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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\amd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
α methyl dopa-resistant
Annotation Symbol
CG10501
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000075
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
α methyl dopa-resistant (amd) encodes a carboxy-lyase involved in catecholamine metabolism. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-06]
Also Known As

l(2)amd, alpha methyl dopa

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:19,110,154..19,114,110 [+]
Recombination map

2-54

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:19110154..19114110
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the group II decarboxylase family. (P18486)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CARBOXY-LYASES -
Carboxy-lyases are involved in the the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). (Adapted from FBrf0238856).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Catalyzes both the decarboxylation and deamination of L-dopa to 3,4-dihydroxylphenylacetaldehyde (DHPAA) (PubMed:21283636). Probably responsible for the protein cross-linking during the development of flexible cuticles (PubMed:21283636). Participates in catecholamine catabolism (PubMed:21283636).
(UniProt, P18486)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
amd: alpha methyldopa hypersensitive
amd/+ flies die when reared on levels of alpha methyl dopa that are not lethal to wild type; resistance proportional to the number of amd+ loci present. Adult amd/+ females fed alpha methyldopa become sterile and lay eggs that cannot complete embryogenesis. Dopa decarboxylase levels normal. amd homozygotes lethal; lethal phase at times of larval hatching, larval molts, and pupariation; larval anal organ extruded and necrotic; pupal cuticle thin and friable. Appears to play role in cuticle formation. amd1/amd6 complementing adults deficient for one or more unidentified catecholamines involved in the colorless sclerotization of cuticle.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\amd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\amd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081154
1792
510
FBtr0081153
1749
510
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.0, 0.6 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080698
57.0
510
5.47
FBpp0080697
57.0
510
5.83
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

464 (aa); 50.5 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\amd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002129
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR010977
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

amd transcripts are first detected on the dorsal side of the embyro at stage 4 and accumulate in the anlage of the pharynx during cellularization. During stage 8, amd transcripts accumulate in the primordium of the stomodeum and in the cells of the proctodeal walls. After stage 11, transcripts are apparent in the esophagus and in the dorsal part of the pharynx. After germ band retraction, staining extends from the esophagus to the insertion of the foregut into the proventriculus. At the posterior of the embryo, high levels of staining are seen around the developing anal plates and staining is observed at the base of the developing Malphighian tubules. Expression is detected in the hypoderm starting at stage 15 as a segmentally repeating stripe on the ventral side 2-3 cells wide in the anterior of each segment. In stage 16, strong expression is observed in the hindgut, the foregut, around the anal plates, and in the tracheal tree. In larvae, expression is observed in several imaginal discs including the eye-antennal, leg and wing discs. Staining is also observed in some regions brain and ventral ganglia, in the ring gland and in the lymph glands.

2.0kb amd transcripts are first detected in 0-4 hr embryos and are at a maximum in 12-16 hr embryos. Transcripts are also detected by in situ hybridization in stage S8-S9 oocytes.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\amd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 46 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of amd
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of amd
Deletions and Duplications ( 37 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
6 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (9)
6 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
6 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (10)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
6 of 9
Yes
No
5 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906PN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504N4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05UW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02CJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03KI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (9)
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map

    2-54

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:19,110,154..19,114,110 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    37C1-37C1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)37Dbk16106&P{lacW}Catsupk05424 and P{lacW}Ddck02104
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    37C-37C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    2-53.9

    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Using amd1, 1/31,600 recombinants indicate that amd maps 0.006 map units to the right of hk. Failure to recover recombinants (0/59,693) between Ddc1 and amd1 suggests that the two lesions are less than 0.003 map units apart, or that one of the mutant chromosomes is suppressing recombination. One possible recombinant was obtained between Ddc5 and amd7 (out of an estimated 55,165 zygotes) indicating a 0.0036 map unit interval between Ddc5 and amd7, with amd7 to the left of Ddc5.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (14)
    Genomic Clones (17)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (16)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: amd CG17345

    Additional comments

    Annotations CG10501 and CG17345 merged as CG10501 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

    Other Comments

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    To evaluate the extent of qualitative changes in amd gene expression, patterns of expression in D.melanogaster, D.simulans and D.virilis are compared. Three general conclusions can be made. First, some functions are conserved in all three species. Second, amd expression often precedes the apparent time the function is needed. Third, completely novel patterns of amd expression can appear (or disappear) rapidly in these species in the absence of apparent function.

    Located between coordinates -4.5 and -2.2.

    Maturation of the vitelline membrane requires the function of amd and not the paralog Ddc. Germline clonal analysis demonstrates amd expression is required in the germline for egg production and is expressed before or during clone induction.

    Encodes a protein with 38% similarity to Ddc protein; amd and Ddc are presumably the products of gene duplication. Interallelic complementation observed between mutant alleles, suggesting dimeric product.

    Appears to play role in dopa metabolism to catecholamines.

    amd/+ flies die when reared on levels of α methyl dopa that are not lethal to wild type; resistance proportional to the number of amd+ loci present. Adult amd/+ females fed α methyldopa become sterile and lay eggs that cannot complete embryogenesis. Dopa decarboxylase levels normal. amd homozygotes lethal; lethal phase at times of larval hatching, larval molts and pupariation; larval anal organ extruded and necrotic; pupal cuticle thin and friable.

    amd is located 2kb distal to Ddc.

    The amd gene product is required for a step in the metabolism of dopa to one or more novel catecholamines involved in the colourless sclerotization of cuticle.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 47 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (110)