General Information
Symbol
Dmel\abd-A
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
abdominal A
Annotation Symbol
CG10325
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000014
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Abdominal A is a homeobox-containing transcription factor component of the bithorax complex. It contributes to the developmental fate of embryonic segments. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
abdA, iab-2, iab-4, Hab, iab4
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:16,807,214..16,830,049 [-]
Recombination map
3-59
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the Antp homeobox family. (P29555)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
BITHORAX COMPLEX -
The bithorax complex (BX-C) is one of two Hox gene complexes. Hox genes encode homeodomain transcription factors. The BX-C controls the identity of the segments that contribute to the posterior thorax and each abdominal segment of the fly. (Adapted from FBrf0190304).
HOX-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
HOX-like (HOXL) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They encompass transcription factors encoded by the Hox genes of the Antennapedia and the Bithorax gene complexes and genes closely related in sequence. HOXL transcription factors are major regulators of animal development. (Adapted from FBrf0232555).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Sequence-specific transcription factor which is part of a developmental regulatory system that provides cells with specific positional identities on the anterior-posterior axis. Required for segmental identity of the second through eighth abdominal segments. Once a pattern of abd-A expression is turned on in a given parasegment, it remains on the more posterior parasegment, so that the complex pattern of expression is built up in the successive parasegments. Appears to repress expression of Ubx whenever they appear in the same cell, but abd-A is repressed by Abd-B only in the eight and ninth abdominal segments.
(UniProt, P29555)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
abd-A: abdominal-A (I. Duncan)
Null alleles are recessive lethal. Homozygous larvae show transformations of the ventral and dorsal setal belts of A2 through A8 toward A1. These transformations are complete in A2 through A4, but are incomplete more posteriorly. Partial Keilin's organs composed of monohairs occur variably on all segments from A1 through A7. In the adult cuticle, homozygous abd-A mitotic recombination clones are completely transformed to A1 in segments A2 through A4 and show characteristics of A1 to A4 in segments A5 to A7.
Hab: Hyperabdominal (E.B. Lewis)
Hab/+ has the third thoracic segment (T3) and first abdominal segment (A1) variably transformed toward the second abdominal segment (A2), occasionally resulting in the loss of one or both metathoracic legs and one or both halteres; an A2 type tergite and sternite appear on T3; but A1 is only weakly transformed toward A2. Strongly enhanced when mother is from stock of Df(3R)red-P93, l(3)tr Sb/In(3L)P + In(3R)P18, Me Ubx.
iab2: infra-abdominal 2 (I. Duncan)
Adult homozygotes or hemizygotes show transformations of A2 toward A1. The known alleles cause only partial transformations. Wheeler's organs (A2 structures) are reduced or absent and A2 tergite bristles are reduced in size. These alleles do not affect the larval cuticle pattern.
iab3: infra-abdominal 3 (E.B. Lewis)
Hemizygote and homozygote have third, fourth, fifth and sixth abdominal segments (A3, A4, A5, and A6) transformed toward the second abdominal segment (A2). The Wheelers Organ (normally only on A2) is now partially to fully developed on A3 to A6, inclusive. Hemizygotes are viable, and show a loss of gonads in both sexes. In homozygotes A1 is weakly transformed toward A2.
iab4: infra-abdominal 4 (E.B. Lewis)
Both the hemizygote and homozygote are viable and have a tranformation of A4 toward A3 as well as a weak transformation of A5 toward A4 or A3. Gonads are absent in both sexes (or partially developed in some alleles). In some of the alleles, A2 transforms weakly to A3, especially in the homozygote.
iab5: infra-abdominal 5 (I. Duncan)
Hemizygotes show strong transformation of A5 toward A4, resulting in a loss of black pigment in the A5 tergite of the male. In addition, A6 may be weakly transformed toward A4. When homozygous, iab5301 causes a weak transformation of A3 toward A4 as well as a transformation of A5 to A4.
