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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Abd-B
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Abdominal B
Annotation Symbol
CG11648
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000015
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Abdominal B (Abd-B) is one of the three hox genes of the bithorax complex. The product of Abd-B specifies the identity of the posterior abdominal segments, the external genitalia and the gonads. It is also involved in regulating the post-mating-response. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

AbdB, iab-7, Mcp, Fab-7, iab-6

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:16,927,212..16,972,236 [-]
Recombination map

3-59

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:16927212..16972236
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the Abd-B homeobox family. (P09087)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BITHORAX COMPLEX -
The bithorax complex (BX-C) is one of two Hox gene complexes. Hox genes encode homeodomain transcription factors. The BX-C controls the identity of the segments that contribute to the posterior thorax and each abdominal segment of the fly. (Adapted from FBrf0190304).
HOX-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
HOX-like (HOXL) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They encompass transcription factors encoded by the Hox genes of the Antennapedia and the Bithorax gene complexes and genes closely related in sequence. HOXL transcription factors are major regulators of animal development. (Adapted from FBrf0232555).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Sequence-specific transcription factor which is part of a developmental regulatory system that provides cells with specific positional identities on the anterior-posterior axis.
(UniProt, P09087)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Abd-B: Abdominal-B (I. Duncan and S. Celniker)
Heterozygotes for null alleles show weak anteriorly-directed transformations of A5, A6, and A7. In the male, this results in the presence of a tiny extra tergite in A7 and a loss of pigmentation on the A5 tergite. Heterozygotes are partially to completely sterile in both sexes, but are fertile if a duplication for the BXC [such as Dp(3;5)P5 or Dp(3;1)P68] is present. Hemizygotes and homozygotes are lethal; embryos lack posterior spiracles and filzkorper, have the ventral setal bands of A6, A7 and A8 transformed toward A5 or A4, and develop rudimentary chitinized plates in posterior A8.
iab5: infra-abdominal 5 (I. Duncan)
Hemizygotes show strong transformation of A5 toward A4, resulting in a loss of black pigment in the A5 tergite of the male. In addition, A6 may be weakly transformed toward A4. When homozygous, iab5301 causes a weak transformation of A3 toward A4 as well as a transformation of A5 to A4.
iab6: infra-abdominal 6 (I. Duncan)
Hemizygotes show strong transformations of both A5 and A6 toward A4. Males show a loss of pigment on the A5 and A6 tergites and show the development of bristles on the A6 sternite. Some alleles cause weak transformations of A4 toward A5.
iab7: infra-abdominal 7 (I. Duncan)
Hemizygotes show strong transformations of A5, A6, and A7 toward A4. In males, the A5 and A6 tergites show a loss of pigmentation and an unpigmented A4-type tergite develops in A7. Both A6 and A7 show the development of sternites with bristles. Heterozygotes show a small A7 tergite in the male. Two gain-of-function alleles recorded. iab7Spth (split thorax) heterozygotes display a longitudinal furrow in the mesothorax; iab7SGA heterozygotes causes abdominal structures to develop in the back of the head (Awad, Gausz, Gyurkovics, and Parducz, 1981, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 32: 219-28; Kuhn and Packert, 1988, Dev. Biol. 125: 8-18).
iab8: infra-abdominal 8 (I. Duncan and S. Celniker)
Hemizygous adult males show strong transformation of A5, A6, A7 toward A4. In addition, an A8 tergite develops which is half the size of a normal tergite. In these males, A5 and A6 tergites show a loss of pigmentation and an unpigmented A4-type tergite develops in A7. A6, A7, and A8 all development sternites, the first two with bristles.
iab9: infra-abdominal 9 (I. Duncan and S. Celniker)
Adult homozygotes or hemizygotes show absent or defective genitalia and analia in both sexes. Adults homozygous or heterozygous for iab965 show in addition a partial transformation of A6 toward A7. Embryos hemizygous for iab9 mutations show the development of a zone of naked cuticle and a rudimentary ninth abdominal setal belt posterior to the eighth abdominal setal belt. Posterior spiracles are absent in iab965 and iab948 hemizygotes and are defective in iab9Uab1, iab9tuh-3, and iab9Tab hemizygotes. iab965 and iab948, but not the other iab9 mutations, cause transformations of the A8 setal belt (located in anterior A8) toward A7.
Mcp: Miscadastral pigmentation (E.B. Lewis)
Mcp homozygotes have the fourth (A4) and fifth (A5) abdominal segments transformed to a state intermediate between A5 and A6. Similar, but weaker, tranformations occur in Mcp/+ heterozygotes. Mcp1 can be scored in males by dark pigmentation of the A4 tergite and in females by an effect on the orientation of the lateral bristles of the A4 tergite.
Sab: Superabdominal (E.B. Lewis)
Sab/+ adults show patchy transformations of A3 and A4 to A5. Homozygote viable and more extreme than heterozygote. Mcp1 Sab1 homozygotes show transformations of A3, A4, and A5 to a state intermediate between A5 and A6.
Tab: Transabdominal (E.B. Lewis)
Heterozygous adults have a pair of laterally disposed longitudinal stripes of tissue on the second thoracic segment (T2) probably corresponding to tissue from the dorsal sixth (A6) and/or seventh (A7) abdominal segments. These ectopic stripes of tissue are entirely black in males but only partially pigmented in females. Tab/+ flies are virtually sterile, and have a thin seventh tergite in males. Fertility is partially restored in the presence of a duplication for BXC, such as Dp(3;1)P68. When hemizygous, Tab embryos have a reduction of the posterior spiracles and filzkorper, and a tiny ninth abdominal ventral setal belt that appears as a small row of denticles posterior to the A8 setal belt.
Mc: Microcephalus
Eyes of heterozygote small or absent. Scutellars curve upward. Viability and fertility good. Homozygote usually more extreme than heterozygote but not reliably distinguishable. ale Mc homozygotes completely eyeless; fertile except when crossed to each other (Golubovsky and Zakarov, 1972, DIS 49: 112). Viability of homozygote varies from 100 down to 40%. RK1A.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Abd-B or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Abd-B for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Double stop-codon suppression (UGA, UAG) postulated; FBrf0216884.

