Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\arm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
armadillo
Annotation Symbol
CG11579
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000117
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
armadillo (arm) encodes the Drosophila homolog of beta-catenin. It plays separable roles in cell adhesion and Wingless signaling. It links classic cadherin cell adhesion receptors to alpha-catenin and the actin cytoskeleton, and it acts as the key regulated effector of Wingless signaling, working with TCF/LEF proteins as a transcriptional co-activator. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

β-catenin, β-cat, beta-catenin, b-catenin, βcat

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:1,891,401..1,900,646 [-]
Recombination map

1-0.2

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:1891401..1900646
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the beta-catenin family. (P18824)
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
Gene Group (FlyBase)
WNT ENHANCEOSOME -
The Wnt enhanceosome complex binds to Wnt/wg-enhancer elements via the TCF/LEF protein, pan. In the absence nuclear β-catenin (arm), Wnt/wg-responsive genes are silenced by the repressor gro binding to the enhanceosome. Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway leads to arm accumulation in the nucleus, incorporation into the enhanceosome and the stimulation of transcription. (Adapted from FBrf0235074 and FBrf0229654).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Isoform neural may associate with CadN and participate in the transmission of developmental information. Can associate with alpha-catenin. Isoform cytoplasmic accumulates through wg signaling; arm function in wg signal transduction is required early in development for determination of neuroblast fate. Arm and Abl proteins function cooperatively at adherens junctions in both the CNS and epidermis.
(UniProt, P18824)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
arm: armadillo
Homozygous lethal; embryonic segmentation defective by time of germ-band shortening; naked cuticle ordinarily comprising the posterior two thirds of each segment replaced by mirror-image duplication of the anteriorly situated denticle belt; strong alleles delete first denticle row in abdominal segments. May have dorsal hole in cuticle. Embryonic CNS development quasi normal (Patel, Schafer, Goodman, and Holmgren, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 890-904). Autonomous at the level of single cells as shown by denticulate clones of homozygous cells in the naked cuticle of abdominal segments in arm/+ embryos (Wieschaus and Riggleman, 1987, Cell 49: 177-84). Clones of homozygous female germ cells arrested at stage 10 of oogenesis (Wieschaus and Noell, 1986, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 195: 63-73). An exception is arm8 for which progeny from homozygous germ-line clones have been recovered (Klingsmith et al.). Cell lethal in imaginal discs; although clones of homozygous cells not observed in adults, their formation seems to engender mirror-image duplications, which are not seen in response to homozygosing other cuticular cell lethals (Wieschaus). Transcript found with minor fluctuations in amount, in all cell types at all stages in development (Riggleman, Wieschaus, and Schedl, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 96-113).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\arm or the JBrowse view of Dmel\arm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Alternative translation stop created by use of multiphasic reading frames within coding region.

Variable use of small exon; supported combination results in frameshift and premature stop in downstream exon.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089991
3120
843
FBtr0089989
3220
843
FBtr0089990
3123
721
FBtr0089992
3127
843
FBtr0089988
3116
843
FBtr0332583
3211
843
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0089034
91.2
843
5.30
FBpp0089032
91.2
843
5.30
FBpp0089033
79.3
721
6.32
FBpp0089035
91.2
843
5.30
FBpp0089031
91.2
843
5.30
FBpp0304835
91.2
843
5.30
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

843 aa isoforms: arm-PA, arm-PB, arm-PD, arm-PE, arm-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

721 (aa); 105-115, 82 (kD observed)

843 (aa); 93 (kD)

Comments

arm protein is phosphorylated on both serine or threonine and on tyrosine residues. The level of phosphorylation varies in different tissues and at different times of development. Phosphorylation of arm protein is negatively regulated by wg protein. sgg protein is required for arm protein phosphorylation.

The majority of arm protein in vivo is part of a membrane-associated complex containing α-Cat and an unidentified glycoprotein.

Antibodies raised against arm protein recognize a single protein in canine (MDCK), mouse (3T3), African green monkey (COS-7), and Xenopus (A6) cultured cells. The cross-reacting proteins in A6 and MDCK cells were shown to be β-catenin.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with Mer and Moe at the adherens junction (PubMed:8666669). Interacts with Inx2 (PubMed:15047872). Interacts with alpha-Cat (PubMed:25653389). Interacts with Myo31DF (PubMed:16598259, PubMed:22491943).

(UniProt, P18824)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated on Ser, Thr and Tyr residues (PubMed:7529201). Level of phosphorylation varies both during embryonic development and from embryonic tissue to tissue (PubMed:7529201). Sgg is required for phosphorylation and wg signal negatively regulates arm phosphorylation (PubMed:7529201). Hypophosphorylated form of arm increases in steady-state levels (PubMed:7529201). Phosphorylated directly or indirectly by CkIalpha which stimulates its degradation (PubMed:11927557).

