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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\bi
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
bifid
Annotation Symbol
CG3578
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000179
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
bifid (bi) encodes a T-box transcription factor that controls cell proliferation, viability and cell migration. It contributes to the development of several tissues such as brain, eyes and wings. In wing development it is activated by the product of dpp and to a lesser extent by Wg signaling. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
omb, optomotor-blind, optomotor blind, l(1)omb, Qd
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:4,412,856..4,485,647 [+]
Recombination map
1-8
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
T-BOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The T-box transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding immunoglobulin-fold domain of 180-200 amino acids, known as T-box, named after its founding member, the mouse T protein. (Adapted from FBrf0218841).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Essential protein that may function as a transcription regulator. Vital for pupal development. Required for proper development of the optic lobes and wings, and abdominal pigmentation.
(UniProt, Q24432)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
bi: bifid
Longitudinal veins fused at base of wing into bifid stalk. L3 delta-like at tip; L4 often incomplete at tip. Wing margins often excised at tip of L4. Wings spread in proportion to their shortness. High temperature enhances and low temperature produces overlapping of wild type. Stronger in male than in female. Hypomorphic allele; females heterozygous for bi and a deficiency for bi have outspread, crumpled, and very flimsy wings with an extreme bifid fusion of the basal regions of the longitudinal wing veins (Craymer and Roy, 1980, DIS 55: 204). Enhances Bx alleles as well as sd, cp, and vgnp (Waletzky). RK1.
omb: optomotor-blind (J.C. Hall)
Adults expressing omb1, the only allele studied in phenotypic detail, are impaired in optomotor turning responses in tests involving tethered or freely moving flies (Heisenberg et al., 1978; Blondeau and Heisenberg, 1982; Kulkarni, Steinlauf, and Hall, 1988, Genetics 118: 267-285; Dushay, Rosbash, and Hall, 1989, J. Biol. Rhythms 4: 1-27). The mutant is also aberrant in orientation to vertical stripe (Heisenberg et al., 1978). More detailed examination of "yaw torque" optomotor responses show that omb1 is restricted in responses to stimulation of "frontal visual field", with mutant behavior summarized as retaining "object responses" but missing "large field responses" (Bausenwein et al., 1986). The mutant is relatively normal in "lift/thrust" response to vertical pattern movement and in regard to landing response elicited by front-to-back horizontal motion. Slow phototaxis, using Y-tube, was markedly subnormal (Dushay et al., 1989). Giant arborizing fibers in lobula plate. Since isolation and the original histological examinations, anatomical abnormalities have become more pronounced, e.g., the optic lobes remain in "pre-imaginal" orientation in some omb adults, viz., long axis of medulla optic ganglia oriented more frontally than in wild-type (Blondeau and Heisenberg, 1982); other behavioral abnormalities: omb shows anomalous avoidance reaction, i.e., "antifixation" to objects in Y-maze test (Bulthoff, 1982, Biol. Cybernet. 45: 63-70); courting males exhibit diminished tracking responses of and turning responses to moving females (Cook, 1980, Biol. Cybernet. 37: 41-51; Tompkins, Gross, Hall, Gailey, and Siegel, 1982, Behav. Genet. 12: 295-307). Visual stimulus-induced metabolic activity in the optic lobes (monitored by distribution of radioactive 2-deoxyglucose) is normal, suggesting that basic structure and function of ganglia distal to lobula plate is normal (Bulthoff and Buchner, 1985, J. Comp. Physiol. 156: 25-34). Without effect on locomotor activity rhythm (Helfrich, 1986, J. Neurogenet. 3: 321-43).
Qd: Quadroon
Broad dark band on margins of all abdominal tergites, giving abdomen superficial appearance of uniform darkness. Viability of heterozygous female normal, of homozygous female < 10% normal, and of male 30% normal. Qd/Df(1)bi4 exhibit homozygous Qd phenotype as well as bi-like phenotype; Qd/bi and Qd/+ are normal with respect to bi (Banga, Bloomquist, Brodberg, Pye, Larrivee, Mason, Boyd, and Pak, 1986, Chromosoma 93: 341-46). RK2.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - brachyury T homolog - involved in differentiation of the brain, the CNS, the wing and in patterning of adult abdominal segments - promotes fold formation to separate wing notum and hinge territories
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
7
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\bi or the JBrowse view of Dmel\bi for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Gene model reviewed during 5.40
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070672
4048
972
FBtr0300608
4421
972
FBtr0300609
4388
972
FBtr0308914
5402
974
FBtr0308915
5390
970
FBtr0331162
4421
1023
FBtr0343569
5613
971
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.0, >12 (northern blot)
6, ~12, >12 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070640
102.6
972
8.77
FBpp0289835
102.6
972
8.77
FBpp0289836
102.6
972
8.77
FBpp0301040
102.9
974
8.63
FBpp0301041
102.5
970
8.76
FBpp0303589
108.3
1023
6.95
FBpp0310169
102.6
971
8.63
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

