Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\bam
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
bag of marbles
Annotation Symbol
CG10422
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000158
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
bag of marbles (bam) encodes a protein involved in gametogenesis that is associated with the fusome, a germ cell-specific organelle. It contributes to the fate determination of germline stem cells, in which bam is negatively regulated by the BMP signaling pathway. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
BamC, Bam-C
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:25,243,039..25,245,109 [-]
Recombination map
3-87
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Required to initiate both male and female gametogenesis. May regulate cystoblast cell divisions.
    (UniProt, P22745)
    Summary (Interactive Fly)
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\bam or the JBrowse view of Dmel\bam for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Gene model reviewed during 5.45
    Gene model reviewed during 5.49
    Gene model reviewed during 6.24
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0084869
    1946
    442
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    2.0 (northern blot)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0084243
    50.3
    442
    6.65
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    442 (aa); 49 (kD)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\bam using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (25 terms)
    Molecular Function (3 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Biological Process (19 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    traceable author statement
    traceable author statement
    traceable author statement
    Cellular Component (3 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    traceable author statement
    traceable author statement
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    No Assay Recorded
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    spermatogonium

    Comment: not expressed at apical tip of testis

    northern blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    RT-PCR
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    bam transcript is expresed in two waves: the first in spermatogonia, and the second in early spermatocytes. bam transcript, but not protein, is detected in primary spermatocytes, suggesting that bam protein translation is downregulated.
    bam transcripts are expressed throughout oogenesis and in 0-2hr embryos but are absent by 4hr of development. They are also detected in dissected ovaries and testes. In ovaries, bam transcripts are expressed in cystoblasts and/or very early cystocytes. Later they are detected in stage 10 nurse cells, are transferred to the oocyte at the time of nurse cell breakdown, and persist in the mature egg and the early embryo..
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    bam protein is detected in secondary spermatogonial cells at the 4-16 cell stages, with peak expression at the 8 cell stage. bam protein is not detected in spermatocytes.
    Marker for
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\bam in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 32 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of bam
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of bam
    Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    germarium & germ cell
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909YQ )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504O9 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-87
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:25,243,039..25,245,109 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    96C7-96C8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}OstStt3j2D9 and P{PZ}Aats-gln05461
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    96C1-96C9
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    96C-96C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (15)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      polyclonal
      monoclonal
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      bam is epistatic to somatic niche piwi function in the ovary, but germline piwi is epistatic to bam function in the ovary.
      Forced premature expression of bam in early male germ cells (stem cells, gonialblasts and spermatogonia) leads to accumulation of male germ cells at the single-cell stage and then death of the early male germ cells.
      The down-regulation of bam protein is essential for the initiation of cystocyte differentiation into functional egg chambers.
      bam and bgcn cooperatively regulate cystoblast differentiation by controlling localization of bam protein to the fusome.
      bgcn is essential for the localization of bam protein to the fusome.
      In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
      Mosaic analysis demonstrates bam and bgcn act autonomously in the germline to restrict germ cell proliferation during spermatogenesis. Results suggest bam and bgcn regulate progression through the male germline stem cell lineage by cell-intrinsically restricting the proliferation of amplifying germ cells. bgcn function is not required for the proper expression of bam protein.
      Germ cells accumulating in bam or bgcn mutants testis most resemble amplifying germ cells, because they undergo incomplete cytokinesis and progress through the cell cycle in synchrony within a cyst.
      Disruption of bam expression in enc mutant ovaries suggests enc has a role early in cyst development.
      enc is a negative regulator of bam.
      Mutations in bam disrupt cyst formation producing tumorous egg chambers.
      Phenotypic analysis of bam-;hts- ovaries shows bam is epistatic to hts.
      Anti-bam antibodies can recognise bam in two distinct cellular compartments, the fusome and the cytoplasm.
      bam is required to promote incomplete cytokinesis and activate fusome growth.
      Mutants display germline hyperplastic phenotype.