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 6.04

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083382
3078
270
FBtr0083384
4415
493
FBtr0083381
3251
270
FBtr0083383
3260
270
FBtr0083385
3701
270
FBtr0330709
3260
323
FBtr0346764
3260
286
FBtr0415463
4870
493
FBtr0415464
3715
270
FBtr0415465
8184
270
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

7.8, 4.7, 4.3, 3.7, 3.3 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082824
30.3
270
10.04
FBpp0082826
55.1
493
9.54
FBpp0082823
30.3
270
10.04
FBpp0082825
30.3
270
10.04
FBpp0089276
30.3
270
10.04
FBpp0303552
35.8
323
9.65
FBpp0312359
31.9
286
9.92
FBpp0373669
55.1
493
9.54
FBpp0373670
30.3
270
10.04
FBpp0373671
30.3
270
10.04
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

493 aa isoforms: Abd-B-PB, Abd-B-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

55, 30 (kD)

491 (aa); 54, 36 (kD)

Comments

The ABD-BI protein corresponds to ABD-BII with a large N-terminal extension; the two proteins contain the same homeodomain. There are two strong transcriptional activation domains in the common part of the two proteins. The ABD-BI-specific exon contains additional transcriptional activation potential, although it is a weaker transcriptional activator than the ABD-BII, apparently due to inhibitory sequences in the ABD-BI-specific exon.

ABD-BI corresponds to ABD-BII with a large N-terminal extension; the two proteins contain the same homeodomain. There are two strong transcriptional activation domains in the common part of the two proteins. The ABD-BI-specific exon contains additional transcriptional activation potential, although it is a weaker transcriptional activator than the ABD-BII, apparently due to inhibitory sequences in the ABD-BI-specific exon.

Antibodies that recognize both the 272aa and 493aa Abd-B proteins were made.

Antibodies that recognize both the 272aa and 493aa Abd-B proteins were made as well as an antibody specific to the 493aa form of the protein.

The antibody reported in

this paper recognizes both the Abd-B-m and Abd-B-r proteins.

The expression pattern is a composite pattern for the ABD-BI and ABD-BII proteins.

