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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Amy-p
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Amylase proximal
Annotation Symbol
CG18730
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000079
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Alpha-amylase (3.2.1.1)
Gene Snapshot
Amylase proximal (Amy-p) encodes one of three amylases encoded in the Drosophila genome. It is a digestive enzyme required for the hydrolysis of dietary starch. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

Amy, Amylase, α-amylase, alpha-amylase proximal, AmyA

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:17,118,636..17,120,303 [-]
Recombination map

2-81

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:17118636..17120303
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (6 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Biological Process (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 13 family. (P08144)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units (3.2.1.1)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
AMYLASES -
Amylases catalyze the the hydrolysis of amylose or an amylose derivative. Amylases catalyze the the hydrolysis of amylose or an amylose derivative into sugars such as glucose and maltose.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Amy: Amylase
The structural gene for α-amylase [AMY (EC 3.2.1.1)]. A monomeric protein based on failure to form hybrid enzyme molecules of intermediate mobility in heterozygotes for alleles coding for electrophoretic variants. Activity mainly in midgut and hemolymph with smaller amounts in other tissues; activity found in anterior or posterior, or both, but not middle, region of midgut; three spatial patterns of adult posterior midgut activity encountered on standard medium; controlled by the trans-regulatory effect of map (2-80) (Abraham and Doane, 1978, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 4446-50); adult anterior midgut activity under regulation of another separable regulatory locus (Doane, 1980, DIS 55: 36-39). Larval midgut activity affected by closely linked cis-acting regulatory elements (Klarenberg, Kisser, Willemse, and Scharloo, 1986, Genetics 114: 1131-45). Amylase activity is glucose repressible (Hickey and Benkel, 1982, Biochem. Genet. 20: 1117-29); the degree of repression can be greater than one hundred fold in larvae and occurs at a pretranslational, probably transcriptional, level of regulation (Benkel and Hickey, 1985, Genetics 110: S25; 1986, Genetics 114: 137-44, 943-54; 1987, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 1337-39).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Amy-p or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Amy-p for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Apparent introns not annotated: probable artifacts due to repetitive sequence.

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087004
1595
494
FBtr0345521
1668
494
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.65 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086155
53.8
494
5.58
FBpp0311627
53.8
494
5.58
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

494 aa isoforms: Amy-p-PA, Amy-p-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Monomer.

(UniProt, P08144)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Amy-p using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
dot blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Amy-p1 transcript levels are higher in the anterior midgut than in the posterior midgut and are repressed by dietary glucose in both. The tissue specific effects of mapP alleles are restricted to the posterior midgut.

Amy-p2 transcript levels are higher in the anterior midgut than in the posterior midgut and are repressed by dietary glucose in both. The tissue specific effects of mapP alleles are restricted to the posterior midgut.

Glucose-fed larvae were shown to have less than 1% of the level of Amylase transcripts found in non-glucose-fed control larvae.

The amylase transcript levels were estimated to vary between 0.01 to 1.0% of poly(A)+ RNA depending on the presence or absence of added glucose in the diet.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Glucose was shown to have a repressing effect on amylase levels in the anterior end of the posterior midgut in mapP00 flies but not mapP12 flies. Levels of amylase were generally higher in anterior midgut than posterior midgut. The analysis of amylase activity and protein levels yielded the same results.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Amy-p in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Amy-p
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Amy-p
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (7)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907EZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500DX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W042T )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03ZF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07V6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (15)
9 of 10
6 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Monomer.
    (UniProt, P08144 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-81

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:17,118,636..17,120,303 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    53F12-53F12
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k10815k10815 and P{EP}EP710
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    54A1-54B1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    54A-54A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Mapping based on 5039 c-wt recombinants.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (4)
    Genomic Clones (8)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (98)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     

    polyclonal

    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Amy-p CG18640

    Source for merge of: Amy-p CG18730

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of Amy-p CG18730 was sequence comparison ( date:001104 ).

