Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\awd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
abnormal wing discs
Annotation Symbol
CG2210
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000150
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (2.7.4.6)
Gene Snapshot
abnormal wing discs (awd) encodes a nucleotide diphosphate kinase that regulates with the product of shi the endocytosis of different surface proteins (e.g. those encoded by N, btl, Pvr, and shg). During development, it regulates morphogenesis of trachea, follicular epithelium, and imaginal discs and contributes to neurotransmission and border cell migration. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

NDPK, K-pn, l(3)j2A4, Kpn, abnormal wing disc

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:31,745,172..31,746,077 [-]
Recombination map

3-102

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:31745172..31746077
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the NDK family. (P08879)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + nucleoside diphosphate = ADP + nucleoside triphosphate (2.7.4.6)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + nucleoside diphosphate = ADP + nucleoside triphosphate (2.7.4.6)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASES -
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to nucleoside diphosphate substrate.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate.
(UniProt, P08879)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
awd: abnormal wing disc (A. Shearn)
Homozygotes die in late third larval instar; wing discs variably hypoplastic; other discs appear grossly normal. Trypan blue staining reveals cell death in wing disc, either in area of presumptive wing blade, or scattered throughout disc; other discs reveal lesser amounts of cell death later in development than in wing discs. Extensive lipid vacuolization in larval ventral ganglion, brain lobes, and proventriculus. Mutant discs exhibit slow growth when transplanted into wildtype hosts; normal discs in mutant hosts grow normally. Metamorphosis of eye-antennal, wing, and leg discs when transplanted into normal larvae severely restricted; few or no adult structures develop; mutant ovaries do not survive transplantation to wild-type hosts; however, transplanted awd pole cells capable of producing both awd/+ and awd/awd progeny. Epidermal clones nearly lethal and with thin, short, bent bristles and hairs when induced early; survive in reduced numbers and size when induced late.
awdK
An antimorphic allele; no phenotypic effects, either when homozygous or heterozygous; however, it is a dominant conditional lethal, which is lethal in combination with pn, i.e., pn/Y; awdK/+ males or pn/pn; awdK/+ females. awdK does not interact with any other eye-color mutant. Interacts lethally with all standard alleles of pn tested; however, pnts-ek insensitive to awdK at permissive temperatures, whereas nine other temperature-sensitive alleles of pn are insensitive under all conditions. Lethal phase of pn;awdK genotypes begins in early second larval instar and lasts until after the time that normal larvae pupate. Using pnts-ek, the temperature-sensitive period of the pn component of the lethal interaction determined to begin in second instar and last until eclosion. pn;awdK sons of pn mothers appear to die earlier than those of pn/+ mothers, suggesting a maternal effect of pn+, which is revealed in the presence of awdK (Hackstein, 1971, Mol. Gen. Genet. 111: 371-76). Fate mapping in pn//pn/+;awdK/+ gynandromorphs places the focus of the lethal interaction in the midventral part of the blastoderm, not a focus of pteridine biosynthesis. awdK eye disks transplanted into pn hosts develop autonomously as do the reciprocal transplants (Grell, 1958, DIS 32: 123-24). The levels of awd transcript are normal in (1) pn, (2) awdK/+, and (3) pn;awdK/+ flies; however, only the first two genotypes accumulate normal levels of the AWD polypeptide, the last having little or none, despite the presence of one copy of awd+. pn;awdK/+ larvae die in early third instar, whereas those that are pn;awdK/+/+ die at the end of L3.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\awd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\awd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.57

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Three different translation starts have been annotated. The downstream transription/translation start is supported by RNA-seq and TSS data and is conserved in numerous insect species. The upstream transcription starts are used less frequently and are supported by RNA-seq data. The upstream translation start is conserved among Drosophila species.

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0339146
634
168
FBtr0346150
727
168
FBtr0346611
578
153
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0308291
18.7
168
8.46
FBpp0311978
18.7
168
8.46
FBpp0312191
17.2
153
8.46
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

168 aa isoforms: awd-PC, awd-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

17 (kD observed)

153 (aa); 16 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homohexamer.

(UniProt, P08879)
Crossreferences
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\awd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (26 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000887110
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001564
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001564
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000143097
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000143097
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001564
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: rapidly degraded

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

awd transcript is detected in larval wing discs. Transcript levels are highest in the posterior region of the wing pouch, but expression is detected in the anterior region of the dics by late third instar.

awd transcripts are abundant in third instar larvae.

awd transcripts are missing in awdKR14 homozygotes.