(UniProt, P18824)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\arm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (53 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Hipk; FB:FBgn0035142
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ssp; FB:FBgn0036248
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P22265
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P46150
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q24564
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P91943
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Axn; FB:FBgn0026597
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Apc2; FB:FBgn0026598
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Mer; FB:FBgn0086384
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (35 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (35 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ena; FB:FBgn0000578
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8IMA8
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001153077
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The intracellular distribution of arm protein in imaginal discs, salivary glands and larval brain was described. In salivary glands, arm protein is concentrated at the junctions between cells and is punctate on the apical surface. It is uniformly distributed on the lateral surfaces. arm protein distribution is also polarized in imaginal discs where high levels are restricted to the apical side. In the embryonic CNS and larval brain, arm protein is enriched in fiber tracts and there is less in the cell bodies of neurons. In the eye disc, arm protein accumulates fairly uniformly on the membranes separating cells in the undifferentiated region. As the morphogenetic furrow passes, arm expression appears to increase. Strong protein accumulation is seen in a star-shaped pattern on membranes where cells in the precluster abut one another but not at junctions with undifferentiated cells. arm protein often colocalizes with actin.

arm protein localizes to junctions resembling vertebrate adherens junctions.

arm protein is observed outlining clusters of male germline stem cells.

high levels of wg protein induce accumulation of arm protein in stripes of cells.

In stage 13 embryos,arm protein expression is detected on the cell membrane of both somatic germline precursor cells as well as the germline cells in both males and females. This localization is concurrent with the processes of ensheathment and coalescence of the developing gonad. In stage 17 male embryos, arm protein is concentrated in the anterior of the gonad in the region corresponding to the testes hub.

Protein is detected in lateral membrane of the cellularizing embryo and is not detected apically.

The localization of arm protein often parallels the location of adherens junctions.

arm protein expression was studied during oogenesis. arm protein is asymmetrically localized within follicle cells. Within each follicle cell, it accumulates heavily on the lateral cell surface near the apical end abutting the germ cells. It is less abundant on the rest of the follicle cell-follicle cell interface. Staining is the heaviest in a band around the follicle cell near the interface between the lateral and apical surfaces. The majority of arm protein in the ovary is found in the follicle cells but it is also observed in n rse cells and in the oocyte. Accumulation is germ cells is first seen at the anterior tip of the germarium. Similar intense staining is seen at the anterior tip of the testis. As with follicle cells, arm protein accumulates near or at the cell surface of germ cells but is not concentrated at any one position along the cell-cell interface. Protein accumulation appears to be heaviest where the nurse cell-nurse cell junction abuts the overlying follicle cells. It also accumulates in the cortical region of the oocyte. arm protein accumulates differentially in different follicle cells. Polar ollicle cells show more intense arm staining.

In wghs.P embryos, the arm protein distribution is quite different from that in wild-type embryos, being evenly distributed and showing intense staining throughout the embryo. In nkd mutant embryos, the pattern is similar to that in wghs.P embryos, but two additional rows of cells in the wg-expressing half of the parasegment are seen.

arm protein localizes to the apical surfaces of cells.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8IMA8
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{arm-lacZ.V}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-arm.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\arm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 41 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 103 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of arm
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of arm
Deletions and Duplications ( 14 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult cuticle & abdomen | somatic clone
dorsal mesothoracic disc & peripodial epithelium | somatic clone | cell autonomous, with Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & denticle | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4da.G32
embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & denticle belt, with Scer\GAL4da.G32
nurse cell & actin filament
nurse cell & nucleus
nurse cell & nucleus | germ-line clone
oocyte & actin filament
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sd-SG29.1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
9 of 15
No
Yes
 
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (15)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (34)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902HS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501FM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01MX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01UJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03A5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 9 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 7 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Mer and Moe at the adherens junction (PubMed:8666669). Interacts with Inx2 (PubMed:15047872). Interacts with alpha-Cat (PubMed:25653389). Interacts with Myo31DF (PubMed:16598259, PubMed:22491943).
(UniProt, P18824 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map

1-0.2

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:1,891,401..1,900,646 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
2B14-2B14
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1444&P{EP}CG14818EP1190 and P{EP}CG3600EP1232
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
2B-2B
(determined by in situ hybridisation) 2B7--10 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 2B1--14 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 2B13--18 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
2B-2B
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
2B7-2B10
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
2B15-2B15
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (57)
Genomic Clones (20)
cDNA Clones (514)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: arm l(1)G0192 l(1)G0234

Source for merge of: arm l(1)G0410

Additional comments
Other Comments

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene has been transfected into Kc cells.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene profoundly reduces the wg-signaling pathway.

Regulation of adhesion through arm Y667 phosphorylation is not essential for any arm dependent process during oogenesis, including border cell migration.

In order to activate pan protein, arm protein must enter the nucleus and form a complex with lgs and pygo proteins.

Nuclear localisation of arm is necessary for Wnt pathway activation.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: cells become round and detached.

ci, tsh and arm may act as a complex.

Different combinations of the proteins ci, tsh and arm appear to be employed for the specification of naked cuticle at distinct positions both along the anterior posterior axis and within individual trunk segments.

arm does not play a general role in inhibiting cell migration or process extension.

arm and pan act together with JNK signalling pathways in both ventral patterning and dorsal closure.

fz and fz2 function downstream of wg and upstream of arm in the wg signalling pathway.

Membrane tethered arm cannot signal on its own, however it can function in adherens junctions.

Analysis of C-terminally truncated arm proteins suggests that the C-terminal domain of arm plays a complex role in wg signalling and the arm protein recruits the transcriptional machinery via multiple contact sites.