Uab: Ultraabdominal (E.B. Lewis)
Uab1, Uab2, and Uab4 cause A1 to transform toward A2. Uab5 causes A1 and A2 to transform toward A3. Uab1 is an intra-complex inversion with a breakpoint in the bxd region, Uab2 is associated with a Uab mutation, the Uab4 breakpoint is an iab-3 mutation, and the Uab5 breakpoint is a weak bxd mutation. Reversion studies show that Uab1, Uab4, and Uab5 cause abnormal expression of abd-A domain functions in A1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\abd-A or the JBrowse view of Dmel\abd-A for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083387
4458
330
FBtr0083388
3935
590
FBtr0300485
4559
330
FBtr0306337
5269
330
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
5.4, 5.1 (northern blot)
5.4, 4.8 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082828
36.2
330
9.70
FBpp0082829
62.4
590
9.72
FBpp0289712
36.2
330
9.70
FBpp0297433
36.2
330
9.70
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

330 aa isoforms: abd-A-PA, abd-A-PC, abd-A-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\abd-A using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (35 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (26 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (21 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002902589
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 2-4 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
The spatial pattern of abd-A and Abd-B transcripts appears as wild type in tsh mutants.
abd-A expression is unaffected in dpps4 embryos.
The abd-A transcripts are detected at very low levels between 0 and 6 hours of embryonic development and then persist at higher levels during embryogenesis.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
parasegment 7 -- parasegment 13

Comment: anterior and segmentally repeated

in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
abd-A is expressed in the parts of the developing female reproductive system that correspond to the internal genitalia. In third instar larvae, abd-A protein expression is localized to the female genital disc, in the region corresponding to abdominal segment 8.
abd-A is expressed at a high level in cardiac myocytes from the larval heart that persist in the adult heart (tin-expressing myocytes of segment A5 plus one svp-expressing myocyte pair from A6.
The abd-A protein is expressed in a subset of the nuclei of larval fat body cells with an anterior boundary of around A2 and a posterior limit near A7. Specific labeling of polytene chromosome bands by abd-A antisera can be mapped from nuclei accumulating this protein.
Protein is detected in the posterior of the embryonic dorsal vessel exactly overlapping the region that becomes the heart. The protein is strongly expressed in cardioblasts and pericardial cells of abdominal segments A6 and A7. Lower levels expression are observed A5 and A8. Protein is also detected in the 4 posterior pairs of the 7 pairs of alary muscles.
abd-A protein is localized to cardial and pericardial cells of the heart from abdominal segment 5 through abdominal segment 8.
abd-A expression is observed in all of the cardioblasts in the heart region except in the most posterior cardioblasts in segment A8 or the two pairs of anterior-most cardioblasts in segment A5. It includes the two pairs of svp-expressing cells in A5 and the two last pairs of svp-expressing cells in A7. abd-A is also expressed in a subpopulstion of pericaridal cells in segments A5-A7.
Df(3R)P-10 which removes the iab2 regulatory region and part of the abd-A transcription unit causes a gradient of expression of abd-A protein in the epidermis and a less evident gradient in the nerve cord. Staining is barely detectable in parasegment 7 and increases gradually posteriorly. In Abd-Biab9-Uab1 mutant embryos, there is a general reduction in abd-A levels and ectopic abd-A expression in the first abdominal segment and in parasegments 14 and 15. In embryo homozygous for Abd-Biab9-Uab1, Abd-Biab8-rv96 and sometimes Abd-Biab9-tuh-3, nuclei posterior to parasegment 13 stain for abd-A. The ectopic expression is in the posterior region of abdominal segment 8 and in some cells of the posterior region of abdominal segment 9.
Ectopic abd-A expression is observed in the ventral nerve cord in parasegment 6.
A reduced level of abd-A expression is observed in parasegments 8-13, particularly in nuclei located in a dorsolateral position of the epidermis.
A reduced level of abd-A expression is observed in parasegments 8-13, particularly in nuclei located in a dorsolateral position of the epidermis. Ectopic abd-A expression is observed in some cells of the lateral epidermis of parasegment 6 and more rarely in parasegment 6 of the ventral nerve cord.
