l(2)amd, alpha methyl dopa, dopa decarboxylase
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.
464 (aa); 50.5 (kD)
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\amd using the Feature Mapper tool.
amd transcripts are first detected on the dorsal side of the embyro at stage 4 and accumulate in the anlage of the pharynx during cellularization. During stage 8, amd transcripts accumulate in the primordium of the stomodeum and in the cells of the proctodeal walls. After stage 11, transcripts are apparent in the esophagus and in the dorsal part of the pharynx. After germ band retraction, staining extends from the esophagus to the insertion of the foregut into the proventriculus. At the posterior of the embryo, high levels of staining are seen around the developing anal plates and staining is observed at the base of the developing Malphighian tubules. Expression is detected in the hypoderm starting at stage 15 as a segmentally repeating stripe on the ventral side 2-3 cells wide in the anterior of each segment. In stage 16, strong expression is observed in the hindgut, the foregut, around the anal plates, and in the tracheal tree. In larvae, expression is observed in several imaginal discs including the eye-antennal, leg and wing discs. Staining is also observed in some regions brain and ventral ganglia, in the ring gland and in the lymph glands.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\amd in GBrowse 2
Using amd1, 1/31,600 recombinants indicate that amd maps 0.006 map units to the right of hk. Failure to recover recombinants (0/59,693) between Ddc1 and amd1 suggests that the two lesions are less than 0.003 map units apart, or that one of the mutant chromosomes is suppressing recombination. One possible recombinant was obtained between Ddc5 and amd7 (out of an estimated 55,165 zygotes) indicating a 0.0036 map unit interval between Ddc5 and amd7, with amd7 to the left of Ddc5.
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
To evaluate the extent of qualitative changes in amd gene expression, patterns of expression in D.melanogaster, D.simulans and D.virilis are compared. Three general conclusions can be made. First, some functions are conserved in all three species. Second, amd expression often precedes the apparent time the function is needed. Third, completely novel patterns of amd expression can appear (or disappear) rapidly in these species in the absence of apparent function.
Located between coordinates -4.5 and -2.2.
Maturation of the vitelline membrane requires the function of amd and not the paralog Ddc. Germline clonal analysis demonstrates amd expression is required in the germline for egg production and is expressed before or during clone induction.
Encodes a protein with 38% similarity to Ddc protein; amd and Ddc are presumably the products of gene duplication. Interallelic complementation observed between mutant alleles, suggesting dimeric product.
Appears to play role in dopa metabolism to catecholamines.
amd/+ flies die when reared on levels of α methyl dopa that are not lethal to wild type; resistance proportional to the number of amd+ loci present. Adult amd/+ females fed α methyldopa become sterile and lay eggs that cannot complete embryogenesis. Dopa decarboxylase levels normal. amd homozygotes lethal; lethal phase at times of larval hatching, larval molts and pupariation; larval anal organ extruded and necrotic; pupal cuticle thin and friable.