Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Dll
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Distal-less
Annotation Symbol
CG3629
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000157
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Distal-less (Dll) encodes a homedomain transcription factor whose expression is induced in limb primordia and specifies limb (distal) versus body wall (proximal). [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

Ba, l(2)01092, Brista, Distall-less

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:24,814,822..24,835,667 [+]
Recombination map

2-107

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:24814822..24835667
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (20 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004692250
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004692250
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (16 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004692250
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NK-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
NK-like (NKL) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. NKL transcription factors are homeobox genes closely related to Hox-like genes, a number of which are found in the NK cluster. Many of the NKL members contain an Engrailed Homology 1 (EH1) motif. (Adapted from FBrf0232555 and PMID:22094586).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcription factor that plays a role in larval and adult appendage development. Specifies the identity of ventral appendages (including legs and antennae) and suppresses dorsal appendage development. Involved in patterning the distal-proximal limb axis. May control the adhesive properties of cells during limb morphogenesis. Also has a secondary role in the normal patterning of the wing margin.
(UniProt, P20009)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ba: Brista
Null alleles are recessive embryonic lethals, with dominant developmental defects of distal appendages. Lethal embryos lack certain sensilla, including Keilin's organs, and antennal, maxillary, labial, and labral sense organs, all of which are thought to correspond to vestiges of the distal sensilla of rudimentary larval appendages. No other embryonic sensilla are affected, nor are the neurons innervating the rudementary apppendages detectably abnormal. In homozygous-viable or pharate-adult-lethal hypomorphic alleles defects are found in all appendages represented by the above larval structures. Heterozygotes for lethal alleles are characterized by transformations of distal antennal segments (i.e., AII, AIII, and arista) to mesothoracic leg and by variable loss of distal leg segments, depending on severity of allele. Transformation in the case of Ba1 sensitive to low-temperature pulses throughout larval development, whereas the TSP for leg truncation is at end of the third larval instar. Clones of homozygous Ba- cells incapable of contributing to any but the coxal segment of the legs, and for the most part, the first antennal segment; in the relatively infrequent cases, in which Ba- clones involve distal antennal segments, Ba- portions, which always include at least the arista, are absent, and Ba+ portions develop normally indicating cellular autonomy.
Ba1
Homozygous lethal; dies in first instar and has normal morphology. Heterozygote shows antenna-to-leg transformation; entire arista and part of third antennal segment transformed to distal metathoracic leg structures. Expression temperature sensitive; transformation complete at 19; phenotype normal at 29. Ba/Df(2R)Ba4 shows abnormal segmentation both dorsally and ventrally and loss of head structures; antennal, maxillary, and labial segments affected. "H" piece malformed or absent as are Keilin's organs in all three thoracic segments. Recessive to two doses of 60D-F.
Ba3
Ba3/+ wild type; Ba3/Ba1 fail to eclose; pharate adults lack third antennal segment; second segment transformed to leg; distal arista normal. Legs lack all structures distal to tibiae; tibiae enlarge and bear ectopic bristles; no remaining leg bristles are bracted.
Ba5
Ba5/+ like Ba1/+. Ba5/Ba5 and Ba5/Ba1 are late embryonic lethals; show loss of antennae, maxillary, and labial sense organs, as well as the "H" piece and Keilin's organs from all three thoracic segments. Occasional abnormalities in setal bands of segments posterior to prothorax; setal bands or spinules may be deleted or adjacent bands fused. Posterior end of larva normal.
Ba9
Recessive allele. Homozygotes show partial transformation of antennae to legs as well as deletions of some leg structures. Tarsal tissue, sometimes including claws, develops in place of arista and part of third antennal segment. Third segment usually contains patchwork of incompletely differentiated leg tissue; first and second segments normal. Leg effects distal to mid tibia; legs proximal to mid tibia normal. In extreme cases number of tarsal segments reduced to two or three; basitarsus and distal tibia may be missing; in most extreme cases claws may also be missing. In the case of mild expression abnormal bristle patterns, including polarity reversal, occur around basitarsus-tibia joint, where there may also develop cuticular hyperplasia. Penetrance greater in females than males, in antennae than legs, and in metathoracic than other legs. Ba1/BaM die as pharate adults with extreme malformations of antennae and legs.
Ba12
Ba12/+ wild type; recessive lethal. Heterozygote exhibits nearly complete suppression of extra-sex-combs phenotype of Pc4/+.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Dll for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

A non-AUG start codon may be used for translation of one or more transcripts of this gene; based on the presence of conserved protein signatures within the 5' UTR without an in-frame AUG (FBrf0243886).