No change in the abd-A expression pattern is observed.
No major change in the pattern of abd-A expression was observed. Animals that are also homozygous for su(Hw)2 present ectopic abd-A expression in some cells of the lateral epidermis of parasegments 4-6 and in the ventral nerve cord.
abd-A protein is first detected in 4 hour embryos and persists through embryonic and early larval development. abd-A protein is expressed in parasegments 7-13 (PS7-13) which correspond to abdominal segements 2-7 (A2-7). Expression of abd-A is complementary to that of Ubx and highest levels are in the anterior of each parasegment. Throughout development abd-A is localized to the nuclei of expressing cells. At the beginning of germ band retraction, abd-A protein is detected in the mesoderm flanking the embryonic gut, surrounding the spiricle pits, the neuroblasts near the embryonic midline and in the developing tracheal tubes. Later in development expression is detected along the ventral nerve cord, and staining is more pronounced toward the posterior of the embryo. High levels of abd-A are detected along the anterior furrow of the gut sac and along the visceral mesoderm of the gut. Following dorsal closure, abd-A protein is detected in the pericardial cells and the lateral muscle fibers around the heart, as well as in the gonadal precursor and chordotonal organs.
Possible partial loss of abd-A product observed in embryos.
abd-A product is observed in the normal domain in embryos, but the amount of antigen in A3-A7 appears slightly reduced with respect to wild type.
A reduced level of abd-A antigen is detected in abd-AMX2 mutant embryos.
The expression of abd-A is unaltered in abd-Aiab4-302 mutant embryos.
abd-A product is observed in the normal domain in embryos, but the amount of antigen in A3-A7 appears slightly reduced with respect to wild type. Ectopic abd-A expression also observed.
The anterior limit of abd-A protein is strictly parasegmental at parasegment 7. The posterior limit is less well defined. The expression is modulated within metameres with the strongest expression in the posterior compartments. In the anterior compartments there is a gradient which diminishes towards the posterior. abd-A protein is also present in the mesoderm but is out of register by one parasegment with respect to ectoderm expression and extends from parasegment 8-12. abd-A expression is observed in the ectoderm, the tracheal tree, the ventral nerve cord, the visceral mesoderm and the amnioserosa. Embryos homozygous for Df(3R)Ubx109 or Df(3R)P9 have no abd-A antigen. Ectopic expression of abd-A protein is observed in parasegments 13-15 (or subsets thereof) in several Abd-B mutants.
A reduced level of abd-A antigen is detected in abd-AP10 mutant embryos. The diminution is not uniform resulting in a gradient of antigen from almost none in A2 to higher levels in A6 and A7 segments.
No abd-A antigen is detected in mutant embryos.
abd-A protein is ectopically expressed in parasegment 6.
The expression of abd-A is unaltered in abd-Aiab4-MX4 mutant embryos.
Possible partial loss of abd-A product observed in embryos. Ectopic abd-A expression in parasegment 6.
abd-A protein is first detected at the germ band retraction stage in the visceral mesoderm of the midgut and in the ectoderm of parasegments 8-12.
