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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\DarkCD4
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0101817
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
arkCD4
Key Links
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Insertion of a P{lacW} element in the first intron (the P{lacW}Arkk11502 insertion upstream of the Ark promoter is retained).

Insertion components
P{lacW}DarkCD4
Product class / Tool use(s)
Encoded product / tool
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

The wings of ArkCD4 flies that survive to adulthood gradually melanize within 5 days after eclosion. Necrotic cells are also observed in the wings of 5-day-old flies.

ArkCD4 flies are hypersusceptible to starvation stress compared to wild type.

2.1 +/- 1.1 surviving EW3-sib cells are seen in homozygous larvae (these cells die during embryogenesis in wild type).

Surviving EW3-sib cells are seen in ArkCD4/Ark82 larvae (these cells die during embryogenesis in wild type) and the average number of surviving cells is increased if the female parent is homozygous for ArkCD4.

The programmed cell death of bursCCAP neurons seen in the adult ventral nerve cord of wild type flies after eclosion is partially suppressed in ArkCD4 mutant homozygotes. Between 0 and two bursCCAP neurons are seen at 3-5 days.

The programmed cell death of bursCCAP neurons seen in the adult ventral nerve cord of wild type flies after eclosion is partially suppressed in ArkCD4/Ark82 mutants. On average 3.9 bursCCAP neurons are seen at 3-5 days.

Homozygous debclE26 mutant larvae do not display any NMJ degeneration or changes in NMJ morphology.

Flies develop melanized blemishes in the wing in a progressive manner - wings are normal at eclosion, but blemishes are evident by day 14.

Homozygous adult ArkCD4 mutants exhibit wing blemishes.

On the first day of eclosion, the dorsal and ventral wing cuticles of wild-type animals become tightly merged, with no intervening tissue evident between the dorsal and ventral cuticles. However, even 14 days after eclosion, cells and cell remnants remain situated between the dorsal and ventral cuticles in ArkCD4 mutants. There is evidence of intact cells soon after eclosion and ectopic cellular material 24 hours after eclosion.

The apoptotic response to irradiation is significantly decreased in mutant embryos compared to wild type.

ArkCD4 mutants exhibit a delay in programmed cell death in Crz-expressing neurons in the ventral nerve cord during pupation.

Flies homozygous for ArkCD4 exhibit suppression of dendritic branch removal.

Adults homozygous for ArkCD4 develop melanized spots on their wings as they age.

Homozygous mutants have normal aristae.

A few neuroblasts ectopically survive in the abdominal neuromeres of homozygous larvae, in contrast to wild type where most of these neuroblasts undergo apoptosis by the end of embryogenesis.

There is a significant increase in the number of midline glia (~8 cells/segment) in mutants. On exposure to ionising radiation, mutant stage 9 embryos show very few sparsely distributed apoptotic cells, compared to wild-type embryos at the same stage where widespread cell death. No evidence is seen for extra photoreceptor cells in mutant pupal eyes.

Most homozygotes survive to adulthood, although at a lower frequency than heterozygous siblings. Many homozygotes derived from heterozygous parents have melanotic tumours and abnormalities affecting the wings and/or bristles. Most affected flies have severe wing defects similar to a 'gnarled' or 'wrinkled' phenotype, while others have wing blisters or burnt 'notched' wings. 3% of flies have melanotic tumours inside the body, while in 7% of flies, melanotic tumours are seen protruding from the body next to the haltere. Among flies with extra bristles, most have one extra anterior scutellar bristle, while a few have two extra anterior scutellar bristles and/or an extra posterior scutellar bristle. Homozygotes derived from homozygous parents have impaired viability and fecundity and have an increased penetrance and expression of similar defects to those seen in homozygotes derived from heterozygous parents. Most homozygous larvae have a significantly overgrown central nervous system (CNS) compared to wild type. Occasionally, hyperplasia of the CNS is seen in the brain lobes only, while in other cases the ventral nerve cord is abnormally extended. Homozygous embryos show markedly reduced levels of apoptosis compared to wild type. The reduction in number of apoptotic cells is most noticeable in the CNS and epidermis.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

DarkCD4 has wing | progressive phenotype, enhanceable by Debcl22

DarkCD4 has wing | progressive phenotype, enhanceable by Debcl59

DarkCD4 has wing phenotype, enhanceable by Dronc51/Nc[+]

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

DarkCD4/Ark[+] is a suppressor of wing blade phenotype of E2f1UAS.cNa, Scer\GAL4Act88F.PD

DarkCD4 is a suppressor | partially of arista phenotype of Diap11

DarkCD4 is a suppressor | partially of ovary phenotype of Diap16B/Diap18

DarkCD4 is a suppressor of ommatidium phenotype of hidGMR.PG/WGMR.PG

DarkCD4 is a suppressor of eye phenotype of hidGMR.PG/WGMR.PG

DarkCD4 is a suppressor of ommatidium phenotype of rprGMR.PW

DarkCD4 is a suppressor of ommatidium phenotype of grimGMR.PC

DarkCD4 is a suppressor of eye phenotype of grimGMR.PC

DarkCD4 is a suppressor of eye phenotype of rprGMR.PW

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

foxoΔ94/+ partially rescues the starvation stress phenotype of ArkCD4 flies.

ArkCD4 GnmtMI04290 double mutants show a starvation stress phenotype that is more severe than in either single mutant.

Homozygous ArkCD4 partially suppresses the NMJ degeneration seen in Ank2f02001 mutants.

The incidence and severity of melanized wing blemishing is exacerbated in debcl22, ArkCD4 or debcl59, ArkCD4 double mutants compared to ArkCD4 alone.

The mutant eye phenotype caused by expression of AIFΔN.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4ey.PH is not ameliorated by ArkCD4/ArkCD4.

The melanized wing spot phenotype of ArkCD4 homozygotes is enhanced by Nc51/+.

The border follicle cell migration defect seen in egg chambers expressing Rac1N17.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6 is partially suppressed by ArkCD4/+, ArkCD4/ArkCD4 or ArkCD4/ArkCD8.

Homozygosity for ArkCD4 partially supresses the eye ablation phenotype seen in egrScer\UAS.cMa; Scer\GAL4GMR.PF flies.

The addition of th5 to grimGMR.PC heterozygotes leads to an enhancement of retinal apoptosis. The subsequent addition of ArkCD4/ArkCD4 suppresses that enhancement. The addition of WGMR.PG to th5 heterozygotes leads to an enhancement of cell killing. The subsequent addition of ArkCD4/ArkCD4 suppresses that enhancement. The addition of ArkCD4/ArkCD4 or ArkCD4/+ to suppresses the sterility of th6B/th8 females, leading to 47% and 69% of females laying eggs respectively. Ovaries are considerably larger and generally wild-type in appearance. Most egg chambers are normal in morphology and number.

Suppresses the eye ablation phenotypes caused by grimGMR.PC, WGMR.PG or rprGMR.PW.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Rescued by
Comments

One copy of Ark+t20 completely rescues the wing melanization phenotype of ArkCD4 flies.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (2)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
References (23)