The arm/pan protein complex has a role in the activation of apoptosis during retinal development. Regulation of arm by Apc inhibits neuronal apoptosis during retinal development.

The pan gene product can function as either an activator or a repressor of wg-responsive genes depending on the state of the wg signalling pathway and thus the availability of arm, the pan product coactivator. In the absence of arm, pan acts to repress wg responsive genes, with the gro protein acting as a corepressor.

arm function in wg signal transduction is required early in neural development for determination of neuroblast fate. Later in neural development, the cell-cell adhesion function of arm is required for development of the correct axonal scaffold.

Ectopic wg expression non-cell autonomously induces vg expression in leg discs and activated arm (a cytosolic transducer of wg signalling) cell-autonomously induces vg expression, indicating that vg expression is directly activated by wg signalling.

Segment polarity gene expression is necessary for the survival of specific rows of epidermal cells.

Apc expression pattern and preliminary genetic analysis suggest that it may not be an essential component of arm regulation in the wg pathway.

wg signals through arm. wg can activate arm in a cell line.

A shg/arm complex has multiple functions for the regulation of organised cell adhesion events.

Mmus\Lef1 can form a stable complex with arm protein on the Ubx wg response sequence (WRS) and function in vivo depends on arm.

Some of the proteins of apico-lateral junctions are required both for apico-basal cell polarity and for the signalling mechanisms controlling cell proliferation, whereas others are required more specifically in cell-cell signalling.

pan functions directly downstream of arm in the establishment of segment polarity.

Adherens junctions cannot assemble in the absence of arm, leading to dramatic defects in cell-cell adhesion. Embryonic epithelial cells lose adhesion to each other, round up and apparently become mesenchymal. Mutant cells also lose their normal cell polarity. These disruptions in the integrity of the epithelia block the appropriate morphogenetic movements of gastrulation.

Embryos mutant for arm and sdt baz double mutant embryos have very similar early phenotypes with respect to zonula adherens formation. Results suggest that early stages in the assembly of the zonula adherens are critical for the stability of the polarised blastoderm epithelium.

The binding sites for shg and α-Cat are mapped, these bind independently of each other to arm and binding of each is required for the function of adherens junctions. arm is critical for wg signalling. arms roles in adherens junctions and wg signalling are independent.

Yeast two-hybrid system and in vivo assays have identified a 76 amino acid region of arm that is necessary and sufficient for binding α-Cat and also that the N-terminal 258 amino acids of α-Cat interact with arm. A large region of arm, spanning six central arm repeats, is required for shg binding, whereas only 41 amino acids of shg are sufficient for arm binding.

dsh and arm, but not sgg are required for heart formation.

arm is not required for wg self-refinement at the wing margin.

Overexpression of full length or truncated shg phenocopies wg. This is achieved by titrating arm away from a signalling function in the wg pathway.

arm mutations mimic all effects of a wg mutation. sgg, dsh and arm function to transmit the wg signal in the midgut in the same way as they do in the epidermis. Results suggest the wg signal transduction pathway acts in all three germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

Tethered arm has autonomous effects on the transcription of target genes.

The arm gene product is required for wg-dependent bristle inhibition.

The arm product has a role in cell-cell adhesion, gastrulation and epithelial sheet integrity.

The arm locus encodes a truncated 82kD isoform specific to the nervous system.

arm forms part of the multi-protein adherins junction complex and in this role is critical for cell adhesion and the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton. One domain of arm is made of 12 copies of a degenerate motif, named the armadillo repeat. This motif modulates protein protein interactions.

arm gene is indispensable for the transmission of the wg signal in distinct cells.

arm, dsh and sgg encode elements of a unique wg signalling pathway that is used several times throughout development.

Direct wg autoregulation differs from wg signalling to adjacent cells in the importance of fu, smo and ci relative to sgg and arm.

arm mutants display a disrupted actin cytoskeleton.

wg acts through dsh and arm to affect the expression of en and cuticle differentiation.

Comparisons of early development to that in other insects have revealed conservation of some aspects of development, as well as differences that may explain variations in early patterning events.

Endogenous arm is a phosphoprotein that demonstrates coupled phosphorylation of Ser/Tyr and Tyr in vivo. Phosphorylation is developmentally regulated and may play a role in wg signal transduction.

Cells alter their intracellular distribution of arm protein in response to wg signal, accumulating increased levels of cytoplasmic arm relative to those of membrane-associated protein. Levels of cytoplasmic arm are also regulated by sgg. Double mutant analysis demonstrates that arm's role in wg signalling is direct and that arm functions downstream of wg and sgg.

dsh and por act upstream of sgg, and arm acts downstream of sgg in the wg signalling pathway.

Cell culture assay of wg and arm gene expression demonstrates that the wg protein does not affect the rate of arm protein synthesis but presence of the wg protein causes increased stability of an otherwise rapidly decaying arm protein. wg protein from the co-culturing donor cells, in the extracellular matrix and soluble medium from donor cells also increases the levels of arm protein demonstrating that wg can act as a soluble extra cellular signalling molecule.

Germline arm mutations appear to disrupt processes requiring cell adhesion and integrity of the actin cytoskeleton, consistent with a role for the arm product in cell adhesive junctions.

