General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ac
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
achaete
Annotation Symbol
CG3796
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000022
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Achaete is a BHLH transcription factor that interacts antagonistically with the Notch signaling pathway to promote neural precursor formation. Its major role is in nervous system development. [Date last reviewed: 2016-09-01]
Also Known As
Hw, T5, AS-C T5, EG:125H10 .3, ASC
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:370,031..370,947 [+]
Recombination map
1-0
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
AS-C proteins are involved in the determination of the neuronal precursors in the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system.
(UniProt, P10083)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ac: achaete
thumb
ac: achaete
From Bridges and Brehme, 1944, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 552: 12.
ac specifies the formation of the anterior and posterior dorsocentral, the posterior supra-alar (as does sc), the anterior vertical bristle, and in addition the acrostichal rows of microchaetae on the notum. Absence of bristles accompanied by absence of associated socket and underlying centrally projecting neuron (Stern, 1938, Genetics 23: 172-73). In addition mutant alleles of ac tend to remove the interocellar hairs and the hairs on the surface of the eye and a restricted subset of the campaniform sensilla on the wing blade (Leyns, Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1989, Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 198: 227-32). Trichomes are not affected. ac deficiencies, e.g., In(1)y3PLsc8R, survive as fully mobile and fertile adults (Garcia-Bellido, 1979, Genetics 90: 491-529). A series of terminal deficiencies approaching the ac coding sequence from the left a few hundred base pairs at a time, when tested in heterozygotes with In(1)y3PLsc8R or Df(1)sc19, cause, with few exceptions, progressive loss of chaetae as the amount of deleted material increases; response of anterior verticals erratic. First effects of deficiencies noted with chromosomes broken 10 kb upstream of the transcription start site. Despite loss of most of the DNA upstream from the transcribed region, the phenotypes associated with these deletions still suppressed by emc and h (Ruiz-Gomez and Modolell, 1987, Genes Dev. 1: 1238-46). Deficiencies for ac act as suppressors of h (Sturtevant, 1970, Dev. Biol. 21: 48-63), whereas extra doses of ac+ enhance expression of h (Moscoso del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1984, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 193: 242-51). Longitudinal stripes of expression on either side of the midline during gastrulation become internalized and segmented into four longitudinal rows of clusters of expressing cells at half-segment intervals. ac RNA undetectable in germ band at time of germ-band shortening. Several regions of high expression seen in cephalic region. Also expressed in posterior midgut rudiment (Romani, Campuzano, and Modolell, 1987, EMBO J. 6: 2085-92; Cabrera, Martinez-Arias, and Bate, 1987, Cell 50: 425-33). In third-instar larvae, expression in wing imaginal disks restricted to regions where precursors of cuticular organs specified by ac are known to reside (Romani, Campuzano, Macagno, and Modolell, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 997-1007).
ac1
Hypomorphic; phenotype of homozygous females weaker than in hemizygous females (Garcia-Bellido, 1979, Genetics 91: 491-520). Posterior dorsocentral bristles missing; also posterior supra-alar and anterior vertical bristles frequently missing. Anterior dorsocentrals displaced anteriorly (Claxton, 1969, Genetics 63: 883-96). Garcia-Bellido (1979) finds anterior dorsocentral bristles more strongly decreased than posterior dorsocentrals. Hairs usually fewer near position of posterior dorsocentrals; interocellar hairs invariably fewer, typically absent. Eyes partly devoid of hairs. Trichomes unaffected. Limited nonautonomy near the borders of somatic spots with respect both to numbers and positions of bristles and hairs (Stern, 1954, Am. Sci. 42: 212-47; Roberts, 1961, Genetics 46: 1241-43; Claxton, 1976, Genet. Res. 27: 11-22). ac partially suppresses h; Hw/ac = Hw/+ (Sturtevant, 1969).
*ac2
Since ac2 and sc3 were for practical purposes inseparable by crossing over, the effect of ac2 alone could not be assessed. The double mutant removed all bristles except scutellars and postdorsocentrals. ac2/ac2 and ac2/+ suppress h (Sturtevant). Viability of males low; females nearly inviable. RK2.
ac3
Posterior and usually anterior dorsocentrals lacking; other bristles wild type. Hairs removed from areas across rear and front edges of thorax, through mid-dorsal area, and between ocelli. ac3 even in ac3/+ heterozygotes exerts strong suppression on h (Sturtevant, 1970, Dev. Biol. 21: 48-61). RK2A.
ac3B
Low level of absence of dorsocentral bristles as well as microchaetae. Bristles normally removed by sc mutations not missing.
Hw1
Males and heterozygous females have extra bristles on the head (especially occipitals), the notum and the mesopleurae; also extra bristles, including sensory ones and campaniform sensilla (Palka, Schubiger, and Hart, 1981, Nature 294: 447-49), along longitudinal veins and in membrane of wing. Classifiable in a single dose in triploids (Schultz, 1934, DIS 1: 55). Homozygous females more extreme; 110 extra chaetae on wing vs. 49.5 for Hw1/+; 11 on scutellum and postnotum vs. 0.7 in Hw/+ (Garcia-Bellido and Merriam, 1971, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 68: 2222-26). Number of extra bristles inversely correlated with temperature (Ohn and Sheldon, 1970, Genetics 66: 517-40). Hw1/Hw1 females exhibit 40-80% wildtype viability and are agametic steriles; clones of homozygous germinal cells in Hw/+ females capable of producing progeny (Garcia-Bellido and Robbins, 1983, Genetics 103: 235-47); however, Garcia-Alonzo and Garcia-Bellido claim that their strain is no longer homozygous female sterile. Viability and fertility of Hw1/Y males and Hw1/+ females good. Hw1/Hw1 and _ autonomous in somatic clones until 8 hr before puparium formation; altering cellular genotype after that time is without effect owing to perdurance (Garcia-Bellido and Merriam). X-ray-induced full and partial revertants are frequently mutant for ac (Garcia-Alonzo and Garcia-Bellido). RK1 as male or heterozygous female.
Hw2
Females homozygous for Hw2 show only occasional extra hairs along wings. Overlaps wild type. RK3A.
Hw49c
More extreme than Hw1. Homozygous female has doubling and tripling of many bristles, three or four extra dorsocentral bristles per side, extra wing veins, gap in posterior crossvein, and extra hairs on vein L2 and in wing cells. Width of mesonotum in region between dorsocentral bristles increased leading to increased numbers of acrostichal rows as well as extraneous extra microchaetae (Gottlieb, 1964, Genetics 49: 739-60); many lack one or more ocellar or postvertical macrochaetae (Stoddard, 1972, DIS 48: 137-38). Heterozygous female has normal bristles, extra hairs on L2 and L3 and in wing cells, and often an extra free vein from posterior crossvein; also extra acrostichal rows. Hw49c male much like homozygous female but bristle duplication less extreme. Low degree of non autonomy reported at junction between Hw49c/Hw49c and +/+ twin spots (Gottlieb). Male and heterozygous female fertile; homozygous female sterile. Revertants of Hw49c lose their dominant phenotypes; however they remain sc and may exhibit a weak ac phenotype or be lethal in combination with Df(1)sc19 (Garcia-Alonzo and Garcia-Bellido). Not suppressed by su(Hw). Hw49c and Oce act synergistically in removing head bristles but cancel each others effects on thorax in Hw/Oce females (Stoddard). ac, sc, and l(1)sc transcripts considerably more abundant than in wild type; also more generally expressed in wing disks than normal (Balcells et al.). RK1.
Hw685
Df(1)Hw685/Df(1)sc19 generates lateral clusters of microchaetae on the scutellum and promotes differentiation of extra sensilla campaniformia on the dorsal radius of the wing, of microchaetae or other sensilla on wing vein 3, and occasional microchaetae on wing vein 2. Slight increases in numbers of microchaetae on notum as well. Displays a very weak achaete effect despite presumed homozygous deficiency for ac.
Hwbap: Hairy wing-bristly abdominal pleura
Nearly all abdominal segments have on the pleurae two rows of bristles, which are the same size as those on the sternites. Mutant-bearing flies have a row of bristles arising immediately posterior to each pigment band that are shorter than other tergite bristles.
HwBS
Spontaneous derivation of Hw1 with slightly weaker phenotype.
Hw: Hairy wing
thumb
Hw: Hairy wing
Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Gain of function alleles of ASC, which lead to the development of supernumerary bristles and hairs in all segments of the fly: in the prefrons, postfrons, postgena, and occipital regions of the head; in the preepisternum, episternum, anepisternum, scutum, scutellum, postnotum, wingblade, legs, humerus, and halteres of the thorax; and in the tergites, pleura, and sternites of the abdomen. Phenotype suppressed by three doses of h+ (Botas, Moscoso del Prado, and Garcia-Bellido, 1982, EMBO J. 1: 307-10) and enhanced by h, emc, and pyd (Neel, 1941, Genetics 26: 52-58; Moscoso del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1984, Wilhelm Roux's Arch Dev. Biol. 193: 242-45). Numbers of super numerary bristles reduced in da+ hemizygotes (Dambly-Chaudiere, Ghysen, Jan and Jan, 1988, Roux's Arch Dev. Biol. 97: 419-23).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ac or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ac for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Supported by strand-specific RNA-Seq data.
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070072
917
201
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.1, 0.9 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070071
22.8
201
7.72
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
23 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein.
(UniProt, P10083)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ac using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (26 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:l(1)sc; FB:FBgn0002561
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:l(1)sc; FB:FBgn0002561
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ventral nerve cord primordium

Comment: reported as ventral nerve cord anlage

radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The first wave of ac expression occurs at embryonic stage 7 in 12-16 clusters of cells arranged on either side of the ventral midline. During stage 8, the clusters appear to split and expression is observed in a second row of clusters so that by the end of stage 8 there are 4 ac-expressing clusters per hemisegment, each containing 4-6 ectodermal cells. Then one cell begins to accumulate higher ac levels and delaminates from the ectoderm. The delaminated neuroblast continues to express high levels of ac RNA while the remaining ectodermal cells no longer express ac. Only a subset of the embryonic neuroblasts derive from ac RNA-expressing cells. A second round of ac transcript expression occurs in the ventral epidermis at stage 11 coincident with the third round of neuroblast segregation. ac transcripts are also expressed in the lateral ectoderm from the beginning of stage 10 until mid stage 11. ac-expressing cells from the first two clusters of ac expression give rise to SMCs that are precursors to the multiply innervated sense organs. Other ac-expressing SMCs give rise to a mapped set of sensory organs.
ac transcripts first accumulate in late stage 8 embryos in a segmentally repeated pattern of two medial and two lateral clusters of 5-7 ectodermal cells per hemisegment. One cell per cluster, the future neuroblast, comes to express ac most intensely and delaminates toward the interior of the embryo. The remaining cells in the ectodermal cluster lose ac expression. Expression of ac transcripts in the neuroblast ceases after it has delaminated from the ectoderm and before it begins dividing. In mutants of N, Dl, bib, neur, and E(spl), most to all cells of the cluster retain high level ac expression.
ac transcripts are present in proneural clusters prior to the emergence of SMCs. Expression continues as the SMC develops and is higher in the SMC than the surrounding cells.
ac trancripts are expressed in clusters of cells in the wing imaginal disc. The locations of the clusters coincides well with the pattern of sensory organ precursors.
ac transcripts are observed in the early gastrula in a striped pattern (one stripe per metamere) in the presumptive neurectoderm. Between stages 8 and 9, the pattern changes to two stripes per metamere. Later ac is expressed in the segregating neuroblasts but not in the remaining ectodermal cells. ac expression declines in neuroblasts at stage 9 as they start dividing. This pattern repeats itself as additional cells in the ectodermal layer express ac. Expression continues in cells that become neuroblasts and shuts off in cells that remain ectodermal. ac transcripts are also observed in cephalic neuroblasts and in the posterior midgut. In subsequent stages, ac transcripts disappear from the metameric germ band and are seen only in the primordia for the stomatogastric nervous system and the optic lobes.
ac and sc transcripts are detected in a dynamic pattern from blastoderm (sc) or gastrula (ac) through stage 11 embryos. They are present in clusters of cells on the ectoderm and internally near the mesoderm. They are expressed in most neurogenic regions. Their expression patterns are very similar except in stage 9 where sc is barely detectable and ac is expressed in four longitudinal rows of clusters.
The level of unmodified ac transcripts in acHw-1, scHw-Ua, and acHw-BS third instar larvae and pupae is the same as in Oregon R.
acHw-BS transcripts have a bimodal developmental profile with peaks of expression in 0-12hr embryos and 0-1 day pupae. acHw-BS transcripts in acHw-BS larvae and pupae are 5-20 times more abundant than ac transcripts in wild type larvae and pupae.
acHw-1 transcripts have a bimodal developmental profile with peaks of expression in 0-12hr embryos and 0-1 day pupae. acHw-1 transcripts in acHw-1 larvae and pupae are 5-20 times more abundant than ac transcripts in wild type larvae and pupae. A 200-fold reduction in acHw-1 transcript levels is observed in acHw-1+R1 revertants relative to the parent acHw-1. In FBal0000169:ac<up>Hw-1+R3< /up> revertants, the level of FBal0000167:ac<up>Hw-1< /up> transcripts is reduced less drastically and in FBal0000170:ac<up>Hw-1+R5< /up> revertants, it is reduced only 1.5 to 2-fold. FBal0000167:ac<up>Hw-1< /up> transcript levels are reduced 2- to 3-fold in the presence of FBgn0003567:su (Hw)@ in third instar larvae and pupae and are unchanged at earlier stages.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ac is expressed in the dorsal-proximal region of leg discs and is limited to the region of overlap between ss and al expression. Expression is observed from third instar at least until early pupal stages.
ac protein is expressed in the sensory mother cells along the dorsal/ventral compartment boundary of the wing disc.
ac protein is expressed in anterior compartment cells adjacent to wg expression at the dorsal/ventral compartment boundary in wing discs.
Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: deuterocerebrum - d2, d3, d8, v6; protocerebrum - ad1, ad4, cd3, cd6, cd8, cd9, cd15, cd16, cd19, cd21, cv3, cv7, cv9, pd11, pv2
In stages 8-11 ac and l(1)sc proteins are expressed in a dynamic pattern in the procephalic neurectoderm in a largely complementary pattern. By stage 8 l(1)sc protein is detected in a large central domain and as development proceeds the area of protein expression increases. The first proto and deuterocerebral neuroblasts develop from this area. About 60% of all neuroblasts formed until stage 11 express l(1)sc. In stage 8 ac expression is detected in a small dorsal ocular and antennal group of cells. In stage 9 ac expression expands to several large domains in the neuroectoderm.
Expression of ac and sc in ectopic sensilla of h and acHw* mutants was followed with antibody staining. The pattern of expression of ac and sc prefigures the pattern of both ectopic and normal sensilla.
The ac protein is expressed in a specified subset of neuroblasts in embryonic stages 8-11. (see also FBrf 55911)
ac protein first accumulates in late stage 8 embryos in a segmentally repeated pattern of two medial and two lateral clusters of 5-7 ectodermal cells per hemisegment. One cell per cluster, the future neuroblast, comes to express ac most intensely and delaminates toward the interior of the embryo. The remaining cells in the ectodermal cluster lose ac protein expression. Expression of ac protein in the neuroblast ceases after it has delaminated from the ectoderm and before it begins dividing. In mutants of N, Dl, bib, neur, and E(spl), most to all cells of the cluster retain ac protein expression at high levels.
ac protein is localized within nuclei of proneural clusters. Clusters grow in number and intensity of staining until the sensory organ mother cell (SMC) becomes discernable due to its more intensely stained nucleus. The ac protein disappears shortly before the SMC undergoes its first differential division.
ac protein expression occurs in clusters of cells from which SMCs will arise. It is transiently expressed in the SMCs, often at greater levels than the surrounding cells of the proneural cluster, but not in their progeny. In sc mutants, ac protein expression is missing in the notal cells that give rise to sc-dependent machrochaetes. In emc mutants, ectopic ac protein expression occurs in single cells of the notum that will give rise to ectopic sensory organs. In h mutants ectopic ac protein expression occurs in regions of the imaginal wing blade that will give rise to ectopic sensory organs. Ectopic h expression represses ac expression. An acHw-49c mutation causes overexpression of ac protein.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{0.8ac-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{3.8ac-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ac-lacZ.101H10}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}acsbm
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZac.101R3.2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ac in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 25 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 19 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ac
Allele of ac
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ac
characterization construct
Name
Expression Data
GAL4 construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 147 )
Disrupted in
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult thorax & microchaeta
macrochaeta & abdominal tergite
macrochaeta & leg
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta | ectopic
microchaeta & leg
microchaeta & mesothoracic pleurum
microchaeta & mesothoracic tergum | supernumerary
microchaeta & pleural membrane
microchaeta & scutellum
microchaeta & scutum
microchaeta & wing
sense organ & wing vein
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc
wing & nerve
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
6 of 13
Yes
No
5 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
2 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
7 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (14)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HGD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150B1R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0JED )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0JIR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein.
    (UniProt, P10083 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-0
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:370,031..370,947 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    1A6-1A6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG17896EP1320&P{EP}EP1398 and P{EP}svrEP356&P{EP}argEP452
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    1B1-1B5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (71)
    Genomic Clones (8)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (15)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for identity of: ac CG3796
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        Activation of genes in the 1A locus is temporally in an order following chromosomal position, such that ac, then yar and then y is transcribed.
        The promoter region of ac contains three E-boxes and an S-box. Although each E-box contributes to the wild-type level of transcription, E1 is more important than E2 and E3. When the S-box is mutated, even the presence of E1 or E2 sites alone is enough to mediate sens-proneural synergism.
        chn and ac/sc appear to form a mutually autostimulatory loop that enhances accumulation of ac/sc protein in the proneural clusters of the notum macrochaetae.
        pnr directly activates the proneural ac and sc genes by binding to the enhancers responsible for their expression in the dorsocentral proneural cluster. wg has only a permissive role on dorsocentral ac-sc expression.
        Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.
        The wg product induces G2 arrest in two subdomains of the developing wing margin by inducing ac and sc, which down-regulate stg.
        In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
        E(spl) proteins normally mediate lateral inhibition by directly repressing proneural gene expression.
        The regulatory relationship between the N-Dl signalling pathway and the proneural genes ac and sc during early microchaetae development is assayed.
        Specification of the precursor cells of the olfactory sense organs of the third antennal segment is not governed by the genes of the ac-sc complex.
        The bHLH domains of the gene products encoded by the E(spl)-C and the achaete-scute complex differ in their ability to form homo- and/or heterodimers. The interactions established through the bHLH link the products of the two complexes in a single interaction network which may function to ensure that a given cell retains the capacity to choose between epidermoblast and neuroblast fates until the cell becomes definitively determined.
        ac-sc mutants are epistatic over E(spl)-C mutants.
        Loss of function mutations of H and the achaete-scute complex are epistatic to Brd.
        Mutations show weak interactions with high and low selection lines, abdominal and sternopleural bristle numbers are affected. Results suggest ac is in the same genetic pathway as bristle number quantitative trait loci (QTL).
        All proneural proteins are similarly able to promote the segregation of a neural precursor at the MP2 neuroblast position but show distinct capacities in its specification.
        lawc gene may encode a factor determining the specific expression of the ac-sc genes.
        The presence of ac and sc contribute to the neural precursor identity of MP2. The function of l(1)sc is not interchangable with that of ac or sc within the MP2, specification of MP2 is similar in embryos lacking ac/sc compared with those lacking ac/sc plus ectopic l(1)sc expression.
        The expression pattern of proneural genes of the achaete-scute complex and neurogenic genes of the E(spl)-C are examined in the procephlon and a map of the cells is constructed.
        E(spl)-complex bHLH proteins interact with proneural proteins, with members of the E(spl) family exhibiting distinct preferences for different proneural proteins.
        cas, eve, unpg and ac are expressed in specific neuroblast sublineages. Expression studies using pbl and stg mutants suggest that neuroblasts have an intrinsic gene regulatory hierarchy controlling unpg and ac expression but that cell cycle- or cytokinesis-dependent mechanisms are required for cas and eve CNS expression.
        A 900bp ac promoter fragment can be activated by binding of activators to three E-boxes and repressed via binding of h. The repression domain of h has mapped to a region containing the carboxyl terminus of the protein, this region is both necessary and sufficient for the repression of the ac promoter.
        Loss of function mutations in the achaete-scute complex lead to a significant reduction in sensory bristles and glial cells. Neurogenesis and gliogenesis share the same genetic pathway, though the mechanism of action of the the achaete-scute complex is different in the two processes. Gliogenesis may be induced by the presence of sensory organ cells, either the precursor or its progeny.
        The highly complex pattern of proneural clusters is constructed piecemeal by the action of site-specific enhancer like elements on ac and sc. These elements are distributed along most of the achaete-scute complex. The cross-activation between ac and sc does not occur detectably between the endogenous ac and sc genes in most proneural clusters. Coexpression is accomplished by activation of both ac and sc by the same set of position-specific enhancers.
        The somatogastric nervous system is defined by expression of genes of the ac-sc complex in response to the maternal terminal pattern forming system.
        Hvul\ASH functionally complements Df(1)sc10-1 mutants (AS-C mutant background).
        Examination of the ac expression and the sensory mother cell arrangement in N mutations demonstrates that processes of cellular and molecular interactions mediated by N gene products are responsible for the establishment of stripes of ac expression.
        Ectopic expression does not affect the viability of either sex, but it does rescue the female lethality caused by ectopic expression of h.
        ac-sc complex genes are expressed in neuronal precursor cells, so expressed ventrally in insects and vertebrate homologs are expressed dorsally. This situation is thought to have evolved due to an inversion of the dorsoventral axis. The inversion occurred during early chordate evolution, the chordates turned upside down and henceforth were carrying the nerve cord on their dorsal side.
        emc forms heterodimers with the ac, sc, l(1)sc, and da products. emc inhibits DNA-binding of ac, sc and l(1)sc/da heterodimers and da homodimers.
        The gene products of ac, sc and l(1)sc together with vnd act synergistically to specify the neuroectodermal E(spl) and HLHm5 expression.
        Proneural gene products (ac, da and l(1)sc) activate transcription of Dl in the neuroectoderm by binding to specific sites within its promoter. This transcriptional activation enhances lateral inhibition and helps ensure that cells in the vicinity of prospective neuroblasts will themselves become epidermoblasts.
        DNaseI footprinting analysis of bacterially expressed E(spl) and HLHm5 demonstrates the gene products can bind as homo- and heterodimers to a sequence in the promoters of the E(spl) and ac genes, called the N-box, which differs slightly from the consensus binding site for other bHLH proteins.
        h binds to DNA, preferably at a noncanonical site, and has a novel DNA binding activity. Mutation of a single h binding site in ac blocks h mediated repression of ac transcription in culture cells and creates ectopic sensory hair organs in vivo. Results indicate that h represses sensory organ formation by directly repressing transcription of the ac gene.
        Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that Brd, sca, m4, HLHm7 and E(spl) are directly activated in proneural clusters of the late third-instar wing imaginal disc by protein complexes that include the ac and sc bHLH proteins.
        vnd controls neuroblast formation, in part, through its regulation of the proneural genes of the ac-sc complex. vnd controls proneural gene expression at two distinct steps during neuroblast formation through separable regulatory regions.
        In vivo ac is a direct downstream target of h regulation. Direct repression of ac by h plays an essential role in pattern formation in the CNS.
        At the DNA sequence level D.melanogaster populations from Zimbabwe are more than twice as variable as populations from U.S.A. Most variants are not shared between the two geographic regions and areas of low recombination rates have mutations that are nearly fixed.
        The ectopic expression of an ase DNA binding domain bypasses the requirement for ac and sc in the formation of the imaginal sense organs.
        The ato gene was identified in a PCR screen for genes sharing features with the basic helix loop helix domains of the achaete-scute genes.
        Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate that regulation of ac requires E-boxes present in its promoter. emc down regulates the ac promoter. Modified emc can interfere with the binding of proneural proteins to an ac E-box.
        Regulation of the h and ac expression patterns partitions the leg epidermis into striped zones that correspond to the pattern of longitudinal rows of leg bristles.
        Ectopic expression shows that ac displays weak but significant feminizing activity.
        Human achaete and scute homolog, hASH1 has been identified and is highly expressed in neuroendocrine tumors.
        Mutants associated with lesions in the zinc finger domain of pnr show overexpression of ac and sc and the development of extra neural precursors. Mutations in the putative amphipathic helices of pnr act as hyperactive repressor molecules causing a loss of ac and sc expression and a loss of neural precursors.
        The specific combination of achaete-scute complex genes expressed at one site does not play a role in defining the fate of the progenitor cell that is formed at that site. Individual sense organs depend mostly or exclusively on one of the achaete-scute complex genes because the cis-regulatory sites active at the corresponding location act mostly or exclusively on that particular gene.
        In embryos deficient for the achaete-scute complex (Df(1)sc-B57), cpo expression is abolished in most cells of the PNS, but cpo pattern in CNS glia and gut is unaffected.
        Df(1)sc-B57 (deleted for ac and sc) mutants express normal levels of dpn in their reduced number of neuroblasts.
        Enhancer trap lines were used to follow the development of ectopic sensillar precursors in wings of h and Hairy-wing ac mutants: ectopic sensilla appear correlated with ectopic achaete and scute expression. Results suggest that both h and ac act to induce the formation of temporally and spatially distinct phase of sensillar development.
        Expression analysed in CNS study of neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells.
        A 2.2 kb region including the ac, sc and y genes in D.simulans has been sequenced and interspecific and intraspecific divergence calculated with D.melanogaster. The level of heterozygosity in the y-ac-sc region exceeds that in the Adh 5' flanking region: the silent divergence is not reduced compared to other regions so the reduction in levels of variation can only be explained by a hitchhiking effect of linked selected substitutions.
        In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical inspection of embryos demonstrated that the ac RNA and protein patterns are identical. ac protein distribution in embryos mutant for N, Dl, E(spl), bib and neu show ac expression is not restricted to a single cell of an ectodermal cell cluster, as for wild type, instead most cells of the cluster retain ac expression at a high level, enlarge, delaminate and become neuroblasts. Neurogenic genes silence proneural gene expression within the non segregating cells of the ectodermal cell cluster, allowing epidermal development.
        In the embryo, ac and sc are expressed coincidentally, at reproducible anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral coordinates, in clusters from which neuroblasts will arise. The AP and DV position is regulated through a common regulatory element between ac and sc that is under the control of pair rule, segment polarity and DV patterning genes.
        Sensory mother cells arise from clusters of mitotically quiescent cells identified by BrdU immunolabelling to monitor mitotic activity: the cell that becomes the sensory mother cell was arrested at the G2 stage of the cell cycle. Emergence of mitotically quiescent cells follows precise temporal and spatial pattern and is not affected by ac or sc mutations.
        Direct, positive transcriptional autoregulation by the ac protein and cross-regulation by sc are essential for high level expression of the ac promoter in the proneural cluster. Auto-activation of ac is important for the bristle-promoting function of the ac gene. These auto- and cross-regulatory activities are antagonized in a dose-dependent manner by the emc gene product. In cotransfection studies the highest levels of ac expression are achieved when a combination of ac and da or sc expression vectors are present in the cotransfection mixture. Proper expression of ac-lacZ in flies depends on da/ac-sc DNA binding sites.
        In vitro DNA binding assays using gel retardation to an ac promoter region and hb zygotic promoter region target sequence demonstrates that da protein elicits a weak homodimeric binding and da/ac or da/sc heterodimers bind tightly.
        Genetic mosaic analysis of cells with different doses of ac demonstrates that the levels of the gene product determine SMC formation and maintenance.
        Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs have been used to examine the ac expression pattern. Results indicate that expression of ac stimulates expression of sc, and visa versa, therefore removal of one gene leads to the absence of both proneural gene products and sensory organs in the sites specificed by it cis-regulatory sequences.
        Heteroduplex analysis has revealed ac and sc sequences are preferentially conserved in Dvir\ac and Dvir\sc and D.melanogaster ac and sc.
        DNA sequence analysis reveals four E box binding sites, for the binding of hetero-oligomeric complexes composed of da or the achaete-scute complex proteins, in the first 877 bp of the ac upstream region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the emc protein can specifically antagonise DNA binding of the da/the achaete-scute complexes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, h and E(spl) proteins fail to exhibit this inhibitory effect.
        The function of ac, sc and l(1)sc are required for the normal development of the neuroblasts and absence of the genes causes neuroectodermal cells to enter the epidermal pathway of development.
        Ectopic expression of ac has no effect on sex determination.
        Neither ac nor sc is required to specify the type of sense organ and the sense organ position utilises topological information independent of ac and sc gene products.
        Loss-of-function mutants cause loss of specific clusters of bristles, while gain-of-function mutants cause the appearance of ectopic bristles.
        Analysis of flies deficient for the sc and/or ac genes shows that the complete pattern of campaniform sensilla on the wing results from the superimposition of two independent subpatterns, one of which depends on sc, the other on ac.
        The ac and sc gene products are required for the spatial positioning of sensory organs in late third instar larval wing discs. ac and sc are expressed in the same regions where part of the sensory organ precursors are differentiating and the expansion of the area of ac and sc expression causes ectopic expression of sensory organs. h and emc do not modify the ac/sc patterns of expression in the wing disc.
        ac could be a direct target of h.
        Sequence analysis reveals that ac, sc and l(1)sc transcription units share highly conserved acidic and basic domains in their protein coding regions. The basic domain of the ac, sc and l(1)sc proteins show similarity to the vertebrate myc and MyoD proteins.
        Wing phenotypes were investigated in the Hw class of ac mutant alleles.
        Transcripts of ac, sc and l(1)sc accumulate at the blastoderm stage in periodic patterns within the neuroectoderm. Subsequent expression is in partially overlapping patterns that correlate with the segregation of the neuroblasts.
        The achaete-scute complex defines the basic topology of the sense organ pattern, rather than the type or precise location of the elements. The achaete-scute complex is an essential component of es and nd neuron development. ac is sufficient for the development of Class A neurons. The ac function can to some extent be substituted by sc and possibly l(1)sc.
        The patterns of expression of ac, sc and l(1)sc are complex and evolve rapidly, affecting most if not all the known neurogenic regions. Gene expression precedes and is concomitant with the histological appearance of precursors of neural cells. The achaete-scute complex plays a role in determination and early differentiation of embryonic neural cells.
        The interactions between h, emc and the ASC have been studied to determine their relationships.
        An increase of ac doses in h- homozygous flies produces an increase in microchaetae density on the notum and wing. Above a maximum dose more doses of ac cause a reduction in microchaetae density in the notum but increase on the wing.
        A member of the achaete-scute complex (ASC) ac specifies the formation of the anterior and posterior dorsocentral, the posterior supra-alar (as does sc), the anterior vertical bristle and in addition the acrostichal rows of microchaetae on the notum. Absence of bristles accompanied by absence of associated socket and underlying centrally projecting neuron (Stern, 1938). In addition mutant alleles of ac tend to remove the interocellar hairs and the hairs on the surface of the eye and a restricted subset of the campaniform sensilla on the wing blade (Leyns, Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1989). Trichomes are not affected. ac deficiencies, e.g., In(1)y3PLsc8R, survive as fully mobile and fertile adults (Garcia-Bellido, 1979). A series of terminal deficiencies approaching the ac coding sequence from the left a few hundred base pairs at a time, when tested in heterozygotes with In(1)y3PLsc8R or Df(1)sc19, cause, with few exceptions, progressive loss of chaetae as the amount of deleted material increases; response of anterior verticals erratic. First effects of deficiencies noted with chromosomes broken 10 kb upstream of the transcription start site. Despite loss of most of the DNA upstream from the transcribed region, the phenotypes associated with these deletions still suppressed by emc and h (Ruiz-Gomez and Modolell, 1987). Deficiencies for ac act as suppressors of h (Sturtevant, 1970), whereas extra doses of ac+ enhance expression of h (del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1984). Longitudinal stripes of expression on either side of the midline during gastrulation become internalized and segmented into four longitudinal rows of clusters of expressing cells at half-segment intervals. ac RNA undetectable in germ band at time of germ-band shortening. Several regions of high expression seen in cephalic region. Also expressed in posterior midgut rudiment (Romani, Campuzano and Modolell, 1987; Cabrera, Martinez-Arias and Bate, 1987). In third instar larvae, expression in wing imaginal discs restricted to regions where precursors of cuticular organs specified by ac are known to reside (Romani, Campuzano, Macagno and Modolell, 1989). Alleles of the Hw series are gain of function alleles of the achaete-scute complex, which lead to the development of supernumerary bristles and hairs in all segments of the fly: in the prefrons, postfrons, postgena, and occipital regions of the head; in the preepisternum, episternum, anepisternum, scutum, scutellum, postnotum, wingblade, legs, humerus and halteres of the thorax; and in the tergites, pleura and sternites of the abdomen. Phenotype suppressed by three doses of h+ (Botas, del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1982) and enhanced by h, emc and pyd (Neel, 1941; del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1984). Numbers of super numerary bristles reduced in da+ hemizygotes (Dambly-Chaudiere, Ghysen, Jan and Jan, 1988).
        Origin and Etymology
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        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 29 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        ac
        (Baker and Brown, 2018, Tomoyasu, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Kallsen et al., 2015, Ugrankar et al., 2015, Amcheslavsky et al., 2014, Ciglar et al., 2014, Hsiao et al., 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Shen et al., 2013, Kunz et al., 2012, Powell et al., 2012, Abed et al., 2011, Cave et al., 2011, Chatterjee et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, Johnson et al., 2011, Stagg et al., 2011, Yamasaki et al., 2011, Ayyar et al., 2010, Barad et al., 2010, de Navascués and Modolell, 2010, Popodi et al., 2010-, Rouault et al., 2010, Sousa-Neves and Rosas, 2010, Venken et al., 2010, Kunert et al., 2009, Kuzin et al., 2009, Parks and Muskavitch, 2009.2.4, Schaaf et al., 2009, Wheeler et al., 2009, Biryukova and Heitzler, 2008, Carrera et al., 2008, Cave and Caudy, 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.6.11, Golovnin et al., 2008, Kaspar et al., 2008, Moores et al., 2008, Morey et al., 2008, Pi et al., 2008, Soshnev et al., 2008, Tsubota et al., 2008, Usui et al., 2008, Yasugi et al., 2008, Zeng et al., 2008, Zenvirt et al., 2008, Asmar et al., 2007, Biryukova et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Lee et al., 2007, Li et al., 2007, Shroff and Orenic, 2007, Shroff et al., 2007, Takeuchi et al., 2007, Von Ohlen et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Acar et al., 2006, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2006, Joshi et al., 2006, Marcellini and Simpson, 2006, Simpson et al., 2006, Yamasaki and Nishida, 2006, Hoskins et al., 2005, Reeves and Posakony, 2005, Schlatter and Maier, 2005, Brodsky et al., 2004, Frankfort et al., 2004, Gim et al., 2001, Gonzalez-Gaitan and Jackle, 2000, Lee et al., 1999, Levine et al., 1997, Mari-Beffa et al., 1991)
        sc/T5
        Name Synonyms
        Hairy-wing
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
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          References (780)