The expression pattern is a composite pattern for the ABD-BI and ABD-BII proteins. The Abd-B protein homeodomain is no more than 55% identical to any other Drosophila homeodomain.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Abd-B using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (38 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (33 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (22 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 4-10 hr AEL

in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
larval abdominal segment 8 of female genital disc

Comment: pattern is specific to transcript Abd-B-RB

larval abdominal segment 8 of male genital disc

Comment: pattern is specific to transcript Abd-B-RB

larval abdominal segment 9 of female genital disc

Comment: pattern is specific to transcripts Abd-B-RA, Abd-B-RC, Abd-B-RD, Abd-B-RE

larval abdominal segment 9 of male genital disc

Comment: pattern is specific to transcripts Abd-B-RA, Abd-B-RC, Abd-B-RD, Abd-B-RE

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 10-13 hr AEL

Comment: reference states 4-7 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

Abd-B-RB transcript (coding for Abd-B m protein isoform) is expressed in segment 8 of the male and female genital discs. Abd-B-RA, Abd-B-RC, Abd-B-RD, and Abd-B-RE transcripts (coding for Abd-B r protein isoform) are expressed in segment 9 of male and female genital discs.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

abd-A is expressed in the NB5-6A lineage starting at embryonic stage 11 in segments A7-A9.

Abd-B protein is detected in embryonic nuclear extracts.

At embryonic stage 15, Abd-B protein is expressed in two lateral anterior clusters of 6-7 cells in the genital disc, where it colocalizes with hdc, but is absent from the posterior cluster of hdc-expressing cells.

The Abd-B protein is expressed in a subset of the nuclei of larval fat body cells with an anterior boundary of A4 and a posterior limit of A8. Specific labeling of polytene chromosome bands by Abd-B antisera can be mapped from nuclei accumulating this protein.

Protein is detected in the posterior most section of the embryonic dorsal vessel in 3 pairs of cardioblasts.

Abd-B protein is expressed in SL-2 cells.

The 272aa Abd-B protein is present in parasegment 14. Mutants affecting "r" function have greatly reduced levels of protein in parasegment 14.

The level of protein is highest in parasegment 13 at stage 12 and is high in parasegments 11-13 at later stages.

The Abd-B protein is first detected in stage 10 embryos in the anterior region of parasegment 15, parasegment 14 and the posterior region of parasegment 13. By stage 11, the anterior boundary of Abd-B expression is expanded into parasegment 11, and expression is detected mainly in the visceral mesoderm of parasegments 11-13. By stage 13 of embryogenesis, the anterior boarder of expression is extended into parasegment 10 of the ectoderm.

Abd-B protein is expressed in the embryo starting in stage 8. It is detected in the ectoderm and mesoderm of parasegments 13-15 and in the mesoderm of parasegments 11 and 12. It is strongly expressed in the CNS at germband retraction. CNS staining is strongest in parasegment 14 and diminishes in parasegments 12 and 13. It is also expressed in Malpighian tubules, in visceral mesoderm, in cells surrounding the posterior spiracles, and in the proctodeal primordium. In Pc embryos, Abd-B protein can be detected in the ectoderm and neuromeres of all segments.

Abd-B protein is expressed in the embryo starting in stage 8. It is detected in the ectoderm and mesoderm of parasegments 13-15 and in the mesoderm of parasegments 11 and 12. It is strongly expressed in the CNS at germband retraction. CNS staining is strongest in parasegment 14 and diminishes in parasegments 12 and 13. It is also expressed in Malpighian tubules, in the visceral mesoderm, in cells surrounding the posterior spiracles, and in the proctodeal primordium. In Pc embryos, Abd-B protein can be detected in the ectoderm and neuromeres of all segments. No labeling is observed in Abd-B-@ embryos.

Abd-B protein is first detected at germ band retraction stage in the midgut and hindgut visceral mesoderm and the ectoderm of parasegments 11-15.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: M{Abd-B-Gal4.Bm}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{bluetail}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}Abd-BLDN
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
genital disc | restricted

Comment: reflects Abd-B-RB transcript.

Reporter: PBac{D5-Gal4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Abd-B in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 208 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Abd-B
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Abd-B
Deletions and Duplications ( 55 )
Partially duplicated in
Disrupted in
Not duplicated in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal tergite 5 & trichome (with Df(3R)Abd-BS10)
adult cuticle & abdominal segment 3 | male
adult cuticle & abdominal segment 4 | male
embryonic peripheral nervous system & embryonic abdominal segment 8
scutum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4C-765
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (32)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
 
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (30)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (26)
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (18)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (37)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190F6X )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150EQJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0I9J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0ID3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0TNY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (19)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
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    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
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    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
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    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
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    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
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    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
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    3-59

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    Sequence location
    3R:16,927,212..16,972,236 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
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    Evidence for location
    89E4-89E5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}CSN5L4032 and P{EP}MESK4EP1015
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    89E7-89E8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    89E1-89E8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    89E1-89E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    89E1-89E4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    89E-89E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Abd-B is a component of the Bithorax complex.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Abd-B maps closer to Ubx than to fl.