The arm gene product is part of a membrane-associated complex. This complex includes α-Cat and the arm-associated glycoprotein, aagp. The arm product co-localizes with junctions that resemble vertebrate adherens junctions in morphology and position.

wg and en expression patterns are studied in all known segment polarity mutants to investigate the requirement of other segment polarity genes in mediating the maintenance of wg and en.

Ectopic uniform wg expression causes no change in the distribution of arm RNA, but protein distribution is quite different from that in wild type, being evenly distributed at high levels. nkd2 embryos have same pattern of arm RNA expression as those with uniform wg expression, but different protein distribution, with a high level all over, plus 2 stripes/segment where wg is expressed.

arm may play a role in cell-cell adhesive junctions.

A homolog of the arm plakoglobin in Drosophila may link E-cadherin to the underlying actin cytoskeleton at cell-cell junctions. This complex may also participate in the transmission of developmental information.

The role of arm gene expression in pattern formation in imaginal discs has been examined. Mutations in arm and wg have indistinguishable embryonic consequences: the timing and pattern of wg loss in arm mutants is very similar. Clonal tissue with reduced levels of arm activity will only survive in regions furthest from regions of high levels of wg RNA.

wg regulates accumulation of arm by post-transcriptional control, por and dsh are also required for this effect.

Role of arm in neurogenesis has been studied.

arm region has been molecularly cloned and characterised, the protein contains a series of novel repeats. arm RNA is abundant and uniformly distributed and expressed in a wide range of cell types in the embryo, unlike the transcript accumulation of other segment polarity genes.

A screen for X-linked genes that affect embryo morphology revealed arm.

Genetic mosaics were used to determine that arm is autonomous at the level of the single cell. arm gene activity is required for embryonic development at least until extended germ band stages.

arm mutants display mirror image duplication of denticle belts.

Embryonic lethal; embryonic segmentation defective by time of germ-band shortening; naked cuticle ordinarily comprising the posterior two thirds of each segment replaced by mirror-image duplication of the anteriorly situated denticle belt; strong alleles delete first denticle row in abdominal segments. May have dorsal hole in cuticle. Embryonic CNS development quasi normal (Patel et al., 1989). Autonomous at the level of single cells as shown by denticulate clones of homozygous cells in the naked cuticle of abdominal segments in arm/+ embryos (Wieschaus and Riggleman, 1987). Clones of homozygous female germ cells arrested at stage 10 of oogenesis (Wieschaus and Noell, 1986). An exception is arm8 for which progeny from homozygous germ-line clones have been recovered (Klingsmith et al., 1989). Cell lethal in imaginal discs; although clones of homozygous cells not observed in adults, their formation seems to engender mirror-image duplications, which are not seen in response to homozygosing other cuticular cell lethals (Wieschaus). Transcript found with minor fluctuations in amount, in all cell types at all stages in development (Riggleman, Wieschaus and Schedl, 1989).