abd-A protein is expressed in parasegments 7 through 13 in a segmentally repeated pattern. A gradient of the antigen is observed, with higher levels at the anterior border of the parasegments and lower levels toward the posterior. This gradient is not detected by in situ hybridization, and therefore, may be post-translationally regulated. Prominant expression is detected in the ventral nervous system.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{iab2-1.7}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{iab-2(1.7)lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{iab-2(11)lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{iab-3(11.5)lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\abd-A in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 76 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of abd-A
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 48 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of abd-A
Allele of abd-A
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of abd-A
Deletions and Duplications ( 35 )
Disrupted in
Partially duplicated in
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal segment 1 & puparium & myoblast, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 1 & puparium & myoblast, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 1 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 1 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 2 & puparium & myoblast, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 2 & puparium & myoblast, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 2 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 2 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 3 & puparium & myoblast, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 3 & puparium & myoblast, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 3 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 3 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 4 & puparium & myoblast, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 4 & puparium & myoblast, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 4 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 4 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 5 & puparium & myoblast | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
abdominal segment 5 & puparium & myoblast | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4NP5169
abdominal segment 5 & puparium & myofibril, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
chordotonal organ & embryonic abdominal segment 2
chordotonal organ & embryonic abdominal segment 3
chordotonal organ & embryonic abdominal segment 4
chordotonal organ & embryonic abdominal segment 5
chordotonal organ & embryonic abdominal segment 6
chordotonal organ & embryonic abdominal segment 7
dendrite & dendritic arborising neuron, with Scer\GAL4ppk.PG
denticle belt & abdominal segment 9, with Scer\GAL469B
embryonic abdominal segment 1 & somatic muscle, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
embryonic abdominal segment 2 & external sensory organ
embryonic abdominal segment 3 & external sensory organ
embryonic abdominal segment 4 & external sensory organ
embryonic abdominal segment 5 & external sensory organ
embryonic abdominal segment 6 & external sensory organ
embryonic abdominal segment 7 & external sensory organ
embryonic neuroblast & abdominal segment
embryonic thoracic segment & somatic muscle, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
gonad & parasegment 10
gonad & parasegment 11
gonad & parasegment 12
larval abdomen & neuroblast
parasegment 7 & epidermis
parasegment 8 & epidermis
parasegment 9 & epidermis
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (31)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
No
 
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
 
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (36)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
No
 
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
 
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
 
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (35)
4 of 13
Yes
No
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
Yes
No
4 of 13
Yes
No
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (29)
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (37)
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190E68 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150FYK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0C7D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0N16 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G09XD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-59
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:16,807,214..16,830,049 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    89E2-89E2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}CSN5L4032 and P{EP}MESK4EP1015
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    89E3-89E4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    89E-89E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    89D-89E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    abd-A is a component of the Bithorax complex.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    3-58.8
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (19)
    Genomic Clones (30)
    cDNA Clones (37)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: abd-A CG10325
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      The iab-8 ncRNA (and not Abd-B) represses the expression of the abd-A gene in the posterior central nervous system. This repression is accomplished by two redundant mechanisms: firstly via the mir-iab-8 miRNA produced from the iab-8 transcript and secondly by a mechanism that acts only "in cis". The most likely explanation for second mechanism is that iab-8 transcription interferes with the abd-A promoter, which lies just downstream of the iab-8 poly(A) site.
      abd-A is required for instigation of neuroblast apoptosis in larvae.
      ChEST reveals this is a target of Mef2.
      RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
      A burst of abd-A expression in the postembryonic neuroblasts specifies the time at which apoptosis occurs, determining the number of progeny generated by each neuroblast.
      abd-A is necessary for the development of somatic gonadal precursors.
      "Uab" (Ultraabdominal) alleles show ectopic transcription of the "iab-2" regulatory region, which normally controls the differentiation of cells in the second abdominal segment (PS7). The ectopic transcripts are abundant in the cells of the first abdominal segment (PS6). It is not clear what site or function is affected by the ectopic transcripts.
      the spatially restricted expression and activity of abd-A appears to determines heart identity in cells of the posterior portion of the dorsal vessel.
      abd-A specifies heart cell fate in the dorsal vessel in the embryo.
      abd-A is required to confer a heart identity on cardiomyocytes in the developing embryo.
      In the antennal disc, abd-A exerts its effects by suppressing the transcription of hth and thus preventing the nuclear localisation of exd.
      Subcellular localisation of exd is regulated by the BX-C genes and each BX-C gene can prevent or reduce nuclear translocation of exd to different extents. Ubx and abd-A require exd activity for their maintenance and functions.
      Whenever a Hox gene functions as a repressor in the dpp enhancer it prevails over others that function as activators.
      abd-A is required for the development of all gonadal mesodermal cells.
      Mutants have been isolated in an EMS mutagenesis screen to identify zygotic mutations affecting germ cell migration at discrete points during embryogenesis.
      srp promotes fat body development in the embryo, while abd-A allows gonadal mesoderm to develop by repressing srp function.