    Abd-B does not map between Sb and Ubx.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (44)
    Genomic Clones (37)
    cDNA Clones (37)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
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      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
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        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
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        Source for merge of: Abd-B CG10291

        Additional comments

        Recessive mutations of Abd-B belong to the iab5, iab6, iab7, iab8 and iab9 groups of E.B. Lewis. Dominant mutations have been described as Miscadastral pigmentation (Mcp), Superabdominal (Sab) and Transabdominal (Tab).

        Other Comments

        Haploinsufficient locus.

        Abd-B does not repress the expression of the abd-A gene in the posterior central nervous system.

        The Abd-B protein directly activates the y gene.

        Abd-B is required for the allocation of cells to the male and female genital disc primordia.

        Abd-B is necessary and sufficient for specification of the male-specific somatic gonadal precursor cells.

        Abd-B represses cardiogenesis.

        Abd-B divides the primordium of the posterior spiracle into two cell populations that develop using distinct morphogenetic mechanisms into the spiracular chamber and the stigmatophore.

        P-element insertions containing the Mcp-element and mediating pairing sensitive silencing of w expression are subject to long distance silencing interactions with other similar inserts. This occurs in cis or in trans. This effect is strongest between nearest neighbours, and weakens as the distance between the partners increase. Addition of more than two elements does not interfere with the silencing effect. The long distance regulatory activity of the Mcp element can be enhanced by placing it in a mini-w transgene which is flanked by scs and scs'.

        Whenever a Hox gene functions as a repressor in the dpp enhancer it prevails over others that function as activators.

        Genetic evidence demonstrates that lin is required for the function of the Abd-B protein, but not for the function of other Hox genes. In mutant embryos Abd-B protein expression is normal but incapable of promoting its normal functions: formation of the posterior spiracle and specification of the eighth abdominal denticle belt.

        Abd-B is required for a subset of somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) to maintain their identity and to maintain their association with germ cells.

        Mutants are isolated in an EMS mutagenesis screen to identify zygotic mutations affecting germ cell migration at discrete points during embryogenesis: mutants exhibit germ cell migration defects.

        The IAB5 enhancer element (which interacts with the Abd-B promoter in vivo) preferentially activates TATA-containing promoters when challenged with linked TATA-less promoters.

        Abd-B MCP725 element is a silencer that functions throughout proliferation of the imaginal discs. MCP725-mediated silencing requires the Pc and Pcl proteins (it is likely that other members of the PcG also interact with the MCP725 silencer).

        The Fab-7 region can be subdivided into a chromatin domain boundary and a Polycomb-response element.

        Psc and ph-p/ph-d proteins are associated with 3' region of Abd-B.

        Abd-B is one of a class of genes with TATA-less promoters that have a subset of the conserved DPE sequence.

        Ectopic expression of Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B cause similar transformations in the appendages (antenna and wing) but different transformations in the main body axis. abd-A, and to some extent Abd-B, can form haltere-like tissue in the absence of Ubx.

        The expression pattern of a number of genes in the larval genital discs, including Abd-B, has been studied to determine the segment-parasegment organisation of the genital discs.

        Abd-B function is required for and plays a distinct role in the development of gonadal precursors. abd-A and Abd-B act together to specify a posterior subpopulation of gonadal precursors. Proper regional identities of the gonadal precursors are required for the arrest of migration at the correct position.

        Abd-B expression is controlled by gap gene activation of iab regulatory regions at the blastoderm stage, monitored by the distribution of iab transcripts along the embryo anterior posterior axis. Overall orientation not stated: abd-A- iab-4? CG10349? anon-89Ec? Abd-B-

        Abd-B cannot substitute for abd-A in specifying gonadal mesoderm.

        Ectopic expression of Abd-B blocks the formation of gonad primordium.

        The iab6 and iab7 elements can regulate Abd-B in trans. This regulation is insensitive to rearrangements that disrupt transvection effects at the nearby Ubx locus. A transposed Abd-B transcription unit and promoter on the Y chromosome can be activated by iab elements on the third chromosome. Breaks causing abd-A mutations on rearrangement chromosomes that break in the iab7 region induce the iab elements to switch their target promoter from Abd-B to abd-A.