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 118 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (37)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Arm
(Jiang et al., 2019, Li et al., 2019, Nunes de Almeida et al., 2019, Pütz, 2019, Strutt et al., 2019, Billmann et al., 2018, Bonello et al., 2018, Fulford et al., 2018, Pichaud, 2018, Vuong et al., 2018, Hamada-Kawaguchi and Yamamoto, 2017, Vishal et al., 2017, Bonfini et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2016, Chung et al., 2016, Croy et al., 2016, Mittag et al., 2016, Padash Barmchi et al., 2016, Trujillo et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Weng and Wieschaus, 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Balmer et al., 2015, Diop and Bodmer, 2015, Escobar et al., 2015, Hall and Verheyen, 2015, Hamada-Kawaguchi et al., 2015, Houssin et al., 2015, Mishra et al., 2015, Archbold et al., 2014, Baril et al., 2014, Claret et al., 2014, Hamada-Kawaguchi et al., 2014, Hsiao et al., 2014, Jenny and Basler, 2014, Kunttas-Tatli et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Mouri et al., 2014, Ocorr et al., 2014, Shen et al., 2014, Skwarek et al., 2014, Yamulla et al., 2014, Yatsenko et al., 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Desai et al., 2013, Gunawan et al., 2013, Haack et al., 2013, Hermle et al., 2013, Klose et al., 2013, Koontz et al., 2013, Lin et al., 2013, Lucas et al., 2013, Mbodj et al., 2013, Singh et al., 2013, Strutt et al., 2013, Tögel et al., 2013, Vandewalle et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Wong et al., 2013, Yan et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Zoranovic et al., 2013, Agelopoulos et al., 2012, Chen and Verheyen, 2012, Couturier et al., 2012, De Graeve et al., 2012, Fichelson et al., 2012, Giagtzoglou et al., 2012, Gomez et al., 2012, Kunttas-Tatli et al., 2012, Legent et al., 2012, McKinley et al., 2012, Morillo Prado et al., 2012, Mouri et al., 2012, Roberts et al., 2012, Roberts et al., 2012, Rynes et al., 2012, Sarpal et al., 2012, Sen et al., 2012, Tepass, 2012, Toledano et al., 2012, Weber et al., 2012, White-Cooper, 2012, Zhou and Hong, 2012, Biteau and Jasper, 2011, Buechling et al., 2011, Chang et al., 2011, Choi et al., 2011, Djiane et al., 2011, Eliazer and Buszczak, 2011, Fernández et al., 2011, Galy et al., 2011, Genevet and Tapon, 2011, Giorgianni and Mann, 2011, Huang et al., 2011, Kawamori et al., 2011, König et al., 2011, Laplante and Nilson, 2011, Laprise and Tepass, 2011, Letizia et al., 2011, Li et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Muñoz-Descalzo et al., 2011, Roberts et al., 2011, Sawyer et al., 2011, Sun et al., 2011, Takashima et al., 2011, Tripura et al., 2011, Valenta et al., 2011, Xiong and Rebay, 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Zhou et al., 2011, Bahri et al., 2010, David et al., 2010, Gandille et al., 2010, Genevet et al., 2010, Harumoto et al., 2010, Haruta et al., 2010, Kallappagoudar et al., 2010, Kleinschmit et al., 2010, Kremer et al., 2010, Laplante et al., 2010, Levine et al., 2010, Mathur et al., 2010, Morais-de-Sá et al., 2010, Mukai et al., 2010, Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010, Neubueser and Hipfner, 2010, Nilton et al., 2010, Quijano et al., 2010, Reddy et al., 2010, Robinson et al., 2010, Shao et al., 2010, Simone and DiNardo, 2010, Singh et al., 2010, Taniue et al., 2010, Tikhmyanova et al., 2010, Varelas et al., 2010, Walther and Pichaud, 2010, Zhang et al., 2010, Zimmerman et al., 2010, Amin et al., 2009, Badouel et al., 2009, Baena-Lopez et al., 2009, Bertet et al., 2009, Bossuyt et al., 2009, Campbell et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2009, Eivers et al., 2009, Fetting et al., 2009, Firth and Baker, 2009, Genevet et al., 2009, Glavic et al., 2009, Jang et al., 2009, Kaido et al., 2009, Kessler and Müller, 2009, Langton et al., 2009, Laprise et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Lin and Gubb, 2009, Martinez et al., 2009, Massarwa et al., 2009, McGill et al., 2009, Mirouse et al., 2009, Pek et al., 2009, Richard et al., 2009, Sanders et al., 2009, Solon et al., 2009, Song et al., 2009, Urbano et al., 2009, Wright and Tjian, 2009, Yano et al., 2009, Zhang and Ward, 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Alexandre et al., 2008, Bachmann et al., 2008, Baena-Lopez et al., 2008, Blauwkamp et al., 2008, Bosveld et al., 2008, Buttrick et al., 2008, Carrera et al., 2008, Cavey et al., 2008, Chan et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Colosimo and Tolwinski, 2008, Denef et al., 2008, Desprat et al., 2008, Dos-Santos et al., 2008, Eid et al., 2008, Estella et al., 2008, Gallet et al., 2008, Georgiou et al., 2008, Harris and Tepass, 2008, Homem and Peifer, 2008, Liebl and Featherstone, 2008, Li et al., 2008, Li et al., 2008, Mao et al., 2008, Medioni et al., 2008, Mulinari et al., 2008, Natzle et al., 2008, Neumuller et al., 2008, Nusinow et al., 2008, Peterson-Nedry et al., 2008, Rafel and Milán, 2008, Sato et al., 2008, Seppa et al., 2008, Spasić et