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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\painEP2451
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0146951
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
pain1, painless1, EP(2)2451
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference
Insertion components
P{EP}painEP2451
Product class / Tool use(s)
Encoded product / tool
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

Homozygous larvae and adults show an impaired nociceptive heat response. Mutant larvae show a normal response to gentle touch. Mutant adults show normal geotactic climbing ability.

painEP2451 mutant adults have no alterations in aversive shock or temperature olfactory memory, compared to controls.

painEP2451/painEP2451 third instar larvae have significantly reduced turning frequency (locomotor defects) and significant defects in mechanical and thermal nociception.

painEP2451 mutant larvae completely lack a reaction to pain.

The number of times painEP2451 females reject males is significantly lower than that of wild-type females.

painEP2451 homozygous larvae have a severe mechanical nociception response deficit.

painEP2451 homozygous and heterozygous adults are defective in courtship long term memory (reduction in courtship activity 5 days after 7-hours conditioning) when compared to controls. painEP2451 homozygous adults exhibit normal courtship short term memory (reduction in courtship activity 30 minutes, 1 hour or 8 hours, but not 24 hours, after 1-hour conditioning) compared to controls.

Mutant third instar larvae show significant defects in nociception, having a significant reduction in the response frequency to noxious mechanical stimuli compared to control larvae. However, the navigational behaviours of the mutant larvae in response to gentle touch are not significantly different from wild type.

painEP2451 mutant flies exhibit problems with noxious temperature avoidance. They avoid surfaces heated up to 42[o]C but fail to avoid surfaces with temperatures at 42[o]C or above. Differences between wild-type and mutant temperature awareness are greatest at 46[o]C.

painEP2451 flies display weakened avoidance of the odorant 4-methyl-cyclohexanol, compared to wild-type controls, which display a strong avoidance for 4-methyl-cyclohexanol perfused air. When exposed to 4-methyl-cyclohexanol at lower concentrations, painEP2451 flies display the wild-type preference behavior, suggesting an alteration in response towards this odor.

painEP2451 mutant flies exhibit long-lasting male-male courtship behavior after recovery from mild CO[[2]] anaesthesia, with a chaining index (i.e. the percentage of time these males spend courting one another and forming chains) higher than in wild-type flies.

painEP2451/painGAL4 trans-heterozygous flies exhibit strong male-male courtship behavior. In contrast, painEP2451/+ heterozygotes do not exhibit obvious male-male courtship behavior.

painEP2451/painEP2251 trans-heterozygous flies exhibit strong male-male courtship behavior.

at 25[o]C and 30[o]C, the performance of painEP2451 is similar to that of wild-type flies, However, the performance index, charting the avoidance to noxious heat is markedly lower in the mutant than in wild-type. This trend continues at 45[o]C and 50[o]C, indicating a defect in thermal nociception.

painEP2451 mutant larvae show a significant delay in response to noxious heat compared to control flies. These flies also exhibit a delay in their jump response to noxious heat of 17 seconds.

Mutant flies exhibit the wild type avoidance of aristolochic acid in food choice assays.

Mutant adults respond normally to subnoxious temperatures (39[o]C or less) but fail to avoid noxious heat (46[o]C), in contrast to wild-type controls.

Mutant larvae show an impaired thermal nociception response compared to controls.

Mutant larvae do not show the cardiac pauses during motion which are seen in wild-type larvae.

Basal cardiac activity (measured in anaesthetised animals) is increased in mutant larvae compared to wild-type controls.

Contractility of the heart tube is reduced in mutant larvae compared to wild-type controls.

The cardiac rhythm of mutant larvae is not modified by hypo-osmotic shock (in contrast to wild-type larvae).

The mating success rate, defined as the percentage of pairs that copulate, is significantly higher in painEP2451 homozygous females than wild-type. The time to copulation of painEP2451 mutant females is significantly shorter than that of controls. No significant difference is detected in the courtship latency or courtship index (defined as the percentage of time spent courting in a given observation period). These results show that painEP2451 mutant females do not elicit increased courtship behavior than control females, and that the rapid copulation of virgin painEP2451 mutant females is because of their enhanced receptivity.

No significant difference is observed in locomotion of painEP2451 mutant females compared to controls.

pain[EP2451] mutant seldom copulate with wingless males, suggesting that they can detect courtship songs.

painEP2451 mutants display impaired negative geotaxis behaviour.