      Partial germline sex transformation occurs in otu, snf, Sxl and bam ovarian tumors.
      bam is involved in the initiation of gametogenesis.
      reference: Spradling and McKearin, personal communication.
      bam is essential for male and female fertility but not for viability.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 126 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      bam
      (Chen et al., 2019, Gao et al., 2019, Li et al., 2019, Chen et al., 2018, Flora et al., 2018, Hao et al., 2018, Jain et al., 2018, Kang et al., 2018, McCarthy et al., 2018, Mehrotra and Deshpande, 2018, Osman and Pek, 2018, Tokusumi et al., 2018, Tseng et al., 2018, Cheng et al., 2017, Feng et al., 2017, Ji et al., 2017, Kim et al., 2017, Ma et al., 2017, Misra et al., 2017, Monsivais et al., 2017, Salz et al., 2017, Shan et al., 2017, Yang et al., 2017, Bowman and Tatar, 2016, Carreira-Rosario et al., 2016, Cruz-Becerra et al., 2016, Li et al., 2016, Ma et al., 2016, Sanchez et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Yu et al., 2016, Dolezal et al., 2015, Eikenes et al., 2015, Flores et al., 2015, Kao et al., 2015, Lengil et al., 2015, Lim et al., 2015, Liu et al., 2015, Luo et al., 2015, Shapiro-Kulnane et al., 2015, Singh, 2015, Sun et al., 2015, Teixeira et al., 2015, Yu et al., 2015, Chen et al., 2014, Eliazer et al., 2014, Herzig et al., 2014, Kuuluvainen et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2014, Maimon et al., 2014, Matsuoka et al., 2014, Pan et al., 2014, Toshima et al., 2014, Tseng et al., 2014, Yan et al., 2014, Barton et al., 2013, Chang et al., 2013, Eikenes et al., 2013, Eun et al., 2013, Hernández et al., 2013, Jin et al., 2013, Joly et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Mathieu et al., 2013, Xin et al., 2013, Zhao et al., 2013, Bunt et al., 2012, Cash and Andrews, 2012, Chau et al., 2012, Insco et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Li et al., 2012, Lim et al., 2012, Lu et al., 2012, Matunis et al., 2012, Meier et al., 2012, Monk et al., 2012, Tian et al., 2012, White-Cooper, 2012, Xia et al., 2012, Chan et al., 2011, Deng et al., 2011, Eliazer and Buszczak, 2011, Eliazer et al., 2011, Gancz et al., 2011, Kaczmarczyk and Kopp, 2011, Kirilly et al., 2011, Losick et al., 2011, Meiklejohn et al., 2011, Monk et al., 2011, Mukai et al., 2011, Ni et al., 2011, Parrott et al., 2011, Pek and Kai, 2011, Richter et al., 2011, Sui and Yang, 2011, Tokusumi et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Zhou et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2010, Gan et al., 2010, Gan et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Monk et al., 2010, Sun et al., 2010, Tastan et al., 2010, Xia et al., 2010, Yu et al., 2010, Buszczak et al., 2009, Cai and Laughon, 2009, Chau et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2009, Cook et al., 2009.11.25, Guo and Wang, 2009, Insco et al., 2009, Insco et al., 2009, Iovino et al., 2009, Karpowicz et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Pek et al., 2009, Rhiner et al., 2009, Shen et al., 2009, Sheng et al., 2009, Vibranovski et al., 2009, Chau et al., 2008, Cheng et al., 2008, Dansereau and Lasko, 2008, Flatt et al., 2008, Flores et al., 2008, Hsu et al., 2008, Jiang et al., 2008, Jin et al., 2008, LaFever et al., 2008, Lin, 2008, Neumuller et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Yamashita and Fuller, 2008, Zhao et al., 2008, Bauer DuMont et al., 2007, Fuller and Spradling, 2007, Herzig et al., 2007, Hueber et al., 2007, Jin and Xie, 2007, Maines et al., 2007, Nurminsky, 2007, Park et al., 2007, Parma et al., 2007, Roper, 2007, Song et al., 2007, Yang et al., 2007, Civetta et al., 2006, Gawande et al., 2006, Mikhaylova et al., 2006, Mukai et al., 2006, Narbonne-Reveau et al., 2006, Niki, 2006, Payne and Braun, 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Decotto and Spradling, 2005, Gao et al., 2005, Kalmykova et al., 2005, Kirilly et al., 2005, Kruger, 2005, Xi and Xie, 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Yamashita et al., 2005, Pyrowolakis et al., 2004)
      fs(3)neo61
      Name Synonyms
      Bag-of-Marbles
      bag of marble
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (437)