al., 2008, Strutt and Strutt, 2008, Takacs et al., 2008, Weaver and Krasnow, 2008, Yasugi et al., 2008, Zeng et al., 2008, Bakal et al., 2007, Bastock and Strutt, 2007, Boettner and Van Aelst, 2007, Buceta et al., 2007, Chan et al., 2007, Escudero and Freeman, 2007, Escudero et al., 2007, Fernández et al., 2007, Firth and Baker, 2007, Fox and Peifer, 2007, Hayden et al., 2007, Hoffmans and Basler, 2007, Kennell and Cadigan, 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Kitadate et al., 2007, Kolsch et al., 2007, Lechner et al., 2007, Li et al., 2007, Li et al., 2007, Lin et al., 2007, Luo et al., 2007, Muñoz-Descalzo et al., 2007, Nam et al., 2007, Parker et al., 2007, Pepple et al., 2007, Polesello and Tapon, 2007, Singh et al., 2007, Tolwinski, 2007, Tountas and Fortini, 2007, Tripathi et al., 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Zhou et al., 2007, Blair et al., 2006, Bolivar et al., 2006, Bras-Pereira et al., 2006, Brown et al., 2006, Colombani et al., 2006, Deng and Meller, 2006, Franch-Marro et al., 2006, Ho et al., 2006, Janody and Treisman, 2006, Kim et al., 2006, Langdon et al., 2006, Laplante and Nilson, 2006, Laprise et al., 2006, Lehmann et al., 2006, McCartney et al., 2006, Mendes et al., 2006, Meyer et al., 2006, Nam and Choi, 2006, O'Reilly et al., 2006, Philippakis et al., 2006, Pinal et al., 2006, Schneider et al., 2006, Simoes et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Stadeli, 2006, Waldrop et al., 2006, Wang and Hartenstein, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Bao and Cagan, 2005, D'Alterio et al., 2005, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2005, Lu and Bilder, 2005, Marques, 2005, Somers and Chia, 2005, Wei et al., 2005, Wildonger et al., 2005, Yamashita et al., 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Cong et al., 2004, Hamada and Bienz, 2004, Kwon et al., 2004, Matsubayashi et al., 2004, Wang and Jiang, 2004, Wei et al., 2004, Fan et al., 2003, Nam and Choi, 2003, Park et al., 2003, Schweizer and Varmus, 2003, Noureddine et al., 2002, Glenn and Searles, 2001, Theisen et al., 2000, Oda et al., 1994)
arm
(Ambrosini et al., 2019, Finegan et al., 2019, Hartenstein et al., 2019, Liu et al., 2019, Luhur et al., 2019, Luna-Peláez et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Raza et al., 2019, Su, 2019, Tsai and Galko, 2019, Won et al., 2019, Wong et al., 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Zhang et al., 2019, Zhou et al., 2019, Arbeille and Bashaw, 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Newcomb et al., 2018, Stephano et al., 2018, Waghmare and Page-McCaw, 2018, Banerjee et al., 2017, Dai et al., 2017, Franz et al., 2017, Franz et al., 2017, Hessinger et al., 2017, Kaur et al., 2017, Misra et al., 2017, Neuert et al., 2017, Rothenbusch-Fender et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Upadhyay et al., 2017, van Tienen et al., 2017, Aigouy and Le Bivic, 2016, Deshpande et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Iyer et al., 2016, Lycette et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Mottier-Pavie et al., 2016, Moulton and Letsou, 2016, Piegholdt et al., 2016, Tare et al., 2016, Walther et al., 2016, Zamudio-Arroyo and Riesgo-Escovar, 2016, Bieli et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Gnerer et al., 2015, Luo et al., 2015, Mannava and Tolwinski, 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Svendsen et al., 2015, Tsai et al., 2015, Zaessinger et al., 2015, Zaharieva et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Zwarts et al., 2015, Cai et al., 2014, Chung and Andrew, 2014, Gersten et al., 2014, Haelterman et al., 2014, Hamada-Kawaguchi et al., 2014, Huelsmann, 2014.12.18, Kim and Choe, 2014, Komori et al., 2014, Morais-de-Sá et al., 2014, Tang et al., 2014, Vuong et al., 2014, Wang and Page-McCaw, 2014, Yasunaga et al., 2014, Bejsovec, 2013, Bulgakova et al., 2013, Caviglia and Luschnig, 2013, Desai et al., 2013, Greer et al., 2013, Morais-de-Sá and Sunkel, 2013, Muñoz-Soriano et al., 2013, Pancratov et al., 2013, Poulton et al., 2013, Sambrani et al., 2013, Sasamura et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Tang et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Xin et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013-, Zhu and Zhang, 2013, Avanesov et al., 2012, Casad et al., 2012, Conte et al., 2012, Dupont et al., 2012, Gistelinck et al., 2012, Hadar et al., 2012, Hainaut et al., 2012, Jemc et al., 2012, Lee and Fischer, 2012, Manning et al., 2012, Sano et al., 2012, Tang et al., 2012, White-Cooper, 2012, Abdou et al., 2011, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Benchabane et al., 2011, Benchabane et al., 2011, Bhambhani et al., 2011, Escudero et al., 2011, Fiedler et al., 2011, Galindo et al., 2011, Giorgianni and Mann, 2011, Gonsalves et al., 2011, Hochmuth et al., 2011, Juarez et al., 2011, Kaczmarczyk and Kopp, 2011, Kaplan et al., 2011, Mathew et al., 2011, Michel et al., 2011, Muliyil et al., 2011, Olson et al., 2011, Schwank et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Uddin