      The Pc protein is not distributed homogeneously on the regulatory regions of the repressed Ubx and abd-A genes, but is highly enriched at discrete sequence elements, many of which coincide with previously mapped Pc response elements (PREs).
      Ectopic expression of Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B cause similar transformations in the appendages (antenna and wing) but different transformations in the main body axis. abd-A, and to some extent Abd-B, can form haltere-like tissue in the absence of Ubx. Although exd product affects wing development the presence of exd fails to modify the wing to haltere transformation caused by ectopic expression of either Ubx or abd-A.
      The expression pattern of a number of genes in the larval genital discs, including abd-A, has been studied to determine the segment-parasegment organisation of the genital discs.
      Despite the absence of a syncytium in C.floridanum embryos monoclonal antibodies to en, Ubx and abd-A demonstrate their cognate proteins are expressed in a conserved pattern in the post-gastrulation stages of development. The expression of the eve cognate protein is not completely conserved and lacks a pair rule phase to its expression.
      abd-A function is required for and plays a distinct role in the development of gonadal precursors. abd-A activity alone specifies the anterior gonadal precursor fate, abd-A and Abd-B act together to specify a posterior subpopulation of gonadal precursors. Proper regional identities of the gonadal precursors are required for the arrest of migration at the correct position. During late stages of gonadogenesis abd-A is required in a population of cells within parasegments 10 and 11 that partially ensheath the coalescing gonad.
      abd-A expression is controlled by gap gene activation of iab regulatory regions at the blastoderm stage, monitored by the distribution of iab transcripts along the embryo anterior posterior axis. Overall orientation not stated: abd-A- iab-4? CG10349? anon-89Ec? Abd-B-
      Pc associates with multiple sites in the bithorax complex and these sites all contain maintenance element.
      At the locations of the first and third constrictions, opa is positively regulated by Antp and abd-A respectively.
      In the absence of exd, Ubx and abd-A have equivalent roles in abdominal tergites 1-4.
      Abd-B cannot substitute for abd-A in specifying gonadal mesoderm.
      Ectopic expression of abd-A is able to rescue the early stages of gonad formation. Ectopic expression leads to the formation of ectopic gonadal tissue in the anterior segments. These cells behave like normal gonads, in that they condense with one another, but only in the abdominal segments are they colonised by pole cells.
      Breaks causing abd-A mutations on rearrangement chromosomes that break in the iab7 region induce the iab elements to switch their target promoter from Abd-B to abd-A. The iab5 element may trans-interact with abd-A similarly to the iab trans-regulation of Abd-B, and unlike the transvection effects at Ubx.
      Highly selective interactions exist between exd and certain isoforms of Ubx and with the abd-A protein.
      The transcription unit that produces the noncoding iab-4 transcript has been identified.
      A Pc-response element has been identified in an intron of abd-A.
      A 1.7kb fragment of the iab-2 regulatory region activates abd-A expression in parasegment 7. The products of Kr, hb and gt act at this enhancer. The 1.7kb fragment also causes pairing-dependent activation of a miniwhite marker in a P element.
      abd-A has no effect on the ability of Scr to direct the formation of salivary glands.
      Heat shock induced expression of mouse Hox genes in Drosophila embryos deficient for homeotic genes demonstrates that functional hierarchy is a universal property of the homeobox genes. Correlations exist between the expression patterns of the mouse Hox genes along the antero-posterior body axis of mice and the extent of their effect along the antero-posterior body axis of flies.
      The dpp gene has a visceral mesoderm-specific enhancer that is regulated by Ubx and abd-A in vivo.
      Initial distribution of abd-A product is approximately uniform within parasegments 7 to 13. Subsequent elaboration of the expression pattern results in differentiation between, as well as within, parasegments. Establishment of the original abd-A expression domain is independent of any pair-rule or segment polarity genes but most are required for the subsequent elaboration of the expression within its domain.
