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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ben
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
bendless
Annotation Symbol
CG18319
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000173
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (2.3.2.23)
Gene Summary
bendless (ben) encodes an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. It plays essential roles in multiple processes such as synaptic growth and maturation, axon guidance, innate immunity, genomic integrity, tumor growth, cell invasion, apoptosis, long-term memory and escape response. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Ubc13, UbcD3, Bend

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-47
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:13996345..13999805
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (24 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002514495
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in axonogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in flight behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in grooming behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in jump response
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:egr; FB:FBgn0033483
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hep; FB:FBgn0010303
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Tak1; FB:FBgn0026323
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:egr; FB:FBgn0033483
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Traf6; FB:FBgn0265464
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Traf6; FB:FBgn0265464
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Uev1A; FB:FBgn0035601
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:egr; FB:FBgn0033483
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:nopo; FB:FBgn0034314
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Uev1A; FB:FBgn0035601
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in synapse maturation
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000630262
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000630262
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002514495
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002514495
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. (P35128)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
S-ubiquitinyl-[E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme]-L-cysteine + [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L-cysteine = [E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme]-L-cysteine + S-ubiquitinyl-[E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L- cysteine (2.3.2.23)
Predictions / Assertions
S-ubiquitinyl-[E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme]-L-cysteine + [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L-cysteine = [E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme]-L-cysteine + S-ubiquitinyl-[E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L- cysteine (2.3.2.23)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
bendless (ben) encodes an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. It plays essential roles in multiple processes such as synaptic growth and maturation, axon guidance, innate immunity, genomic integrity, tumor growth, cell invasion, apoptosis, long-term memory and escape response. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
E2 UBIQUITIN CONJUGATING ENZYMES -
Ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes accept activated ubiquitin from ubiquitin-activating (E1) enzymes via thioester bond with a conserved catalytic cysteine. E2s then interact with ubiquitin ligases (E3) to directly or indirectly ubiquitinate target proteins. E2s are characterised by a 200 amino acid ubiquitin-conjugating (UBC) domain which interacts with E1 and E3s and acts catalytically. (Adapted from PMID:1994026).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Imd Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The immune deficiency (Imd) pathway primarily mediates the humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Activation of the Imd pathway by diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the release of the NFκB-like factor Rel from auto-inhibition and its translocation into the nucleus to activate the transcription of antimicrobial peptides. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Positive Regulators of TNFα-Eiger Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) signaling pathway up-regulate the activation of the pathway triggered by Eiger (egr).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to other proteins.
(UniProt, P35128)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ben: bendless (J. Hall; R. Wyman)
Adults have an aberrant startle response; they do not jump when presented with a lights-off stimulus. The cervical giant fiber, a brain neuron, has abnormal morphology. The normal giant fiber terminates in the thorax at a synapse onto the motoneuron innervating the tergo-trochanteral (TT) muscle (= jump muscle). In ben, this synapse is abnormal or absent. The normal lateral bend of the giant fiber toward the TT motoneuron in the mesothoracic neuromere is absent; the axon usually terminates at the midline with fine branches extending from its tip. Latency of response of the TT muscle to stimulation of the giant fiber is abnormally long, and muscles cannot follow stimulation at rates above 5 Hz. Rhabdomeres of the photoreceptor cells in the ommatidia heart shaped in cross section with indentation centrally oriented rather than round as is normal. Furthermore, the axons from photoreceptor cells R7 and R8 fail to make the right-angle turn into the optic medulla after traversing the lamina (Benzer). ben flies choose visible over ultraviolet wave lengths whereas wild-type flies make the opposite choice (Benzer).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\ben for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073855
1890
151
FBtr0300566
852
151
FBtr0307296
2003
151
FBtr0332843
1852
151
FBtr0332844
1810
151
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.0, 1.2 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073686
17.2
151
5.28
FBpp0289793
17.2
151
5.28
FBpp0298297
17.2
151
5.28
FBpp0305066
17.2
151
5.28
FBpp0305067
17.2
151
5.28
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