        The iab-5, iab-6 and iab-7 regulatory regions of Abd-B can promote fifth and sixth abdominal segment identities in the absence of an Abd-B gene in cis, by acting on the Abd-B gene in trans. The interaction is proximity-dependent and is an example of transvection. This transvection is independent of local synapsis, and is remarkably difficult to disrupt by heterozygosity for chromosome rearrangements. This suggests that the iab-5,6,7 region can locate and interact with Abd-B over considerable distances. The ability of iab-5,6,7 to act in trans requires the presence of a relatively small region located between distal iab-7 and Abd-B. The iab-5,6,7 region transvection is independent of the allelic state of z.

        The organisation of the tail region of the embryo is documented from studies of cuticular markers enabling a more direct comparison between homologous structures on the embryo and larval cuticle.

        The role of Fab-7 as a boundary element may be restricted to particular tissues in which the homeotic genes are active.

        The Fab-7 element shows an orientation-dependent silencing of w+mC but this silencing varies between different insertion lines.

        Salivary gland induction by Scr in the last abdominal segment is limited by Abd-B.

        Heat shock induced expression of mouse Hox genes in Drosophila embryos deficient for homeotic genes demonstrates that functional hierarchy is a universal property of the homeobox genes. Correlations exist between the expression patterns of the mouse Hox genes along the antero-posterior body axis of mice and the extent of their effect along the antero-posterior body axis of flies.

        Abd-B protein homeodomain regions binds preferentially to a sequence within an unusual core, which differs from the binding sequence of Antp, Ubx and Dfd. N-terminal amino acid differences are responsible for the sequence specificity difference between Abd-B and Ubx.

        Binding sites for the GAGA factor encoded by Trl are found in the cis-regulatory region specific for the iab6 region of Abd-B.

        Characterisation of Mcp mutation maps the sequences required for Mcp function to a DNA segment of about 0.4kb. The sequence and chromatin organisation of Fab-7 and Mcp have been compared.

        Ubx and abd-A have equivalent functions in promoting the formation of particular muscle precursors in the abdominal segments, while Abd-B suppresses these same myogenic cells in the posterior region of the abdomen. Either Ubx or abd-A can override the inhibitory effect of Abd-B, when expressed in the same mesodermal cells. Homeotic cues specific to both the mesoderm and ectoderm cooperate to specify the pattern of muscle attachment sites.

        Inactivation of Abd-B is not accompanied by substantial change in the accessibility of the chromatin fibre.

        The exd protein raises the DNA binding specificity of Ubx and abd-A protein, but not that of Abd-B.

        trx exerts its effects by positively regulating homeotic gene expression, but Ubx, Antp, abd-A, Abd-B, Scr and Dfd have different tissue-specific, parasegment-specific and promoter-specific reductions in expression in a trx mutant background.

        The 3' flanking region of Abd-B includes three silencer regulatory regions, IAB5, MCP and Fab-7, whose function is dependent on segmentation gene products. hb may have a role in early anterior Abd-B repression and is required to promoter silencing, and Kr is necessary to define the anterior limit of Abd-B expression and to promote silencing in the middle region of the embryo. The kni repressor may be responsible for the graded expression of Abd-B protein within the embryonic Abd-B domain.

        Sperm transfer defect.

        The 3' regulatory region of Abd-B may be based on reiterated cell type specific elements controlled by adjacent position-sensitive activating elements. The gradient of Abd-B expression normally observed in the posterior abdomen appears to be achieved by varying the number of reiterated elements that are active in each segment.

        The expression of the P{bluetail} insertion into the PS12-specific regulatory domain in Abd-Bblt allows dissection of the neighboring cis-regulatory region into independent domains.

        An insulating boundary element in the 'Fab7' region is characterized by an unusual chromatin structure.

        Boundary elements in the bithorax complex, such as Fab-7 organize the parasegment specific cis-regulatory sub-regions into a series of autonomous domains, insulating each domain from the regulatory influences of the adjacent ones.

        ems is a downstream gene that is transcriptionally regulated by Abd-B gene products.

        Genetic epistasis tests suggest that both ems and Abd-B gene products are required in combination for the specification of the filzkorper primordia.

        Abd-B is capable of binding to a consensus en binding site.

        Maternal effects alter r transcript accumulation in Abd-Biab9-tuh-3 embryos.