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072379
3094
327
FBtr0072378
2169
322
FBtr0300076
2244
347
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.4, 2.5 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072286
35.3
327
9.81
FBpp0072285
34.7
322
9.81
FBpp0289353
37.3
347
9.71
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Dll using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | faint | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Dll is transcribed in the anterior protocerebral neurectoderm in a pattern that overlaps btd.

Dll is normally expressed in the imaginal limb primordia of segments T1, T2, and T3 in embryos. In BXC- embryos, expression is also seen in ectopic primordia in segments A1-A9.

Dll transcripts are detected initially in post blastoderm embryos and are present at increased levels during late embryogenesis. They are also expressed in all three larval instars with the lowest level in 2nd instar. Later stages were not tested.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

In contrast to Dll expression in the brain, which includes both neurons and glia, Dll expression in the VNC (ventral nerve cord) is exclusively glial. In the embryonic VNC, Dll is expressed in both cell body associated glia and dorsal longitudinal glia. Both are subsets of the lateral glia.

Dll expression can be detected in the optic lobes during larval and adult stages. However, in contrast to Dll expression in other sensory systems, expression seems to be limited to brain processing regions and is not detected in retinal neurons or their support cells.

Dll is expressed in the embryonic precursors of the dorsal organ (antennal primordium) and terminal organ (maxillary sensory complex primordium), continuing into those organs through the third larval instar. During sense organ specification, Dll protein is coexpressed with the proneural transcription factor ato and sense organ transcription factor sens in subsets of sensory organ precursors in the head segments. By embryonic stage 16, sens is expressed in the ganglia of the dorsal organ, terminal organ, and ventral organ, as well as in some of the eo support cells (thecogen, tormogen, and trichogen cells).

Dll expression was compared in the wing and haltere discs. Expression is present along the D/V axis in wing but not haltere.

Dll protein is detected in third instar larval antennal discs in the primordia of antennal segments 1, 2 and 3 and in the arista primordia.

At embryonic stage 11, Dll is expressed in a group of cells straddling the anterior/posterior compartment boundary of the thoracic hemisegments, as well as in the segments of the head.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: M{Dll-lacZ.DMEact}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{DME-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}Dll981
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}MD728
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}Dllem212
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}Dllmd23
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZDll.304}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}Dll01092
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Dll in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
antennal segment 2 & macrochaeta
femur & macrochaeta
macrochaeta & leg | somatic clone
tibia & macrochaeta
wing & macrochaeta | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (27)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (26)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (21)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (20)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (33)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (12)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190DP7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150D1W )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0FOS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0GKP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 5 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-107

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:24,814,822..24,835,667 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    60E2-60E2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}Reg-5EP1065 and P{EP}CG9047EP560&P{EP}CG3760EP936
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    60E1-60E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    60E5-60E6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Cytological location derived from complementation analysis with deficiency and duplication chromosomes (details unspecified).
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (18)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (14)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: Dll CG3629

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: Dll BcDNA:LP01770

      Additional comments

      Source for merge of Dll BcDNA:LP01770 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

      Other Comments

      Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).

      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for Dll protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see mE1_TFBS_Dll collection report.

      Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) down-regulates a distinct splice isoform(s) of this gene.

      Patterns of canalization and trait correlation have been examined using Dll11 and high temperature stress on a panel of iso-female lines.

      Dll may restrict expression of proximal-leg specific gene expression.

      Dll and hth specify antennal fates via regulation of multiple genes.

      Dll acts in parallel with hth to induce antennal differentiation.

      Dll is required for the formation of some genital structures and the analia. Dll is required for the development of both anal plates in males but only the dorsal plate in females, supporting the view that the analia arise from two primordia.

      The activities of cad and of the hh pathway induce Dll expression that, together with cad, promote external analia development.

      Expression of Dll and hth prevents cells from mixing at the interface between the body wall and leg territories in the developing leg disc.

      In the distal domain of the developing leg, exd function is suppressed by the dpp/wg response gene Dll, which prevents the nuclear transport of exd.

      Genetic combinations with mutants of nub cause additive phenotypes.

      Dll has two separate functions: a primary function to induce the formation of ventral appendages and their identity, and a secondary function involved in the differentiation of the wing margin pattern.