et al., 2011, Xin et al., 2011, You et al., 2011, Aldaz et al., 2010, Baig et al., 2010, Biteau et al., 2010, Blanco et al., 2010, Brodland et al., 2010, Buechling et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2010, David et al., 2010, Djiane and Mlodzik, 2010, Duchi et al., 2010, Fichelson et al., 2010, Franz and Riechmann, 2010, Godin et al., 2010, Gruntenko et al., 2010, Jones et al., 2010, Kremer et al., 2010, Lin et al., 2010, Martin et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Popodi et al., 2010-, Roch et al., 2010, Schiemann et al., 2010, Schiemann et al., 2010, Simões et al., 2010, Tikhmyanova et al., 2010, Yasugi et al., 2010, Benítez et al., 2009, Chiang et al., 2009, Dichtel-Danjoy et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Fung et al., 2009, Hartmann et al., 2009, Kaplan et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Mao and Freeman, 2009, McKay et al., 2009, Parrish et al., 2009, Romani et al., 2009, Sawyer et al., 2009, Sinenko et al., 2009, Svendsen et al., 2009, Tolwinski, 2009, Viquez et al., 2009, Widmann and Dahmann, 2009, Woolworth et al., 2009, Worringer et al., 2009, Benchabane et al., 2008, Biteau et al., 2008, Brás-Pereira and Casares, 2008, Bulgakova et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Estella and Mann, 2008, Estella et al., 2008, Fernandez-Minan et al., 2008, Fiehler and Wolff, 2008, Jang et al., 2008, Jin et al., 2008, Kennell et al., 2008, Leibfried et al., 2008, Lin et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Maeda et al., 2008, Melani et al., 2008, Miech et al., 2008, Mitchell et al., 2008, Morris et al., 2008, Ni et al., 2008, Parker et al., 2008, Pope and Harris, 2008, Rusan et al., 2008, Sekine et al., 2008, Seppa et al., 2008, Shindo et al., 2008, Simcox et al., 2008, Sokac and Wieschaus, 2008, Somorjai and Martinez-Arias, 2008, Steinberg et al., 2008, Takacs et al., 2008, Takashima et al., 2008, Tran et al., 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Baig-Lewis et al., 2007, Bakal et al., 2007, Bhat, 2007, Blankenship et al., 2007, Chao et al., 2007, Chen et al., 2007, Corrigall et al., 2007, DasGupta et al., 2007, De Renzis et al., 2007, Fiehler and Wolff, 2007, Fung et al., 2007, Goodfellow et al., 2007, Gorfinkiel and Arias, 2007, Grammont, 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Harris and Peifer, 2007, Hatton-Ellis et al., 2007, Kalamegham et al., 2007, Kaltenbach et al., 2007, Kankel et al., 2007, Koizumi et al., 2007, O'Keefe et al., 2007, Reig et al., 2007, Silver et al., 2007, Szafranski and Goode, 2007, Wang and Riechmann, 2007, Weake and Scott, 2007, Worringer and Panning, 2007, Zecca and Struhl, 2007, Bartscherer et al., 2006, Carmena et al., 2006, Charroux et al., 2006, Colosimo and Tolwinski, 2006, Estrada et al., 2006, Fang et al., 2006, Igaki et al., 2006, Jankovics and Brunner, 2006, Joshi et al., 2006, Kent et al., 2006, Lim and Tomlinson, 2006, Ma et al., 2006, McCaffrey et al., 2006, Mirkovic and Mlodzik, 2006, Molnar and de Celis, 2006, Murray et al., 2006, Pereira et al., 2006, Price et al., 2006, Sato et al., 2006, Seto and Bellen, 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Smelkinson and Kalderon, 2006, Stultz et al., 2006, Wodarz et al., 2006, Wood et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Ayyub et al., 2005, Berger et al., 2005, DasGupta et al., 2005, Fox et al., 2005, Furlong, 2005, Harris and Peifer, 2005, Langevin et al., 2005, McEwen and Peifer, 2005, Mehta et al., 2005, Mehta et al., 2005, Pacquelet and Rorth, 2005, Rodrigues et al., 2005, Staedeli and Basler, 2005, Takada et al., 2005, Takaesu et al., 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Cliffe et al., 2004, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Harris and Peifer, 2004, Hutterer et al., 2004, Lim and Choi, 2004, Papadopoulou et al., 2004, Pastor-Pareja et al., 2004, Ryoo et al., 2004, Thompson, 2004, Tolwinski and Wieschaus, 2004, Lawrence et al., 2000, Ahmed et al., 1998, Peifer et al., 1994)
l(1)2Bv
Name Synonyms
ARMADILLO
Armadillo
(Jeong et al., 2019, Lim et al., 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Alfred and Vaccari, 2018, Kim and Jho, 2018, Tang et al., 2018, Ahmad, 2017, Arnés et al., 2017, Brüser and Bogdan, 2017, Croy et al., 2016, Mittag et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Weng and Wieschaus, 2016, Yadav and Tapadia, 2016, Diop and Bodmer, 2015, Dong et al., 2015, Hall and Verheyen, 2015, Mishra et al., 2015, Aleman et al., 2014, Hall et al., 2014, Jenny and Basler, 2014, Ocorr et al., 2014, Bausek, 2013, Buster et al., 2013, Coelho et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Gunawan et al., 2013, Haase Gilbert et al., 2013, Harpaz et al., 2013, König and Shcherbata, 2013, Lucas et al., 2013, Strutt et al., 2013, Tögel et al., 2013, Xin et al., 2013, Yadav and Tapadia, 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Zoranovic et al., 2013, Agelopoulos et al., 2012, Avanesov et al., 2012, Casad et al., 2012, Förster and Luschnig, 2012, Guilgur et al., 2012, Kapuria