      Antp, Ubx, abd-A, dpp and wg are required for proper tsh expression. The control of tsh by Ubx, abd-A and probably also by Antp is mediated by secreted signalling molecules.
      Ubx and abd-A have equivalent functions in promoting the formation of particular muscle precursors in the abdominal segments, while Abd-B suppresses these same myogenic cells in the posterior region of the abdomen. Either Ubx or abd-A can override the inhibitory effect of Abd-B, when expressed in the same mesodermal cells. Homeotic cues specific to both the mesoderm and ectoderm cooperate to specify the pattern of muscle attachment sites.
      Comparisons of early development to that in other insects have revealed conservation of some aspects of development, as well as differences that may explain variations in early patterning events.
      Ubx and abd-A are required for the expression of the abdominal variant of the NB1-1 lineage.
      Homeoproteins Ubx and abd-A act through the same downstream element to differentially regulate Antp P1 promoter activity.
      Mutation in abd-A causes abnormal positioning of the chordotonal organs.
      abd-A is required for PNS development in the embryo.
      Expression of abd-A prevents dpp transcription in the whole visceral mesoderm, even when high and uniform levels of Ubx, that activate dpp, are present.
      Ectopic expression of dpp eliminates Scr and Antp expression, attenuating abd-A expression, inducing Ubx, dpp, wg and tsh expression in the visceral mesoderm and inducing lab expression in the apposing endoderm.
      The exd protein raises the DNA binding specificity of Ubx and abd-A protein, but not that of Abd-B.
      30 common binding sites for Ubx and abd-A product have been identified in the Antp P2 promoter. Different mechanisms of repression of Antp by Ubx and abd-A product operate in different tissues.
      trx exerts its effects by positively regulating homeotic gene expression, but Ubx, Antp, abd-A, Abd-B, Scr and Dfd have different tissue-specific, parasegment-specific and promoter-specific reductions in expression in a trx mutant background.
      Pattern of adult muscle precursors characteristic of embryonic thorax can be converted to abdominal pattern by ectopic mesodermal expression of abd-A, demonstrating an autonomous role for abd-A in mesodermal patterning.
      abd-A is capable of binding to a consensus en binding site.
      The bithorax complex genes are regulated by the Pc group of genes, acting via 'Pc group response elements' (PREs), that can work even when removed from the normal the bithorax complex context.
      Mcb region chromatin structure contains distinct chromatin structures that display similarities to the scs and scs' structures of the Hsp70A locus and are constitutive. Deletion analysis demonstrates that the DNA segment required for Mcb function contains 1 major hypersensitive region and 3 minor nuclease hypersensitive regions.
      The expression of 412 in the gonadal mesoderm depends on abd-A and Abd-B.
      Mutations of the iab4 allele group of abd-A transform epidermal structures of parasegment 9 and cause loss of gonads in adult flies. The gonadless phenotype of iab4 mutant can be rescued by nuclear transplantation with wild-type nuclei, marked with an Hsp70:lacZ transgene.
      Different homeotic genes have specific local effects on Dfd expression.
      Mutants of abd-A exhibit ectopic paired lateral dots in the abdominal segments of the larval CNS. Two copies of abd-A are required for the complete suppression of lateral dots in segments A2 through to A4 and in some but not all alleles other elements of the bithorax complex (iab-3 and iab-4) act in trans on the abd-A+ gene to increase its rate of transcription or processing in A3 and A4. This would result in higher level of lateral dot suppression in the corresponding segments.
      abd-A is a member of the bithorax complex. The bithorax complex is a gene cluster that functions to assign unique identities to body segments in the abdomen and posterior thorax. Most, perhaps all, the bithorax complex functions are expressed within parasegments, metameric units composed of the posterior compartment of one segment and the anterior compartment of another. Complementation studies indicate that the bithorax complex is organized into three large functionally integrated regions, known as the Ultrabithorax (Ubx), abdominal-A (abd-A), and Abdominal-B (Abd-B) domains. The abd-A domain functions primarily to assign identities to parasegments 7 to 13.