      A technique using fluorescent probes to detect a mRNA and a protein simultaneously in the embryo is used and results suggest Dll-driven expression of a Ecol\lacZ reporter gene is activated in the ventral region of the limb primordia and Dll-positive cells migrate from a ventral position to a dorsal one within a single limb primordia.

      exd and Dll are required in near complementary domains along the leg, with the exception of the trochanter and proximal femur where both gene functions are needed.

      Dll is required for proximal-distal axis formation in the limbs.

      Combined action of wg-expressing cells in the leg ventral-anterior compartment and dpp-expressing cells in the leg dorsal-anterior compartment activates expression of Dll.

      Comparison of Dll and wg expression in Drosophila and the butterfly P.coenia suggests a common mechanism underlying the formation of all insect appendages. The limb-type-specific patterns of Dll expression indicate that the regulation of Dll expression may be critical to limb morphology, and are inconsistent with Dll functioning in a simple distal-to-proximal concentration gradient.

      The initiation of Dll expression that marks the allocation of thoracic imaginal primordia is dependent upon wg.

      Dll and Dfd are both persistently expressed in ventral maxillary cells, and combinatorially specify a subsegmental code required for a group of cells to differentiate maxillary cirri. The regulatory effect of Dfd on Dll is mediated by a ventral maxillary-specific enhancer located 3' to the Dll transcription unit.

      Null alleles are recessive embryonic lethals, with dominant developmental defects of distal appendages. Lethal embryos lack certain sensilla, including Keilin's organs and antennal, maxillary, labial and labral sense organs, all of which are thought to correspond to vestiges of the distal sensilla of rudimentary larval appendages. No other embryonic sensilla are affected, nor are the neurons innervating the rudimentary appendages detectably abnormal. In homozygous-viable or pharate-adult-lethal hypomorphic alleles defects are found in all appendages represented by the above larval structures. Heterozygotes for lethal alleles are characterized by transformations of distal antennal segments (i.e., AII, AIII and arista) to mesothoracic leg and by variable loss of distal leg segments, depending on severity of allele. Transformation in the case of Dll1 sensitive to low-temperature pulses throughout larval development, whereas the TSP for leg truncation is at end of the third larval instar. Clones of homozygous Dll- cells incapable of contributing to any but the coxal segment of the legs and for the most part, the first antennal segment; in the relatively infrequent cases, in which Dll- clones involve distal antennal segments, Dll- portions, which always include at least the arista, are absent and Dll+ portions develop normally indicating cellular autonomy.

      A minimal cis-regulatory enhancer element, Dll-304, directs Dll expression in larval leg primordia. Bithorax complex proteins repress Dll expression in abdominal segments by binding to a small number of specific sites in the element, and mutating the sites eliminates binding of bithorax complex proteins and renders the element insensitive to their regulation.

      Limb development depends specifically on Dll gene activity.

      disco expression in limb primordia is Dll-dependent.

      Homeotic gene activity programs primordia as either discs or histoblast nests by the early extended germ band stage.

      Dll plays an important part in specifying proximo-distal positional information.

      Dll activity is required for the distal domains of the adult limbs: legs, labial palps, maxillary palps, antennae and clypeolabrum.

      Dll acts as a developmental switch that is required to promote the development of limb structures.

