|Feature type||allele||Associated gene||Dmel\mod(mdg4)|
|Also Known As||mnmZ3-5578|
|Allele class||loss of function allele|
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|Nature of the Allele|
|Mutations Mapped to the Genome|
|Associated Sequence Data|
|Nature of the lesion|
The stop mutation is in the C-terminal coding exon, which is present in most mod(mdg4) isoforms.
Amino acid replacement: W449@.
|Phenotype Manifest In|
G2 phase & nuclear chromosome
meiosis I & nuclear chromosome
Homozygous males show a high frequency of X-Y chromosome nondisjunction in meiosis (51.2%). mod(mdg4)Z3-5578/Df(3R)GC14 males show a high frequency of 4th chromosome loss (28.1%) and chromosome 2 nondisjunction (43.3%) in meiosis. mod(mdg4)Z3-5578/Df(3R)GC14 females do not show increased X chromosome nondisjunction compared to controls and the frequency of recombination in large intervals on the X and third chromosomes in the mutant females is normal.
mod(mdg4)Z3-5578 mutants show elevated frequencies of autosomal and sex chromosome nondisjunction. Analysis of mutant spermatocytes shows that nondisjunction is limited largely to meiosis I. Premeiotic and meiotic homolog pairing are normal. The earliest observable phenotype is that of "territory expansion" in late G2, with homologous chromosomes being at a greater distance from one another than in wild-type spermatocytes. mod(mdg4)Z3-5578 spermatocytes show incomplete chromatin condensation and form up to eight large clumps of chromatin form by metaphase I, instead of the one central mass observed in wild type. The clumps represent bivalents and univalents, consistent with a defect in formation or maintenance of bivalents. In early anaphase I, chromosomes are distributed unevenly and asymmetrically along the spindle. In late anaphase I, there is a high frequency of laggards and polar chromatin masses of unequal size, indicating high frequency of nondisjunction.
|NOT Enhancer of|
|NOT Suppressor of|
|Phenotype Manifest In|
|Complementation & Rescue Data|
|Fails to complement|
mod(mdg4)Z3-5578 fully complements the lethal/semi-lethal phenotypes of the following mod(mdg4) alleles, but they fail to complement mod(mdg4)Z3-5578 with respect to X-Y chromosome nondisjunction in male meiosis, with the transheterozygotes showing a high level of X-Y nondisjunction (frequency is indicated in parentheses after each allele); mod(mdg4)T16 (44.3%), mod(mdg4)142Δ10 (46%), mod(mdg4)142Δ33 (37.3%), mod(mdg4)eGp4 (50.3%) and mod(mdg4)B2 (37.3%). mod(mdg4)Z3-5578 fully complements the lethal/semi-lethal phenotypes of the following mod(mdg4) alleles, and they partially or fully complement mod(mdg4)Z3-5578 with respect to X-Y chromosome nondisjunction in male meiosis, with the transheterozygotes showing only a low level of X-Y nondisjunction (frequency is indicated in parentheses after each allele); mod(mdg4)142Δ15 (0.56%), mod(mdg4)142Δ32 (0.95%), mod(mdg4)142Δ29 (1.54%), mod(mdg4)142Δ49 (0%), mod(mdg4)neo129 (4.46%), mod(mdg4)02 (1.72%), mod(mdg4)03 (0.07%), mod(mdg4)20 (2.96%), mod(mdg4)117 (0.75%), mod(mdg4)269 (1.44%), mod(mdg4)324 (2.84%) and mod(mdg4)340 (1.89%). mod(mdg4)Z3-3401 strongly (but not completely) complements mod(mdg4)Z3-5578; transheterozygotes show only a low level (1.42%) of X-Y nondisjunction in male meiosis. mod(mdg4)T6 fully complements mod(mdg4)Z3-5578 with respect to X-Y chromosome nondisjunction in male meiosis. mod(mdg4)Z3-5578 fails to complement mod(mdg4)Z3-3298 with respect to X-Y chromosome nondisjunction in male meiosis; transheterozygotes show 45.2% X-Y nondisjunction.
|Stocks ( 0 )|
|Notes on Origin|
|External Crossreferences & Linkouts|
|Synonyms & Secondary IDs ( 3 )|
|Secondary FlyBase IDs|
|References ( 3 )|