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General Information
D. melanogaster
FlyBase ID
Feature type
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Key Links
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
Additional Notes
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
Progenitor genotype
Nature of the lesion

An 18bp deletion in thee hpo ORF, leading to an in frame deletion of residues N166-T171 inclusive, in the predicted kinase domain.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease-implicated variant(s)
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description

hpo42-47/+ third instar larvae display normal number of satellite boutons on neuromuscular junctions.

hpo42-47/+ does not have any affect on cell growth or proliferation in the adult posterior midgut, as compared to controls.

Approximately 60% of hpo42-47 mutant border cell clusters are delayed at stage 10 of oogenesis. Unlike control clusters, F-actin fails to polarize to the outer rim of hpo42-47 mutant clusters and instead tends to accumulate throughout the cluster. Border cell specification is not affected in these mutants.

hpo42-47 mutants display a small wing phenotype.

Adults containing homozygous clones represent only 2.1% of the population recovered after clones are induced using the eyFLP method (expected fraction of adults containing mutant clones is 50% if there is no effect of the mutant clones on viability).

hpo42-47 homozygous mutant clones generated in the male or female germline develop normally. In the testis 16 cells are observed per cyst, and cell size and morphology are indistinguishable from neighbouring control cells.

Eyes composed almost entirely of hpo42-47 mutant tissue are overgrown and noticeably larger than control eyes.

Apoptosis is reduced by up to 3-fold in hpo42-47 clones of wing or eye discs in response to γ-rays compared to wild-type tissue.

The mid-pupal retina of hpo42-47/hpo42-47 animals contains a large excess of inter-ommatidial cells. The resulting adult eyes are distorted and lumpy.

Animals bearing hpo42-47 clones show an overgrowth phenotype in the head.

When somatic clones of hpo42-47 homozygous cells are generated throughout the eye disc using Scer\FLP1ey.PN with P{neoFRT}42D, only 2% of animals survive the pupal stage and eclose. The resulting flies have enlarged, folded eyes, and excess head cuticle. The external ommatidial facets are frequently lost. Sectioning of these eyes reveals a normal complement of photoreceptor cells. However, spacing between photoreceptor clusters is increased due to the presence of extra interommatidial pigment cells. In somatic clones of hpo42-47 homozygous cells in the late third instar eye disc, ommatidial clusters have the normal complement of differentiating photoreceptor cells, and R8 is specified at correct location and density emerging from the morphogenetic furrow. The spacing between adjacent ommatidial clusters is initially normal but increases at later stages (more posterior to the furrow), due to the presence of extra interommatidial cells. These extra cells seem to be due to a failure of uncommitted interommatidial cells to undergo cell cycle arrest posterior to the second mitotic wave. At least some of these cells continue to proliferate during early pupal development, as revealed by ectopic BrdU incorporation at 16 hr after puparium formation (APF). However, ectopic cell proliferation is undetectable beyond 24 hr APF. At 36 hr APF, cell death is suppressed in mutant clones, even though abundant apoptosis is detected in the neighboring wild-type cells. Cell death in hpo mutant clones is not simply delayed, since it could not be detected in mutant clones up to 48 hr APF. Somatic clones of hpo42-47 homozygous cells in the adult cuticle are characterised by extensive tissue overgrowth and abnormally (roughly) textured cuticle in which cell-cell boundaries are apparent. The cells of hpo42-47 homozygous somatic clones in wing discs during the growth phase have a doubling time of 12.2 hours, compared to 13.9 hours for wild-type cells. This is due to a proportional acceleration of all phases of the cell cycle, rather than an effect in any specific stage.

External Data
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Suppressed by
Suppressor of
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions

The increased number of satellite boutons on neuromuscular junctions in third instar larvae expressing StripdsRNA.shRNA.Scer\UAS.9 under the control of Scer\GAL4RapGAP1-OK6 is rescued by combination with single copy of hpo42-47, whereas the increased frequency of miniature excitatory junction potentials characteristic remains high.

hpo42-47/+ fully suppresses the reduced growth seen in posterior midgut wild type clones when in the presence of ApcQ8/ApcQ8, Apc2g10/Apc2g10 mutant clones, and suppresses the growth of ApcQ8/ApcQ8, Apc2g10/Apc2g10 mutant clones.

Expression of hppyScer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4tub.PU suppresses growth in hpo42-47 mutant wing disc clones.

Expression of hppyScer\UAS.cZa under the control of Scer\GAL4tub.PU does not suppress growth in wtsx1 mutant wing disc clones.

hppyΔ1 does not increase the size of hpo42-47 mutant wing disc clones.

The border cell migration phenotype found in hpo42-47 mutants is suppressed by a ena210 background. These double mutants exhibit a normally polarised actin cytoskeleton.

Expression of wtsT1077A.Scer\UAS.T:Myr-Src64B,T:SV5\V5 under the control of Scer\GAL4nub.PU suppresses the small wing phenotype found in hpo42-47 mutants. hpo42-47 mutant clones expressing wtsT1077A.Scer\UAS.T:Myr-Src64B,T:SV5\V5 are smaller in size than those not expressing wtsT1077A.Scer\UAS.T:Myr-Src64B,T:SV5\V5.

he loss of inter-ommatidial cells in the developing retinas of exScer\UAS.cBa; Scer\GAL4GMR.PF animals at the mid-pupal stage is completely suppressed by hpo42-47/hpo42-47. The resulting retinas have an excess of inter-ommatidial cells, just as hpo42-47/hpo42-47 animals so.

The head overgrowth phenotype of flies carrying hpo42-47 clones is not significantly enhanced in a RassfX36 background.

The small, rough eye phenotype of CycEAR95/CycEJP animals, is almost completely dominantly suppressed by hpo42-47.

Xenogenetic Interactions

The severe eye and heat cuticle deformities seen in adults carrying somatic clones of hpo42-47 homozygous cells throughout the eye disc (generated using Scer\FLP1ey.PN with P{neoFRT}42D) are almost completely suppressed by Hsap\STK3hs.PW, given a suitable heat shock regime (60 minutes daily from 2nd instar until eclosion).

Complementation and Rescue Data
Rescued by
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Synonyms and Secondary IDs (1)
References (31)