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General Information
D. melanogaster
FlyBase ID
Feature type
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
Key Links
    Nature of the Allele
    Mutations Mapped to the Genome
    Additional Notes

    Reported as a 6324bp deletion resulting from the imprecise excision of P{lacW}DarkCD4. The deletion removes sequences from 1277bp upstream of the Dark translation start to 19bp downstream of the Dark translation stop. 396bp of the transposon remain at the junction.

    Associated Sequence Data
    DNA sequence
    Protein sequence
    Progenitor genotype
    Nature of the lesion

    Remoblisation of P{lacW}ArkCD4 generates a 6.324kb deletion of Ark, spanning the entire open-reading frame and nearly the entire transcription unit (from -1277bp upstream of the translation start codon to 19bp downstream of the stop codon). 396bp of the P{lacW}ArkCD4 transposon remains in the mutant.

    Expression Data
    Reporter Expression
    Additional Information
    Marker for
    Reflects expression of
    Reporter construct used in assay
    Human Disease Associations
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Disease-implicated variant(s)
    Phenotypic Data
    Phenotypic Class
    Phenotype Manifest In
    Detailed Description

    Dark82/DarkP46 transheterozygotes do not exhibit a significant proportion of hyperplastic testes, as compared to controls.

    Wing disc of Dark82 homozygous third instar larvae are significantly bigger compared to controls.

    Surviving EW3-sib cells are seen in ArkCD4/Ark82 larvae (these cells die during embryogenesis in wild type) and the average number of surviving cells is increased if the female parent is homozygous for ArkCD4.

    The programmed cell death of bursCCAP neurons seen in the adult ventral nerve cord of wild type flies after eclosion is partially suppressed in ArkCD4/Ark82 mutants. On average 3.9 bursCCAP neurons are seen at 3-5 days.

    ArkN28/Ark82 mutant males exhibit a marked increase in spermatogonial cyst death compared to controls.

    ArkP46/Ark82 mutant males exhibit a marked increase in spermatogonial cyst death compared to controls.

    Wings mosaic for Ark82 are indistinguishable from wild-type at eclosion, but within 4 days develop wing blemishes. These late-onset blemishes become markedly more severe as the animals age.

    Flies homozygous for Ark82 arrest as late pupae and often present a characteristic dark blister located centrally along the midline.

    Normal patterns of programmed cell death are observed in embryos that retain zygotic, but lack maternal Ark82 (using the Dominant Female Sterile technique). By contrast, embryos devoid of both maternal and zygotic Ark82 are almost entirely cell death defective, with rare cell deaths noticeable in later-staged animals. Embryos lacking maternal and zygotic Ark82 fail to hatch and are also defective for head involution. At the same time, gastrulation, segmental patterning and extension of the germ band appear grossly normal in the absence of Ark82.

    Ark82 salivary glands are defective for histolysis. Caspase activity is starkly reduced in Ark82 salivary glands, while Ecdysone signaling and expression of death-related genes are unperturbed.

    Ark82 salivary glands appear healthy 14 hours after puparium formation, compared to wild-type salivary glands, which exhibit extensive cell death. Comparably aged Ark82 glands show no signs of vesicular saturation. Similarly, pre-histolytic changes that otherwise occur in the nucleus are not seen, and instead, features characteristic of earlier-staged nuclei are retained. Like wild-type counterparts, however, numerous autolysosomes are evident in Ark82, indicating that Ark function is not required for autophagy per se.

    External Data
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    Phenotypic Class
    Phenotype Manifest In
    Suppressed by
    Suppressor of
    NOT Suppressor of

    Dark82 is a non-suppressor of neuroblast | larval stage phenotype of fzy1/fzy5032

    Additional Comments
    Genetic Interactions

    The reduced size of the third larval instar imaginal wing disc characteristic for pcm14 homozygotes is strongly rescued by combination with homozygous Dark82. The resulting disc size is intermediate between that of pcm14/pcm14 and Dark82/Dark82 (which on its own gives rise to wing disc bigger than wild-type) and smaller than wild-type.

    Retinal degeneration and light-response defects are strongly suppressed in ninaEP37H, ninaE17, Ark82/+ flies.

    Ark82 does not suppress the neuroblast loss seen in fzy5032/fzy1 mutant larval brains.

    When Ark82 ptcB.2.13 double mutant clones are induced in the eye disc using the eyFLP system, the resulting adult eyes show strong overgrowth of wild-type tissue relative to mutant tissue.

    Ark82 ptcB.2.13 double mutant clones induced in the larval wing disc result in dramatically enlarged third larval instar wing discs (due to enlargement of the anterior domain) and pupal lethality. If the wing disc is made entirely mutant for Ark82 ptcB.2.13 (by using a cell-lethal Minute allele to eliminate the tissue that is not doubly mutant for Ark82 ptcB.2.13) the wing disc size is reduced compared to Ark82 ptcB.2.13 mosaic wing discs.

    Ark82 ptcB.2.13 mosaic wing discs show elevated increased cell proliferation in both mutant cells and adjacent wild-type cells compared to wild-type controls.

    The wing disc overgrowth phenotype caused by Ark82 ptcB.2.13 double mutant clones is suppressed by Df(3L)banΔ1/+.

    Xenogenetic Interactions
    Complementation and Rescue Data
    Fails to complement

    Male and female Ark82 adults rescued through expression of ArkScer\UAS.T:Zzzz\His6,T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4c81 are sterile.

    Adult Ark82 flies rescued to viability by expression of ArkB1292A.Scer\UAS.T:Zzzz\His6,T:Hsap\MYC under the control of Scer\GAL4unspecified display split thorax phenotypes and bristle abnormalities in the notum.

    Surprisingly, in the absence of any Scer\GAL4 driver, `leaky' expression of ArkB1292A.Scer\UAS.T:Zzzz\His6,T:Hsap\MYC partially rescues Ark82 lethality.

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    Notes on Origin
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    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
    References (19)