The Johnston's organ of painEP2451 mutant flies show neural activity in response to body rotation that is indistinguishable from that of wild-type.

painEP2451 flies exhibit a reduced avoidance to isothiocyanate-containing food.

painEP2451 mutant flies do not show significant allyl- or benzl-isothiocyanate inhibition of sucrose-induced proboscis extension.

painEP2451 mutants exhibit normal avoidance to quinine and NaCl. They also exhibit wild-type levels of attraction to sucrose.

painEP2451 mutants exhibit wild-type levels of attraction to capsaicin.

painEP2451/painEP2621 trans-heterozygotes exhibit a reduced avoidance to isothiocyanate-containing food as in homozygous mutants.

painEP2451/painEP2451 flies show significantly longer jump latencies compared to wild type in a CO[2] laser beam assay (thermal nociception induces a jump response) and in a heat plate assay (but show normal behavior in a jump test).

Larvae show normal thermotactic behaviour in a thermal preference assay.

Mutant larvae exhibit a defective response to noxious heat at 48oC, some failing to roll even after 10 seconds of stimulus. Animals do not display highly uncoordinated movement and poor viability. Larvae do exhibit a rapid response to noxious heat at 52oC. When stimulated with a 45mN fibre, only 13% of larvae responded with vigorous rolling (as compared to 92% for wild-type), however response to light touch is normal. However 81% of larvae respond to 100mN of stimulus. Mutant larvae tested for spiking of sensory afferents at room temperature exhibit normal mean bulk spiking frequencies. When the temperature is increased to 42oC the bulk spiking rate does not increase, (unlike in wild-type where the frequencies increase 2 to 3 fold).

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

painEP2451; subduedΔ5265 double heterozygous larvae and adults show an impaired nociceptive heat response.

painEP2451; TrpA11 double heterozygous larvae and adults show an impaired nociceptive heat response.

painEP2451, PiezoKO double mutants have a mechanical nociception response deficit that is comparable to either single mutant.

Larvae that are heterozygous for both painEP2451 and PiezoKO show a mechanical nociception response deficit whereas each separate heterozygote is normal.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by
Fails to rescue
Comments

Expression of painEP2451 under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.PB rescues courtship long term memory phenotype of painEP2451 heterozygous adults when the heat-shock is induced 3 hours before 7-hours conditioning but not if heat shock is induced after conditioning.

painEP2451/+ rescues courtship long term memory phenotype of painGAL4/+ but not painEP2251/+.

Expression of painEP2451 under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.PB, Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR or Scer\GAL4Mef2.247 rescues while painEP2251/+ fails to rescue courtship long term memory phenotype of painEP2451/+ .

Expression of painScer\UAS.cTa in painEP2451 under the control of Scer\GAL4pain-GAL4 partially restores the avoidance to high levels of 4-methyl-cyclohexanol, but does not restore the low concentration avoidance.

The intensity and duration of the male-male courtship behavior in painEP2451 flies is significantly reduced following preferential expression of painScer\UAS.cTa in Scer\GAL4GH146-expressing projection neurons.

Overexpression of painScer\UAS.cTa in Scer\GAL4Gr66a.PD-expressing neurons does not prevent male-male courtship behavior in painEP2451 flies.

Using the Scer\GAL4NP1029 driver to over-express pain from the Scer\UAS sites present in the P{EP}painEP2451 insertion restores basal cardiac activity and contractility of the heart tube to wild-type levels in the painEP2451 mutant background.

Expression of painScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4pain-GAL4 in a homozygous mutant painEP2251 background significantly lengthens the time to copulation in female flies to a level similar to control flies.

Expression of painScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4iav.PU rescues the geotaxis behaviour defects of painEP2451 mutants.

painEP2451 mutants do not show impaired auditory response.

Allyl- or benzl-isothiocyanate inhibition of sucrose-induced proboscis extension is rescued in painEP2451 pain+t8.5 mutants.

The isothiocyanate avoidance phenotype observed in painEP2451 mutants is rescued upon expression of pain+t8.5.

Allyl- or benzl-isothiocyanate inhibition of sucrose-induced proboscis extension is rescued in painEP2451 pain+t8.5 mutants, with these flies exhibiting near wild-type levels of allyl- or benzl-isothiocyanate inhibition of the proboscis extension reflex.

pain+t8.5 rescues jump latencies in painEP2451/painEP2451 flies in both a CO[2] laser beam assay and in a heat plate assay.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

Mutant phenotypes are revertable by excision of the P{EP} insertion.

Based on the avoidance to isothiocyanate-containing food in a two-choice preference test, the following alleles can be ranked from strongest response to weakest in the following order: painEP2451 > painEP2621 > painGAL4.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (4)
References (26)