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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Gart
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
GART trifunctional enzyme
Annotation Symbol
CG31628
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000053
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (2.1.2.2)
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase (6.3.3.1)
Phosphoribosylamine--glycine ligase (6.3.4.13)
Gene Snapshot
GART trifunctional enzyme (Gart) encodes a multifunctional enzyme that exhibits phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase and phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase activities. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-12]
Also Known As
ade3, adenosine 3
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:7,014,623..7,023,898 [-]
Recombination map
2-24
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
10-formyltetrahydrofolate + N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide = tetrahydrofolate + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide (2.1.2.2)
ATP + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine = ADP + phosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole (6.3.3.1)
ATP + 5-phospho-D-ribosylamine + glycine = ADP + phosphate + N(1)- (5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide (6.3.4.13)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine = ADP + phosphate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole (6.3.3.1)
ATP + 5-phospho-D-ribosylamine + glycine = ADP + phosphate + N(1)- (5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide (6.3.4.13)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CYCLO-LIGASES -
Cyclo-ligases catalyze the joining of two groups within a single molecule via a carbon-nitrogen bond, forming a heterocyclic ring.
HYDROXYMETHYL-, FORMYL- AND RELATED TRANSFERASES -
Hydroxymethyl-, formyl- and related transferases catalyze the transfer of a hydroxymethyl- or formyl group from donor compound to another acceptor.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Trifunctional enzyme required for de novo purine biosynthesis.
(UniProt, P00967)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ade3 (S. Henikoff and D. Nash)
Purine nucleoside auxotroph supplementable with adenine, adenosine, and inosine. Recovery of ade3 progeny from crosses between ade3 and ade3/SM5 is about 1% when raised on minimal medium. Less than 3% of the normal activity purine de novo synthetic pathway enzyme, glycineamide ribotide transformylase [EC 2.1.2.2 (GART)]. Eye color normal.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Gart or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Gart for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079431
4480
1353
FBtr0100353
1556
434
FBtr0339663
4718
1353
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.7, 1.7 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0079059
144.5
1353
7.22
FBpp0099760
45.9
434
7.65
FBpp0308722
144.5
1353
7.22
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1353 aa isoforms: Gart-PA, Gart-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1353, 434 (aa)
Comments
A shorter alternative form of ade3 protein which lacks the C-terminal GAR-transformylase domain.
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Gart using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011761, InterPro:IPR013815, InterPro:IPR013816
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011761
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000055158
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000055158
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004607, InterPro:IPR004733
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000055158
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000055158
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Gart in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 1 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Gart
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Gart
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919017N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500MS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01T4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01EH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G026D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-24
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:7,014,623..7,023,898 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    27D4-27D4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}snRNP70K02107 and P{PZ}wg02657
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    27D-27D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (13)
    Genomic Clones (11)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (87)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: Gart ade3
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Renamed from 'ade3' to 'Gart' (in FB2018_01) to reflect usage in the literature and provide nomenclature consistent with the clear vertebrate ortholog (and replace existing nomenclature suggesting incorrect relationships to yeast orthologs).
    Annotation CG8761 split into CG31628 (ade3), CG31908 in release 3 of the genome annotation.
    Other Comments
    Encodes the three enzymes in the purine biosynthetic pathway, glycineamide ribotide synthetase (GARS), aminoimidazole ribotide synthetase (AIRS) and GART.
    Purine nucleoside auxotroph supplementable with adenine, adenosine and inosine. Recovery of ade3 progeny from crosses between ade31 and ade31/SM5 is about 1% when raised on minimal medium. Less than 3% of the normal activity purine de novo synthetic pathway enzyme, glycineamide ribotide transformylase (GART). Mutants, if viable, have a brownish eye colour and wing and bristle defects.
    Nucleotide excision repair of (6-4)photoproducts has been assayed in the ade3 locus of Kc (embryonic) cell line, after exposure to UV light. The ade3 locus is transcriptionally active in Kc cells, but the repair rate is the same as for the transcriptionally inactive white gene, as well as for the transcriptionally active N gene. Repair rate is enhanced with prior exposure to photoreactivating light. No strand specificity of repair is observed.
    Removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers is measured in genes ade3, N and w in two diploid immortalised cell lines (Kc and SL2) to investigate whether preferential repair forms part of DNA excision repair. Data supports the idea that preferential repair is not restricted to transcriptionally active sequences.
    The organization of the ade3 protein in Drosophila has multiple domains with GAR transformylase at the carboxyl terminus preceded by an extensive repeat.
    Enzyme assays confirm that ade3 encodes GAR transformylase.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 77 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (99)