et al., 2012, Kunttas-Tatli et al., 2012, Lim and Thiery, 2012, Morillo Prado et al., 2012, Rojas-Ríos et al., 2012, Sarpal et al., 2012, Urwyler et al., 2012, Verma et al., 2012, Yuan et al., 2012, Zhou and Hong, 2012, Apidianakis and Rahme, 2011, Bhambhani et al., 2011, Eivers et al., 2011, Eliazer and Buszczak, 2011, Huang et al., 2011, König et al., 2011, Laplante and Nilson, 2011, Letizia et al., 2011, Mendoza-Topaz et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Oda and Takeichi, 2011, Reddy and Irvine, 2011, Sun et al., 2011, Takashima et al., 2011, Tripura et al., 2011, Zappia et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Zhou et al., 2011, Bahri et al., 2010, Buchon et al., 2010, Cordero and Cagan, 2010, David et al., 2010, Franz and Riechmann, 2010, Haruta et al., 2010, He et al., 2010, Huen et al., 2010, Kaplan and Tolwinski, 2010, Kremer et al., 2010, Laplante et al., 2010, Lin et al., 2010, Martin et al., 2010, Mathur et al., 2010, Mukai et al., 2010, Neubueser and Hipfner, 2010, Nilton et al., 2010, Pines et al., 2010, Quijano et al., 2010, Reddy et al., 2010, Robinson et al., 2010, Roch et al., 2010, Sekyrova et al., 2010, Simone and DiNardo, 2010, Singh et al., 2010, Swaminathan et al., 2010, Zeng et al., 2010, Apidianakis et al., 2009, Badouel et al., 2009, Baena-Lopez et al., 2009, Bossuyt et al., 2009, Campbell et al., 2009, Eivers et al., 2009, Fetting et al., 2009, Fung et al., 2009, Genevet et al., 2009, Glavic et al., 2009, Grusche et al., 2009, Jang et al., 2009, Kaido et al., 2009, Kaplan et al., 2009, Kessler and Müller, 2009, Martinez et al., 2009, Mirouse et al., 2009, Mirth et al., 2009, Parrish et al., 2009, Pek et al., 2009, Sanders et al., 2009, Sheng et al., 2009, Solon et al., 2009, Song et al., 2009, Tiwari and Roy, 2009, Urbano et al., 2009, Warner and Longmore, 2009, Webb et al., 2009, Wright and Tjian, 2009, Zhang and Ward, 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Albornoz et al., 2008, Alexandre et al., 2008, Bachmann et al., 2008, Bhambhani et al., 2008, Bosveld et al., 2008, Brás-Pereira and Casares, 2008, Cavey et al., 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Choi et al., 2008, Dansereau and Lasko, 2008, Desai et al., 2008, Desprat et al., 2008, Dos-Santos et al., 2008, Eid et al., 2008, Estella et al., 2008, Gallet et al., 2008, Georgiou et al., 2008, Harris and Tepass, 2008, Larson et al., 2008, Leibfried et al., 2008, Li et al., 2008, Li et al., 2008, Lighthouse et al., 2008, Lin et al., 2008, Llense and Martín-Blanco, 2008, Mao et al., 2008, Medioni et al., 2008, Melani et al., 2008, Menzel et al., 2008, Mieszczanek et al., 2008, Natzle et al., 2008, Ostrowski et al., 2008, Parker et al., 2008, Peterson-Nedry et al., 2008, Port et al., 2008, Rusan et al., 2008, Sarpal et al., 2008, Sato et al., 2008, Seppa et al., 2008, Shindo et al., 2008, Somorjai and Martinez-Arias, 2008, Song et al., 2008, Steinberg et al., 2008, Strutt and Strutt, 2008, Takashima et al., 2008, Tran et al., 2008, Weaver and Krasnow, 2008, Wehrli et al., 2008, Yan et al., 2008, Zeng et al., 2008, Zimmerman et al., 2008, Ash et al., 2007, Bhambhani et al., 2007, Boettner and Van Aelst, 2007, Bogard et al., 2007, Buceta et al., 2007, Corrigall et al., 2007, de la Roche and Bienz, 2007, Escudero and Freeman, 2007, Fernández et al., 2007, Galletti et al., 2007, Gorfinkiel and Arias, 2007, Grammont, 2007, Hackney et al., 2007, Hoffmans and Basler, 2007, Jones and Bejsovec, 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Kitadate et al., 2007, Kolsch et al., 2007, Li et al., 2007, Li et al., 2007, Lin et al., 2007, Luo et al., 2007, Parker et al., 2007, Polesello and Tapon, 2007, Ren et al., 2007, Romani et al., 2007, Sasaki et al., 2007, Singh et al., 2007, Tepass and Harris, 2007, Theisen et al., 2007, Tountas and Fortini, 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Zimmerman et al., 2007, Bienz, 2006, Blair et al., 2006, Blankenship et al., 2006, Brown et al., 2006, Carmena et al., 2006, Colosimo and Tolwinski, 2006, Djiane et al., 2006, Emoto et al., 2006, He and Axelrod, 2006, Ho et al., 2006, Jaekel and Klein, 2006, Janody and Treisman, 2006, Keller, 2006, Kim et al., 2006, Koppen et al., 2006, Langdon et al., 2006, Maqbool et al., 2006, Mendes et al., 2006, Mosimann et al., 2006, Nam and Choi, 2006, Niki, 2006, Niki et al., 2006, Nystul and Spradling, 2006, Silva, 2006, Silva et al., 2006, van IJzendoorn, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wodarz et al., 2006, Zhai et al., 2006, D'Alterio et al., 2005, Fox et al., 2005, He et al., 2005, Marques, 2005, Mok et al., 2005, Schwabe et al., 2005, Yamashita et al., 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Cliffe et al., 2004, Cong et al., 2004, Hamada and Bienz, 2004, Kwon et al., 2004, Lecuit, 2004, Matsubayashi et al., 2004, Papadopoulou et al., 2004, Townsley et al., 2004, Wei et al., 2004, Gonzalez-Reyes, 2003, Park et al., 2003, Schweizer and Varmus, 2003, Bhandari and Shashidhara, 2001, Wang et al., 2000)
Armadillo(Arm)/beta-catenin
Armadillo/bgr;-catenin