The awd transcript is detected thoughout development. Highest levels of transcript are detected between second and third instar larval stages and in adult tissue.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

awd protein is a microtubule-associated protein.

awd is expressed throughout development, as assesed by nucleotide diphodphate kinase enzyme assays. Highest levels of enzyme activity are detected between early embryonic and early larval stages, and lowest levels are detected during puparation.

awdb3 homozygouslarvae and awdb3/awdKrv17 larvae have less than 2% of theNDP-kinase activity detected in nonmutant larvae of the same stage.

awdb3/awdKrv17transheterozygous larvae have less than 2% of the NDP-kinase activitydetected in nonmutant larvae of the same stage.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\awd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 47 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 20 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of awd
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of awd
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
embryonic dorsal group branch & filopodium
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
9 of 15
No
Yes
 
 
7 of 15
No
Yes
 
 
6 of 15
No
Yes
 
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (5)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190GPG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150BVW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0DZ1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0HAG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0PLD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homohexamer.
    (UniProt, P08879 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-102

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:31,745,172..31,746,077 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    100D2-100D2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}pygoEP1076 and P{PZ}ttk02667&P{lacW}ttkj6C7
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    100E-100E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    100E1-100E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    100C-100D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (29)
    Genomic Clones (13)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (317)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: awd CG2210

    Source for identity of: awd eshiA

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: awd l(3)j2A4

    Source for merge of: awd l(3)L8700

    Source for merge of: awd anon- EST:Liang-2.28

    Source for merge of: awd BcDNA:RH27794

    Source for merge of: awd BcDNA:GM19775

    Source for merge of: awd anon-WO0172774.80 anon-WO0172774.82

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of awd BcDNA:GM19775 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

    Source for merge of awd BcDNA:RH27794 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

    Source for merge of awd anon-WO0172774.80 anon-WO0172774.82 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Other Comments

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    shi mediated synaptic vesicle recycling is blocked in awd mutants.

    Identification: as a modifier of a temperature sensitive paralytic mutation of shi.

    awd can phosphorylate other proteins in addition to autophosphorylation. Results suggest awd may be a multifunctional protein regulating cellular functions as a protein kinase.

    There is an embryonic requirement for maternal germline awd expression, but the amount required is quite low.

    An altered awd NDP kinase activity is involved in the mechanisms underlying the conditional lethality of the awdK mutation.

    The crystal structure of the awd protein has been solved at a resolution of 2.4 Angstroms. The active protein is a homohexamer.

    awd function is required for brain tumour formation or proliferation in l(2)gl mutants.

    Interactions between awd, hop and pn in haematopoietic pathway have been studied as a model system for tumour suppression involving human Nm23 proteins, which are related to awd.

    An analysis of the biochemical properties of wild type and mutant awd proteins suggest that the mutation affects protein folding.

    Homozygotes for loss-of-function alleles die in late third larval instar; wing discs variably hypoplastic; other discs appear grossly normal. Trypan blue staining reveals cell death in wing disc, either in area of presumptive wing blade, or scattered throughout disc; other discs reveal lesser amounts of cell death later in development than in wing discs. Extensive lipid vacuolization in larval ventral ganglion, brain lobes, and proventriculus. Mutant discs exhibit slow growth when transplanted into wild-type hosts; normal discs in mutant hosts grow normally. Metamorphosis of eye-antennal, wing and leg discs when transplanted into normal larvae severely restricted; few or no adult structures develop; mutant ovaries do not survive transplantation to wild-type hosts; however, transplanted awd pole cells capable of producing both awd/+ and awd/awd progeny. Epidermal clones nearly lethal and with thin, short, bent bristles and hairs when induced early; survive in reduced numbers and size when induced late.

    awd mutations disrupt microtubule polymerization and/or function.

    The awd gene product is microtubule associated.

    The sequence and expression patterns of the awd gene product have been compared to that of Gip17 and Guk7.2 of D.discoideum.

    Gain-of-function alleles first identified as Killer-of-prune, on the basis of their dominant synthetic lethality with mutant alleles of pn.

    Encodes a nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 75 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (32)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:GM19775
    BcDNA:RH27794
    anon-EST:Liang-2.27
    anon-EST:Liang-2.28
    anon-WO0172774.80
    anon-WO0172774.82
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0011322
    • FBgn0024573
    • FBgn0025960
    • FBgn0046351
    • FBgn0046352
    • FBgn0062949
    • FBgn0064938
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (170)