the equator of the eye in these flies, but ommatidial orientation is inverted at the poles. Within this region of ommatidial polarity inversion there is no clear boundary between dorsal and ventral ommatidial fates.