151 aa isoforms: ben-PA, ben-PB, ben-PC, ben-PD, ben-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ben using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ben in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ben
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ben
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 9 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (27)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (29)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (24)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (21)
8 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (33)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (17)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (9)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HH0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150EBK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0G1Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0G29 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0VPD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (32)
7 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Imd Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The immune deficiency (Imd) pathway primarily mediates the humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Activation of the Imd pathway by diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the release of the NFκB-like factor Rel from auto-inhibition and its translocation into the nucleus to activate the transcription of antimicrobial peptides. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    Positive Regulators of TNFα-Eiger Signaling Pathway -
    Positive regulators of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) signaling pathway up-regulate the activation of the pathway triggered by Eiger (egr).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-47
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    12D2-12D2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1595EP1595 and P{EP}l(1)G0007EP764
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    12D-12D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (9)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (108)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: ben CG18319

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: ben anon-WO03040301.242

      Additional comments

      The ben and CG3473 genes share at least 50% identity.

      "l(1)G0186" may affect "ben".

      Source for merge of ben anon-WO03040301.242 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

      Other Comments

      ben does not seem to be required for nascent synapse formation but rather plays a role in synaptic growth and maturation.

      ben functions as a novel developmental switch that permits the transition from axonal growth and incipient synapse formation to synaptic growth and maturation in the central nervous system.

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

      ben mRNA is terminated at the poly(A) signal provided by the Ste intergenic spacer 3' untranslated region which is present upstream of the neighbouring Ste12DOR coding region. Overall orientation not stated: ben+ Ste12DOR+

      Mutants have pleiotropic phenotypes affecting thoracic muscle patterning, pupal mortality and post-eclosion mortality.

      Mutations in ben cause a disruption in the recognition event leading to synapse formation between the giant fibre (GF) and the tergotrochanteral jump muscle motorneuron (TTMmn) giving rise to the GF phenotype. Also mutants exhibit morphological abnormalities within the visual system. Results suggest a role for ben for ubiquitin-mediated protein modification in nervous system development, including the regulation of synaptic connectivity.

      Adults have an aberrant startle response; they do not jump when presented with a lights-off stimulus. The cervical giant fiber, a brain neuron, has abnormal morphology. The normal giant fiber terminates in the thorax at a synapse onto the motoneuron innervating the tergo-trochanteral (TT) muscle (= jump muscle). In ben, this synapse is abnormal or absent. The normal lateral bend of the giant fiber toward the TT motoneuron in the mesothoracic neuromere is absent; the axon usually terminates at the midline with fine branches extending from its tip. Latency of response of the TT muscle to stimulation of the giant fiber is abnormally long, and muscles cannot follow stimulation at rates above 5 Hz. Rhabdomeres of the photoreceptor cells in the ommatidia heart shaped in cross-section with indentation centrally oriented rather than round as is normal. Furthermore, the axons from photoreceptor cells R7 and R8 fail to make the right-angle turn into the optic medulla after traversing the lamina. ben flies choose visible over ultraviolet wave lengths whereas wild-type flies make the opposite choice.

      Less than 25% ben flies show abnormalities in the dorsal attachment of the tergotrochantral muscle.

      Behavioural data suggests antennal and maxillary basiconic sensilla may be important receptors for short chain alcohols and organic acids but less crucial for acetates, aldehydes and ketones.

      Mutations have a defect in the pathway between the giant fibre and jump muscle, the giant fiber fails to make a bend which would normally bring it into proximity with the jump muscle motoneuron.

      Mutations interrupt one neural connection in the giant fibre pathway that mediates the jump/flight escape response.

      Mutations disrupt the synaptic transmission between the giant fibre (GF) system and the tergotrochanteral muscle (TTM, jumping muscle) motor neuron.

      Mutation in ben deletes one of the processes of the giant fibre leaving the other portions functionally unaltered.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      Named 'UbcD3' for 'ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from Drosophila 3 (the numbering reflects the order of identification).

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 64 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0066817
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (140)