        Head defect penetrance of Abd-Biab9-tuh-3 (in transheterozygotes with Abd-B alleles) increases with Abd-B m function and genital defects result from loss of Abd-B r function.

        Fab-7 and Mcp region chromatin structure contain distinct chromatin structures that display similarities to the scs and scs' structures of the Hsp70A locus, and are constitutive. Deletion analysis demonstrates that the DNA segment required for Fab-7 function contains 3 nuclease hypersensitive regions and that for Mcp function contains 1 major hypersensitive region and 3 minor nuclease hypersensitive regions.

        The expression of 412 in the gonadal mesoderm depends on abd-A and Abd-B.

        Different homeotic genes have specific local effects on Dfd expression.

        Abd-B plays a role in the organisation of the caudal segments.

        The Abd-B m and r proteins have similar activities and the presence/absence of another factor(s) in PS14 or PS15 affects Abd-B r activity.

        The gene products of Abd-B and Ubx compete for the specification of segmental identities in a dose-dependent fashion, supporting a quantitative competition model rather than strict functional hierarchy for their cross-regulatory interactions.

        Abd-B is a member of the bithorax complex. The bithorax complex is a gene cluster that functions to assign unique identities to body segments in the abdomen and posterior thorax. Most, perhaps all, the bithorax complex functions are expressed within parasegments, metameric units composed of the posterior compartment of one segment and the anterior compartment of another. Complementation studies indicate that the bithorax complex is organized into three large functionally integrated regions, known as the Ultrabithorax (Ubx), abdominal-A (abd-A), and Abdominal-B (Abd-B) domains. The Abd-B domain functions primarily to assign identities to parasegments 10 to 14.

        Heterozygotes for null alleles show weak anteriorly-directed transformations of A5, A6 and A7. In the male, this results in the presence of a tiny extra tergite in A7 and a loss of pigmentation on the A5 tergite. Heterozygotes are partially to completely sterile in both sexes, but are fertile if a duplication for the BXC (such as Dp(3;3)P5 or Dp(3;1)P68) is present. Hemizygotes and homozygotes are lethal; embryos lack posterior spiracles and filzkorper, have the ventral setal bands of A6, A7 and A8 transformed toward A5 or A4 and develop rudimentary chitinized plates in posterior A8. iab5 alleles are recessive: Hemizygotes show strong transformation of A5 toward A4, resulting in a loss of black pigment in the A5 tergite of the male. In addition, A6 may be weakly transformed toward A4. When homozygous, Abd-Biab5-301 causes a weak transformation of A3 toward A4 as well as a transformation of A5 to A4. iab6 alleles are recessive: Hemizygotes show strong transformations of both A5 and A6 toward A4. Males show a loss of pigment on the A5 and A6 tergites and show the development of bristles on the A6 sternite. Some alleles cause weak transformations of A4 toward A5. iab7 alleles are recessive: Hemizygotes show strong transformations of A5, A6 and A7 toward A4. In males, the A5 and A6 tergites show a loss of pigmentation and an unpigmented A4-type tergite develops in A7. Both A6 and A7 show the development of sternites with bristles. Heterozygotes show a small A7 tergite in the male. Two gain-of-function alleles recorded. Abd-Biab7-Spth (split thorax) heterozygotes display a longitudinal furrow in the mesothorax; Abd-Biab7-SGA heterozygotes causes abdominal structures to develop in the back of the head. iab8 alleles are recessive: Hemizygous adult males show strong transformation of A5, A6, A7 toward A4. In addition, an A8 tergite develops which is half the size of a normal tergite. In these males, A5 and A6 tergites show a loss of pigmentation and an unpigmented A4-type tergite develops in A7. A6, A7 and A8 all develop sternites, the first two with bristles. iab9 alleles are recessive except for one allele: Adult homozygotes or hemizygotes show absent or defective genitalia and analia in both sexes. Adults homozygous or heterozygous for Abd-Biab9-65 show in addition a partial transformation of A6 toward A7. Embryos hemizygous for iab9 mutations show the development of a zone of naked cuticle and a rudimentary ninth abdominal setal belt posterior to the eighth abdominal setal belt. Posterior spiracles are absent in Abd-Biab9-65 and Abd-Biab9-48 hemizygotes and are defective in Abd-BUab-1, Abd-Biab9-tuh-3 and Abd-Biab8-rv107 hemizygotes. Abd-Biab9-65 and Abd-Biab9-48, but not the other iab9 mutations, cause transformations of the A8 setal belt (located in anterior A8) toward A7. Mcp homozygotes have the fourth (A4) and fifth (A5) abdominal segments transformed to a state intermediate between A5 and A6. Similar, but weaker, transformations occur in Mcp/+ heterozygotes. Abd-BMcp-1 can be scored in males by dark pigmentation of the A4 tergite and in females by an effect on the orientation of the lateral bristles of the A4 tergite. Abd-BSab-1/+ adults show patchy transformations of A3 and A4 to A5. Homozygote viable and more extreme than heterozygote. Abd-BMcp-1 Abd-BSab-1 homozygotes show transformations of A3, A4 and A5 to a state intermediate between A5 and A6.