    Eight electrophoretic variants of α-amylase have been recorded; they are numbered, in order of decreasing rates of migration toward the anode, from "-1" through "+7" (FBrf0039664). Phenotypes usually represented as haplotypes according to the electrophoretic mobilities of the products of the Amy-d and Amy-p alleles. Bahn recovered one Amy1,3 and two Amy2 recombinants from Amy-p1 Amy-d-/Amy-p2 Amy-d3 heterozygotes and one Amy4,3 and two Amy2,6 recombinants from Amy-p4 Amy-d6/Amy-p2 Amy-d3 heterozygotes. From these observations it was concluded that the amylase locus is duplicated and the two copies are separated by 0.008 cm; furthermore, flanking marker segregations indicated that determinants of forms 1, 2 (thermostable) and 4 are to the left (from Amy-p) of those for 3 (thermostable) and 6 (from Amy-d); see also Gemmill et al. (FBrf0045142). Amy1 monomorphic phenotype in Oregon-R has been shown to be Amy-p1 Amy-d1.

    Other Comments

    Molecular evolution of the Amy multigenes in Drosophila has been investigated.

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the intergenic region between Amy-p and Amy-d, and Dtei\Amy-d and Dtei\Amy-p is determined and the structure and evolutionary features are studied.

    Amylase enzyme activity has been measured in D.melanogaster lines in which spontaneous mutations have accumulated over approximately 300 mutations.

    Amy-p is not correlated with geotaxis score in high and low hybrid derived lines.

    Cis-acting regulatory sequences between -372bp and -304bp upstream of the Amy-d gene are necessary for full expression of Amy-p.

    The enzymological features of α-amylase from six species of the D.melanogaster species subgroup have been compared.

    Comparison of CpG distribution in the coding region of 121 genes from six species supports the mCpG mutational hotspot explanation of CpG suppression in methylated species at position II-III and III-I.

    In lines selected over 700 generations for high (negative) and low (positive) geotaxis, different variants of Amy found to have segregated out.

    Southern blot analysis with a probe containing the Amy-p gene demonstrated that D.pseudoobscura.pseudoobscura carries three Amy genes. When injected into D.melanogaster Amy- flies Dpse\Amy1 was expressed at high levels, Amy2 at very low levels and Dpse\Amy3 was not expressed at all. Genomic restriction maps were generated of the Amy region. Polymorphic variants were tested in pairwise combinations and strong linkage disequilibrium was found among the gene arrangements.

    Rapid rates of gene conversion were observed between the duplicated Amy coding sequences. There is virtual sequence identity between the coding regions of the two genes. Flanking, noncoding regions are much more highly diverged and are not subject to gene conversion. The results conclude that recurrent gene conversion does lead to concerted evolution.

    Dere\Amy-d and Dere\Amy-p show 3% divergence from D.melanogaster Amy-p within the coding region, and approximately 15% divergence from the intergenic region between Amy-p and Amy-d.

    The functional Dpse\Amy1 gene differs from Amy-p by 13.3% of their coding region nucleotides.

    Glucose repression of gene expression reflects a change in the transcriptional activity of the Amylase gene in larvae.

    Northern blot analysis demonstrates that amylase mRNA is repressed by dietary glucose: the mRNA can be estimated to vary from 0.01% of poly(A)+RNA to greater than 1% poly(A)+RNA depending on the diet.

    Flies or larvae from a food medium containing starch show higher levels of activity than individuals from a food containing simple sugars. This is shown to be due to repression of activity by sugars rather than enhancement of activity by starch. The changes in enzyme activity are due to a change in enzyme quantity rather than efficiency. Flies carrying a duplication of the amylase structural gene have differential repression of the two isozymal forms by dietary sugars.

    Structural gene for α-amylase. Most strains of D.melanogaster are duplicated for this gene, with distal (Amy-d) and proximal (Amy-p) genes being about 4-kb apart and divergently transcribed. Amylase is a monomeric protein based on failure to form hybrid enzyme molecules of intermediate mobility in heterozygotes for alleles coding for electrophoretic variants. Activity mainly in midgut and hemolymph with smaller amounts in other tissues; activity found in anterior or posterior, or both, but not middle, region of midgut; three spatial patterns of adult posterior midgut activity encountered on standard medium; controlled by the trans-regulatory effects of mapP (FBrf0032374); adult anterior midgut activity under regulation of another separable regulatory locus, mapA (FBrf0034443). Larval midgut activity affected by closely linked cis-acting regulatory elements (FBrf0044421). Amylase activity is glucose repressible (FBrf0044516); the degree of repression can be greater than one hundred fold in larvae and occurs at the level of transcript initiation (FBrf0042684; FBrf0045840; FBrf0058599).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Kikkawa, 1957.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 124 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Amy-proximal
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0014457
    • FBgn0035652
    • FBgn0042197
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (224)