      Null abd-A alleles are recessive lethal. Homozygous larvae show transformations of the ventral and dorsal setal belts of A2 through A8 toward A1. These transformations are complete in A2 through A4, but are incomplete more posteriorly. Partial Keilin's organs composed of monohairs occur variably on all segments from A1 through A7. In the adult cuticle, homozygous abd-A mitotic recombination clones are completely transformed to A1 in segments A2 through A4 and show characteristics of A1 to A4 in segments A5 to A7. Recessive mutations of abd-A belong to the 'infra-abdominal' iab2, iab3 and iab4 groups of E.B. Lewis; dominant mutations were described as 'Hyperabdominal', Hab. abd-AHab-1/+ has the third thoracic segment (T3) and first abdominal segment (A1) variably transformed toward the second abdominal segment (A2), occasionally resulting in the loss of one or both metathoracic legs and one or both halteres; an A2 type tergite and sternite appear on T3; but A1 is only weakly transformed toward A2. Strongly enhanced when mother is from stock of Df(3R)red-P93, l(3)tr1, Sb1/In(3L)P + In(3R)UbxP18, Me1 Ubx1. iab2 alleles are recessive: Adult homozygotes or hemizygotes show transformations of A2 toward A1. The known alleles cause only partial transformations. Wheeler's organs (A2 structures) are reduced or absent and A2 tergite bristles are reduced in size. These alleles do not affect the larval cuticle pattern. iab3 alleles are recessive: Hemizygote and homozygote have third, fourth, fifth and sixth abdominal segments (A3, A4, A5 and A6) transformed toward the second abdominal segment (A2). The Wheelers Organ (normally only on A2) is now partially to fully developed on A3 to A6, inclusive. Hemizygotes are viable and show a loss of gonads in both sexes. In homozygotes A1 is weakly transformed toward A2. iab4 alleles are recessive: Both the hemizygote and homozygote are viable and have a transformation of A4 toward A3 as well as a weak transformation of A5 toward A4 or A3. Gonads are absent in both sexes (or partially developed in some alleles). In some of the alleles, A2 transforms weakly to A3, especially in the homozygote.
      abd-A and Abd-B derepression by Pc mutants causes transformation of the fourth abdominal segment to a more posterior identity.
      In embryos mutant at Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B, Dll expression is derepressed in the abdominal segments.
      trx is necessary for normal levels of abd-A protein accumulation.
      Homeotic gene activity programs primordia as either discs or histoblast nests by the early extended germ band stage.
      abd-A expression is unaffected in wg mutants.
      Ubx, abd-A, dpp, wg and lab have interacting gene products involved in the induction process between the visceral mesoderm and the gut epithelium in the embryo.
      The abd-A product appears to repress the expression of Ubx whenever they appear in the same cell.
      abd-A mutant embryos show Ubx and dpp expression extended over the posterior midgut.
      abd-A acts in its proper domain in an exd mutant but the morphological consequences of abd-A expression are altered.
      Spatially restricted expression of dpp in the visceral mesoderm is regulated by the homeotic genes Ubx and abd-A. abd-A represses dpp expression in the visceral mesoderm cells of the anterior midgut. abd-A function is required for expression of wg in the visceral mesoderm posterior to dpp expressing cells.
      A regulatory element in the iab-2 region programs abd-A expression with a proper anterior limit in parasegment 7 and a regulatory element in the iab-3 region programs proper anterior limit in parasegment 8.
      The iab region is transcribed showing distinct and spatially restricted patterns of hybridisation but no transcripts are localised to specific abdominal regions. Expression patterns at blastoderm follow an antero-posterior order and suggest an initial double parasegment subdivision for the activation of the bithorax complex. Hybridising probes of genomic DNA fragments to embryonic tissue sections did not find any previously unknown transcription units.
      The position of the abd-A expression domains in the visceral mesoderm have been defined with respect to parasegment boundaries.
      The correct expression of Ubx in the visceral mesoderm is dependent both on autocatalysis and on repression by abd-A.
      Scr and en are derepressed in the absence of Pc and the bithorax complex function.