        Abd-B expression is strongly derepressed in esc mutants.

        abd-A and Abd-B derepression by Pc mutants causes transformation of the fourth abdominal segment to a more posterior identity.

        In embryos mutant at Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B, Dll expression is derepressed in the abdominal segments.

        Abd-B consists of two distinct elements: a morphogenetic (m) function in parasegments 10-13 and a regulatory (r) function in parasegment 14.

        Abd-B r protein is present throughout development and m protein is detected after germ band extension.

        Abd-B has two genetic elements m and r that are required in parasegments 10--13 and parasegment 14 respectively.

        The iab5, iab6 and iab7 classes of Abd-B alleles fail to complement m mutations but complement r.

        Abd-B is expressed throughout the body in Pc- embryos.

        Homeotic gene activity programs primordia as either discs or histoblast nests by the early extended germ band stage.

        The presence of the Abd-B r protein suppresses the function of the protein encoded by Ubxhs.PG.

        The substitution of the Abd-B homeodomain for that of Dfd results in a protein that differs from the Dfd protein at only 30 residues so providing a different spectrum of regulatory targets. Heat shocked embryos carrying the chimeric gene exhibit ectopic expression of Abd-B in parasegments 9--12.

        High levels of Abd-B product are required to down-regulate abd-A gene expression. Abd-B has two distinct functions, m and r. The m function is specific to parasegments 10, 11, 12 and 13, r function to 14 and 15.

        Abd-B acts in its proper domain in an exd mutant but the morphological consequences of Abd-B expression are altered.

        Abd-B r protein expression demonstrates that r function is required for normal morphogenesis of the larval epidermis.

        The iab region is transcribed showing distinct and spatially restricted patterns of hybridisation but no transcripts are localised to specific abdominal regions. Expression patterns at blastoderm follow an antero-posterior order and suggest an initial double parasegment subdivision for the activation of the bithorax complex. Hybridising probes of genomic DNA fragments to embryonic tissue sections did not find any previously unknown transcription units.

        The position of the Abd-B expression domains in the visceral mesoderm have been defined with respect to parasegment boundaries.

        Scr and en are derepressed in the absence of Pc and the bithorax complex function.

        In the absence of the bithorax complex genes, Pc- clones develop prothoracic patterns: Scr activity overrules Antp. Adding contributions of Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B results in thoracic or abdominal patterns.

        Kr, kni and hb play an important role in the initiation of homeotic gene expression in early development: mutations strongly alter the early patterns of Antp and Abd-B expression.

        The expression patterns of different Abd-B RNAs can be divided into two groups which correspond to anatomical domains defined by two classes of mutations in Abd-B.

        A transcript (pH189) encoding a small homeoprotein that may provide Abd-B r element function has been identified.

        Recessive Mcp group mutations of Abd-B have been isolated as revertants and partial revertants of dominant gain-of-function Abd-B alleles.

        Embryos lacking Abd-B develop into larvae in which abdominal segments 5-8 appear to develop like the normal 4th abdominal segment, indicating a transformation of parasegments 10-13 into parasegment 9. This phenotype is extended to several head segments as well as the thoracic and abdominal segments when the embryos are also mutant for esc. Embryos lacking both abd-A and Abd-B develop into first instar larvae in which all eight abdominal segments appear to be composites of the anterior compartment of A1 and the posterior compartment of T3. Embryos also mutant for esc show this same pattern in a head segment, the cryptic ninth abdominal segment and the three thoracic segments, as well as the other abdominal segments.

        Abd-Biab7-SGA heterozygotes causes abdominal structures to develop in the back of the head.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 90 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies