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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Act88F
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Actin 88F
Annotation Symbol
CG5178
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000047
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
actin, Arthrin, F-actin, E
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:15,439,969..15,442,177 [+]
Recombination map
3-57
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the actin family. (P83967)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ACTINS -
Actins are highly conserved eukaryotic filament-forming proteins that are major components of the cytoskeleton. Actin polymerisation is controlled by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Actins are involved in various cell processes including cell movement, muscle contraction, cell trafficking and mechanical support. (Adapted from PMID:21859859).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells. Required for proper formation of indirect flight muscle (IFM) myofibrils. Multiple isoforms are involved in various cellular functions such as cytoskeleton structure, cell mobility, chromosome movement and muscle contraction.
(UniProt, P83967)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Act88F
Structural gene encoding actin III; expressed only in the developing thorax, specifically in the indirect flight muscles (Fyrberg, Mahaffey, Bond, and Davidson, 1983, Cell 33: 115-23; Hiromi and Hotta, 1985, EMBO J. 4: 1681-87). The only actin expressed in indirect flight muscle (Fyrberg). Heterozygotes for null mutations or Act88F deficiencies are flightless; flightlessness is apparently caused by imbalance between myosin heavy chains and actin III; whereas hemizygosity for either Mhc or Act88F leads to complex myofibrillar defects and flightlessness, double hemizygotes have nearly normal fibrillar structure and are able to fly [Beall, Sepanski, and Fyrberg, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 131-40 (fig.)]. Major peaks of transcription during pupal stage (Sanchez et al., 1983). Heterozygotes and to a greater degree, homozygotes and heteroallelic heterozygotes for antimorphic alleles Act88F4 and Act88F5 show constitutive synthesis of heat-shock proteins, with HSP26 and HSP27 less actively synthesized than HSP22, HSP70, and HSP84; response to heat shock normal (Hiromi and Hotta).
Act88F4
Dominant flightless allele; actin III replaced by a truncated polypeptide of 42 kd that is stable and capable of incorporation into myofibrils; actin II reduced in homozygotes (Hiromi and Hotta, 1985). Myofibrils in indirect flight muscles of homozygotes severely deranged; sarcomere structure obliterated; indirect-flight-muscle nuclei enlarged. Skeins of morphologically normal but highly disorgainzed thick filaments present, but Z discs absent. Thin filaments scarce. Electron dense material of unknown origin seen in sections. Wild-type flies transformed with cloned Act4 sequence produces both the 42-kd and the heat-shock proteins (Hiromi, Okamoto, Gehring, and Hotta, 1986, Cell 44: 293-301).
Act88F5
Produces half normal amount of actin isoform III; shows increased synthesis of actin I, normally present in only trace amounts in indirect flight muscle. Indirect-flight-muscle nuclei enlarged and myofibrils disrupted. Heterozygotes flightless.
Act88F6
Actin III entirely absent from indirect flight muscle in homozygotes; levels of actin II also reduced.
Act88F7
Actin III replaced by a truncated polypeptide of 38 kd; its low concentrations on gels suggests high instability (Hiromi and Hotta, 1985).
Act88F8
Studied only in combination with rsd at 95.4 on chromosome 3; not examined in rsd+ background. Wings of homozygotes held straight up, nearly meeting over thorax; heterozygotes have wings held normally, but are nearly flightless. Electron microscropy of homozygotes reveals grossly abnormal indirect-flight-muscle structure; lack thin filaments and Z discs (Deak, Bellamy, Bienz, Dubuis, Fenner, Gollin, Rahmi, Ramp, Reinhardt, and Cotton, 1982, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 69: 61-81). Abnormal protein accumulation observed in thoraces. Actin III and its ubiquinated derivative, arthrin, absent in Act88F8 homozygotes (Lang et al.); six other polypeptides, including an indirect-flight-muscle tropomyosin isoform and two indirect-flight-muscle tropomyosin-related isoforms, markedly reduced. Homozygotes transformed with Act88F+ show restoration to approximately normal levels of the six reduced polypeptides. Accumulation of actin III and arthrin still negative, however; the latter attributed to the failure of post-translational modification in the presence of homozygous rsd. Viability and fertility normal.
Ifm(3)5, Ifm(3)6
Homozygotes for Ifm(3)5 and Ifm(3)6 display characteristic departures from wild-type protein patterns in two-dimensional gels (Mogami and Hotta, 1981). Ifm(3)5 homozygotes lack myofibrils; Ifm(3)6 homozygotes have opaque strings of myofibrils. Both mutants are flightless as heterozygotes. The myofibrils of Ifm(3)6 heterozygotes are frayed.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Act88F or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Act88F for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083143
1595
376
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.77 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082597
41.7
376
5.15
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Oxidation of Met-45 by Mical to form methionine sulfoxide promotes actin filament depolymerization. Methionine sulfoxide is produced stereospecifically, but it is not known whether the (S)-S-oxide or the (R)-S-oxide is produced.
(UniProt, P83967)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Act88F using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (5 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002631617
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000232995
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Act88F transcripts are detected only in pupae on northern blots. No labelling of specific structures in embyros is observed with Act88F probes.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Actn protein can be detected in scattered aggregates dispersed in the cytoplasm of muscle cell precursors as early at 30 hrs APF. By 48 hours Actn, along with other myofibrillar proteins, have organized into Z-bands.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Act88F:GFP}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Act88F-GAL4.1.3}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Act88F-GAL4.B}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Act88F-GAL4.D}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Act88F-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Act88F in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 37 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 61 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Act88F
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Act88F
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
indirect flight muscle & muscle tendon junction
indirect flight muscle & nucleus
indirect flight muscle & striated muscle thick filament
indirect flight muscle & striated muscle thin filament
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (30)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
No
Yes
 
 
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
 
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (22)
7 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
Yes
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
5 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (8)
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (12)
8 of 9
Yes
No
8 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
No
No
7 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
No
7 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
11 of 15
Yes
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
9 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909BS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915055R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05GN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X05CQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08LD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (14)
7 of 10
7 of 10
7 of 10
7 of 10
7 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 11 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 7 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map
3-57
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:15,439,969..15,442,177 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
88F5-88F5
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}MRG15j6A3 and P{PZ}l(3)0653606536
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
88F-88F
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
88E4-88F9
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
3-57.1
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Mapping based on 41 cu-sr and 84 red-e recombinants.
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (10)
Genomic Clones (9)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (31)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: Act88F CG5178
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments
Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).
S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.
Expression and function of Act88F is not restricted to the IFMs. Act88F functions in the leg and uterine muscles, though to a lower level than in the IFMs.
Mutants show decreased walking ability and delayed/reduced oviposition.
In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
Age related changes in Act88F expression have been studied by Northern analysis.
Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs have been used to label larval muscle fibres. A laser microbeam is used to ablate the muscle fibres singly and in combination. The results show that the persistent larval muscle fibres are not required to initiate the fusion of imaginal myoblasts, to indicate the correct placement of the resulting fibers in the thorax or to designate the identity of the fibres. Persistent larval muscle fibres are required to determine the correct number of fibres formed.
Interaction of wild type and mutant actin with rabbit myosin and its proteolytic subfragments is investigated.
A modified pair of optical tweezers, transducer based, is used to compare the response of wild type and mutant actins and the fibre attachment and detachment forces.
Sequence analysis demonstrates insect muscle actins form a distinct family of closely related proteins significantly diverged from cytoplasmic actins.
Properties of mutant proteins transcribed in vitro are studied.
The effects of missense Act88F mutants on the structure and function of indirect flight muscles was examined.
Combined in vitro and in vivo studies are used to investigate the relationship between amino acid sequence and function for the specificity of Act88F. Act88F protein expressed in vitro and in vivo binds to DNaseI with equal affinity and are able to copolymerise with bulk rabbit actin equally well. Unprocessed actins are less able to copolymerize with bulk actins. Results suggest that individual actins do interact, even in nonpolymerizing conditions. The reduced ability of unprocessed actin to polymerize shows that correct post-translational modification of the N terminus is required for normal actin function.
Translation of actin RNA in early embryos injected with initiation factors has been studied.
Myofibril degeneration is not the primary cause of anomalous heat shock gene activation by mutant actins.
Genetic analysis of muscle contraction using the indirect flight muscles of D.melanogaster.
In vitro mutagenesis was performed on Act88F to generate mutations that can assemble into virtually normal myofibrils.
An equivalent mutation found in human β-actin was constructed in Act88F to investigate the nature of the mutation in vivo. The mutation caused defects in the actin molecule that could be visualized as a disturbance of the filament lattice.
Myofibrillar assembly was investigated using null mutations of Act88F and Mhc.
Expressed only in the indirect flight muscles. Act88F mutant flight muscle has an unusual configuration of myosin crossbridges under EM.
Alleles of up show intracistronic non-complementation with the "raised" allele, Act88F8.
Encodes the indirect flight muscle actin (FBrf0038990; FBrf0042420). Haplo-insufficient; heterozygotes for null mutations or Act88F deficiencies are flightless; flightlessness is apparently caused by imbalance between myosin heavy chains and Act88F protein; whereas hemizygosity for either Mhc or Act88F leads to complex myofibrillar defects and flightlessness, double hemizygotes have nearly normal fibrillar structure and are able to fly (FBrf0049803). Heterozygotes and to a greater degree, homozygotes and heteroallelic heterozygotes for antimorphic alleles Act88F4 and Act88F5 show constitutive synthesis of heat-shock proteins, with Hsp26 and Hsp27 less actively synthesized than Hsp22, Hsp70 and Hsp83; response to heat shock normal (FBrf0042420).
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 66 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Act88-F
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (294)