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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Arr2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Arrestin 2
Annotation Symbol
CG5962
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000121
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Arrestin 2 (Arr2) encodes a protein involved in rhodopsin inactivation that contributes to photoreceptor maintenance and smell and sound perception. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
arrestin, PRI, phosrestin I, ArrB, phosrestin-1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:8,647,261..8,648,936 [-]
Recombination map
3-26
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the arrestin family. (P19107)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Probably plays an important role in the photoreceptor transduction.
(UniProt, P19107)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Arr2
Encodes a second Drosophila homologue of mammalian arrestin, a 49-kd (or 46-kd) protein that is phosphorylated by exposure to light in wild type but not in ninaE flies which lack rhodopsin in photoreceptor cells 1-6, nor norpA flies which are deficient in phospholipase C activity. Phosphorylation dependent on the presence of Ca++, whose intracellular levels are regulated by phospholipase C. Expression first detected in late pupae, when other genes involved in phototransduction are also first expressed. Arr2 expression is approximately seven times that of Arr1. In the adult, transcript localized to photoreceptor cells of the compound eye and the ocelli.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Arr2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Arr2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076599
1547
401
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076326
45.0
401
8.87
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylated upon light exposure.
(UniProt, P19107)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Arr2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ninaE; FB:FBgn0002940
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001370087
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001370087
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with rhabdomere
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001370087
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
In flies reared in the dark, ~20-30% of Arr2 is immunolocalized to the rhabdomere, whilst the remaining ~70-80% localizes in the cell body cytoplasm.
Arr2 protein localization is light dependent. In dark conditions, Arr2 is localized throughout the photoreceptor cell, but in response to light, the protein becomes concentrated in the rhabdomeres.
Arr2 protein is detected in all rhabdomeres of the adult visual system.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with rhabdomere
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{arr2-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Arr2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 12 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 19 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Arr2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Arr2
Deletions and Duplications ( 0 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
No
Yes
 
6 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
7 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909KO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915061I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W057Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03OB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05M2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
6 of 10
6 of 10
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-26
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:8,647,261..8,648,936 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    66D9-66D9
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}foij8E8 and P{PZ}SrpRβrK561&P{lacW}l(3)j5B6j5B6
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    66D10-66D11
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (14)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (1013)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Light-dependent translocation of Arr2 protein into the rhabdomere requires ninaC protein (the ninaC p132 isoform is the primary isoform needed). The interaction between the Arr2 and ninaC proteins is phosphoinositide (PI) dependent and ninaC protein binds PIs directly.
    Light-dependent trafficking of Arr2 protein is regulated by direct interaction with phosphoinositides and is required for light adaptation in the photoreceptor cells.
    Area matching Drosophila EST AI297861. This EST forms a contig with ESTs AA697916 and AI063366 which overlap 5' end of Drosophila 49KDa phosphoprotein gene, Acc. No. M32141.
    Arr2 mediates photoreceptor apoptosis in rdgC306 mutants and long-lived internalised complexes of phosphorylated M-arrestin complexes are the triggering agents for apoptotic death of photoreceptor cells.
    Phosphorylation of Arr2 protein is necessary for its release from rhodopsin.
    Phosrestin 1 is phosphorylated by the CaMKII kinase. The earliest light induced phosphorylation in the photoreceptor is the phosphorylation of a single site of Arr2 by a kinase dependent on both Ca2+ and calmodulin. The kinase that is responsible for the phosphorylation of Arr2 is CaMKII. Results suggest CaMKII may play a role in regulating light adaptation in photoreceptors.
    In disrupted photoreceptor cells metarhodopsin is not stabilised until arrestin is present. In intact photoreceptor cels significant metarhodopsin stabilisation occurs even in the absence of bound arrestin.
    Comparison of upstream DNA of Dmir\Arr2 and Arr2 genes identifies regions that could be involved in retina-specific transcription and dosage compensation.
    A model for metarhodopsin inactivation has been formalised in which the stochiometric binding of arrestin determines the receptor inactivation rate. This model is supported by electrophysiological measurements of metarhodopsin inactivation in dissociated photoreceptors where cytosolic arrestin levels are genetically and physiologically manipulated.
    Arr2 is localised to the photoreceptor cells where the Arr2 gene product undergoes light-dependent phosphorylation.
    Arr2 undergoes light-induced phosphorylation on a subsecond time scale, which is faster than that of any other protein in vivo. Phosphorylation is dependent upon the activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PI-PLC), norpA. inaC is dispensible for phosphorylation. Phosphorylation is catalysed by a class of calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) in vitro and Arr2 has a unique phosphorylation site at S366.
    Arr1 and Arr2 proteins have a similar function in regulating photoreceptor cell deactivation. The deactivation of the visual response in Arr2 mutants is primarily determined by Arr1 protein. Although the termination of the phototransduction cascade in wild type photoreceptors is determined by the concerted action of several feedback regulatory steps, in the absence of arrestins the termination of the phototransduction process becomes rate-limited by the slow decay of metarhodopsin.
    Encodes a Drosophila homologue of mammalian arrestin, a protein that is phosphorylated by exposure to light in wild-type but not in ninaE flies which lack rhodopsin in photoreceptor cells 1-6, nor norpA flies which are deficient in phospholipase C activity. Phosphorylation dependent on the presence of Ca++, whose intracellular levels are regulated by phospholipase C.
    Arr1 and Arr2 follow different time courses of phosphorylation in vivo: when 43% of Arr2 is phosphorylated Arr1 remains unchanged (from nonilluminated flies).
    Arr1 and Arr2 have different functional roles in the photoreceptor.
    Phosphorylation of retina-specific polypeptides 80 and 49 may be involved in some early stages of photoreceptor excitation or its modulation.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 59 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    AH
    DmArrestin-2
    Dro.-Arr.II
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (164)