|Feature type||allele||Associated gene||Dmel\lwr|
|Allele class||hypomorphic allele - genetic evidence|
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|Nature of the Allele|
|Mutations Mapped to the Genome|
|Associated Sequence Data|
|Nature of the lesion|
|Caused by insertion|
|Phenotype Manifest In|
Loss of sumoylation in lwr[4-3]/lwr mutants results in hyperactive immunity with blood cells infiltrating the fat body upon L.victoriae parasitic wasp infection.
Over 90% of lwr4-3/lwr5 larvae have melanotic tumours, which are surrounded by lamellocytes, while only ~20% of lwr4-3/lwr14 larvae show this phenotype. Four days after egg lay, percentages of circulating hemocytes and lamellocytes are significantly higher in lwr4-3/lwr5 mutants than in controls, while lwr4-3/lwr14 mutants show high lamellocyte percentages, but have circulating hemocyte levels that are within control range. Levels of circulating hemocytes continue to increase six days after egg lay in lwr4-3/lwr5 mutants, but do not further increase after eight days. More than 6% of lwr4-3/lwr14 hemocytes, in both lymph glands and in circulation, are multinucleate and some hemocytes are abnormally large. lwr4-3/lwr5 mutants also exhibit large hemocytes but show a lower penetrance of multinucleate hemocytes. There is a 5- to 10-fold reduction in crystal cells in both lwr4-3/lwr5 and lwr4-3/lwr14 mutants. lwr4-3/lwr5 mutants show a developmental delay and only 25% undergo pupariation on day 8.
lwr4-3 mutants develop melanotic tumours during the third larval stage, which become particularly large in the posterior half of the body. In some cases, hemocytes can invade self-tissues such as fat body cells. The number of hemocytes in the hemolymph of lwr4-3/lwr5 mutant larvae is significantly higher than in wild type and the number of lamellocytes is increased within the hemocyte pool. Most aggregated hemocytes consist of lamellocytes that are partially to fully melanized. Mitotic analyses of hemocytes show that lamellocytes do not divide in circulation so the excess number must be due to proliferation in the lymph gland. However, plasmatocytes and prohemocytes do divide in circulation in lwr4-3/lwr5 mutants, while no such division occurs in wild type.
lwr5/lwr4-3 has melanotic mass phenotype | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by cactE8/cactE10
lwr5/lwr4-3 has melanotic mass phenotype | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by Df(2L)J4/dl1
lwr5/lwr4-3 has melanotic mass phenotype | larval stage phenotype, suppressible | partially by Df(2L)TW119/Dif1
lwr5/lwr4-3 has melanotic mass phenotype | larval stage phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)TW119/Df(2L)J4
|Phenotype Manifest In|
lwr5/lwr4-3 has embryonic/larval hemocyte | supernumerary phenotype, suppressible | partially by Df(2L)J4/Dif2
lwr5/lwr4-3 has embryonic/larval hemocyte | supernumerary phenotype, suppressible | partially by Df(2L)J4/dl1
lwr5/lwr4-3 has embryonic/larval hemocyte | supernumerary phenotype, suppressible by Df(2L)TW119/Df(2L)J4
|NOT suppressed by|
A cact[E10] background suppresses blood cell infiltration and tumorigenesis in lwr[4-3]/lwr mutants upon L.victoriae parasitic wasp infection.
The penetrance of melanotic tumours is reduced from over 90% in lwr4-3/lwr5 mutants to less than 2% in lwr4-3 Df(2L)TW119/lwr5 Df(2L)J4 triple mutants. The amount of circulating hemocytes and lamellocytes are reduced by day 8 in lwr4-3 Df(2L)TW119/lwr5 Df(2L)J4 triple mutants compared to lwr4-3/lwr5 single mutants. The melanotic tumour penetrance and circulating hemocyte levels are reduced in lwr4-3 Df(2L)J4/lwr5 dl1 and lwr4-3 Df(2L)TW119/lwr5 Dif1 double mutants, but to a lower extent than in lwr4-3 Df(2L)TW119/lwr5 Df(2L)J4 triple mutants. However, the amount of lamellocytes is not reduced in the double mutants. The melanotic tumour penetrance is reduced in lwr4-3 cactE8/lwr5 cactE10 double mutants compared to lwr4-3/lwr5 single mutants and by day 8, the amount of circulating hemocytes is reduced in the double mutants. In contrast, the amount of lamellocytes remains as high as in the single mutants.
In lwr4-3/lwr5; dl1/Df(2L)J4, total numbers of hemocytes are reduced compared to lwr4-3/lwr5 single mutants. Plasmatocyte levels are reduced by 50% compared to single mutants, while lamellocyte levels are not significantly reduced. In lwr4-3/lwr5; Dif2/Df(2L)J4 double mutants the number of lamellocytes are the same as in wild-type larvae, while the number of plasmatocytes is reduced compared to lwr4-3/lwr5 single mutants, but remain higher than in wild type. In lwr4-3/lwr5; Df(2L)TW119/Df(2L)J4 double mutants, the total number of hemocytes, including lamellocytes, is the same as wild type.
|Complementation & Rescue Data|
|Fails to complement|
|Partially rescued by|
Expression of lwr[Scer\UAS.cAa] in a subset of the lymph gland cells under the control of Scer\GAL4[76B] significantly reduced the infiltration index in lwr[4-3]/lwr mutants, indicating an anti-inflammatory role for lwr.
Expression of lwrScer\UAS.cAa under the control of Scer\GAL4Cg.PA partially rescues the developmental delay of lwr4-3/lwr5 mutants, increasing the amount of animals undergoing pupariation from 25 to 61% at day 8. However, there is no clear rescue of the melanotic tumour phenotype.
|Stocks ( 1 )|
|Notes on Origin|
|External Crossreferences & Linkouts|
|Synonyms & Secondary IDs ( 2 )|
|Secondary FlyBase IDs|
|References ( 9 )|