      Dll is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 67 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Art
      BcDNA:LP01770
      Dll
      (Dong et al., 2020, Estacio-Gómez et al., 2020, Brunet Avalos et al., 2019, Chai et al., 2019, Chaudhary et al., 2019, FlyBase Genome Annotators, 2019-, Lybrand et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Won et al., 2019, Zandvakili et al., 2019, Zhang et al., 2019, Ariss et al., 2018, Bischof et al., 2018, Enriquez et al., 2018, Newcomb et al., 2018, Palliyil et al., 2018, Rastogi et al., 2018, Richardson and Portela, 2018, Ruiz-Losada et al., 2018, Vuong et al., 2018, Doe, 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Kojima, 2017, Mojica-Vázquez et al., 2017, Requena et al., 2017, Suisse et al., 2017, Suzuki and Sato, 2017, Szuplewski et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, van Tienen et al., 2017, Altenhein et al., 2016, Beira and Paro, 2016, Bürglin and Affolter, 2016, Chen et al., 2016, Córdoba et al., 2016, Massey and Wittkopp, 2016, McMahon et al., 2016, Monteiro and Gupta, 2016, Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016, Plavicki et al., 2016, Skottheim Honn et al., 2016, Uhl et al., 2016, Yasugi and Nishimura, 2016, Zandvakili and Gebelein, 2016, Baëza et al., 2015, Balmer et al., 2015, Doggett et al., 2015, Foos et al., 2015, Hall and Verheyen, 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Alexandre et al., 2014, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Atallah et al., 2014, Boekhoff-Falk and Eberl, 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Feng et al., 2014, Liang et al., 2014, Slattery et al., 2014, Vuong et al., 2014, Alfieri et al., 2013, Arnoult et al., 2013, Baanannou et al., 2013, Baek et al., 2013, Doumpas et al., 2013, Herrera et al., 2013, Hombría and Sotillos, 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Koontz et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Merabet and Hudry, 2013, Merzetti et al., 2013, Sambrani et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Serysheva et al., 2013, Tsurui-Nishimura et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Agelopoulos et al., 2012, Cook et al., 2012, Legent et al., 2012, Mou et al., 2012, Mulligan et al., 2012, Sánchez-Hernández et al., 2012, Swarup and Verheyen, 2012, Wang and Sun, 2012, Wu et al., 2012, Ahn et al., 2011, Baker, 2011, Dworkin et al., 2011, Eivers et al., 2011, Galindo et al., 2011, Giorgianni and Mann, 2011, Hudry et al., 2011, Kamimura et al., 2011, Kuzin et al., 2011, Lelli et al., 2011, Lelli et al., 2011, Lynch and Wagner, 2011, Merabet et al., 2011, Pueyo and Couso, 2011, Roy et al., 2011, Slattery et al., 2011, Yanfeng et al., 2011, You et al., 2011, Bergantiños et al., 2010, Cunha et al., 2010, Estella and Mann, 2010, Hermle et al., 2010, Jung et al., 2010, Kleinschmit et al., 2010, Lemons et al., 2010, Mohan et al., 2010, Mukai et al., 2010, Papadopoulos et al., 2010, Papadopoulos et al., 2010, Song et al., 2010, Tajiri et al., 2010, Varelas et al., 2010, Christensen et al., 2009.7.22, Dey et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Fang et al., 2009, Gambetta et al., 2009, Gambetta et al., 2009, Glavic et al., 2009, Grimm et al., 2009, Hansen et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, McKay et al., 2009, Piddini and Vincent, 2009, Song et al., 2009, Bhambhani et al., 2008, Brás-Pereira and Casares, 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.9.3, Christensen et al., 2008.9.3, Christensen et al., 2008.9.3, Duong et al., 2008, Eid et al., 2008, Estella and Mann, 2008, Estella et al., 2008, Gallet et al., 2008, Herranz et al., 2008, Jung et al., 2008, Katanaev et al., 2008, Kennell et al., 2008, Kim et al., 2008, Lebreton et al., 2008, Mieszczanek et al., 2008, Nusinow et al., 2008, Oktaba et al., 2008, Pueyo and Couso, 2008, Taghli-Lamallem et al., 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Zeng et al., 2008, Ayala-Camargo et al., 2007, Baig-Lewis et al., 2007, Emmons et al., 2007, Estella et al., 2007, Galindo et al., 2007, Guan et al., 2007, Halachmi et al., 2007, Hueber et al., 2007, Inoue and Hayashi, 2007, Li et al., 2007, Loncle et al., 2007, Luque and Milan, 2007, McKay and Mann, 2007, Merabet et al., 2007, Nekrasov et al., 2007, Noro and Mann, 2007, Patel et al., 2007, Reig et al., 2007, Roy et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Thomas and van Meyel, 2007, Yoshioka et al., 2007, Zecca and Struhl, 2007, Baena-Lopez and Garcia-Bellido, 2006, Culi et al., 2006, Fang et al., 2006, Fortier et al., 2006, Franch-Marro et al., 2006, Hayashi et al., 2006, Hufnagel et al., 2006, Jaiswal et al., 2006, Joulia et al., 2006, Koelzer and Klein, 2006, Matakatsu and Blair, 2006, Mosimann et al., 2006, Pereira et al., 2006, Rives et al., 2006, Rusten et al., 2006, Seto and Bellen, 2006, Akimoto et al., 2005, Bolinger and Boekhoff-Falk, 2005, Copley, 2005, Go, 2005, Hayward et al., 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Pearson et al., 2005, Grad et al., 2004, Punzo et al., 2004, Stanyon et al., 2004, Gim et al., 2001, Hirose et al., 2001, Lee, 2001)
      E(Arp)
      l(2)387
      Name Synonyms
      Distallless
      Enhancer of Arp
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010474
      • FBgn0026807
      • FBgn0063133
      Datasets (1)
      Study focus (1)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      References (705)