972 aa isoforms: bi-PA, bi-PB, bi-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
974 (aa); 103 (kD)
Comments
Sequence comparison of a 1.1kb open reading frame did not reveal any significant homology to other proteins in database.
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\bi using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:zld; FB:FBgn0259789
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q13207
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q13207
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
bi transcript is expressed in cardiogenic mesoderm at embryonic stage 11, but not in the embryonic/larval heart at stage 16.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The bi protein is expressed over the entire wing pouch region, as well as in the central area of the hinge region in the wing disc.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4}biomb-Gal4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
wing disc | distal

Comment: reference states 30 hr APF

wing disc | restricted

Comment: reference states 30 hr APF

Reporter: P{GAL4}MD735
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}bimd653
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}biomb1-GAL4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}biomb3-GAL4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}biX35
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}Pol-1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\bi in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 67 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of bi
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of bi
Deletions and Duplications ( 74 )
Disrupted in
Duplicated in
Partially disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal sternite & trichome
abdominal tergite & macrochaeta
abdominal tergite & trichome
abdominal tergite | posterior & trichome
adult cuticle & abdomen | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC
adult cuticle & abdomen | somatic clone | cell autonomous
adult cuticle & abdominal segment | male
sternite | anterior & trichome
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (17)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
10 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
 
3 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (17)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (17)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (22)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (23)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919081I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150B1T )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0MK1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0BIS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0I8R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
5 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
DOES NOT ameliorate  cancer
model of  cancer
is NOT ameliorated by shgUAS.cSa
is NOT ameliorated by Diap1UAS.cUa
is NOT ameliorated by bskK53R.UAS
is NOT ameliorated by TimpUAS.cPa
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-8
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:4,412,856..4,485,647 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
4C3-4C4
(determined by in situ hybridisation); Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG2930EP1352 and P{EP}EP425
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
4C3-4C3
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
4C5-4C6
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
4C-4C
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
4B-4C
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (34)
Genomic Clones (41)
cDNA Clones (16)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
polyclonal
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: bi CG3578
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments
bi plays a role in wing development downstream of dpp by controlling the expression of tkv.
bi is sufficient to specify dorsal leg cell fate. bi promotes transdetermination-competent leg disc cells more directly than does dpp. Results indicate wg and dpp signaling pathways are cooperating to induce vg expression and leg-to-wing transdetermination.
bi is the primary target of hh signaling in the adult abdomen, mediating both the morphogenetic and polarity-reversal functions of hh.
Ectopic bi expression can lead to the growth of additional wings.
bi expression is required for distal wing development and is controlled by both dpp and wg.
The spatial domains of salm and bi expression are regulated by dpp.
bi and salm are transcriptionally activated at different distances from dpp secreting cells.
Mutant bi expression suggests an early involvement of bi in HS/VS cell development.
bi might code for a nuclear effector acting downstream of dpp in pattern formation during appendage development.
Mutant wing discs reach and even exceed the wild type size, but show extra folds. Massive apoptotic cell death occurs at the end of larval development resulting in lack of adult tissue. Loss of optic lobe tissue occurs by a similar mechanism.
bi is essential for optic lobe and wing blade development.
Mutations in the optic lobe regulatory region of the bi locus are viable and cause recognisable aberrations in the adult brain with concomitant specific defects in optomotor behaviour. Null mutations can cause highly disordered optic lobes recognisable in third instar larvae.
bi mutations have been mapped to establish the T3 transcript as the carrier of bi function.
Flies heterozygous for bi and either T(1;2)biD2, T(1;3)biD1T or T(1;3)biD1T express the bi phenotype.
Behavioural and anatomical studies demonstrate that central brain lesions can be interpreted behaviourally.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Morgan, Nov. 1911.
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 94 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
omb
(Kirszenblat et al., 2019, Reinhardt et al., 2019, Al Khatib et al., 2017, Upadhyay et al., 2017, Testa and Dworkin, 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Apitz and Salecker, 2015, Simon and Guerrero, 2015, Svendsen et al., 2015, Kim et al., 2014, Restrepo et al., 2014, Shen et al., 2014, Curtis et al., 2013, Giannios and Tsitilou, 2013, Herrera et al., 2013, Kumar et al., 2013, Mayer et al., 2013, Moran et al., 2013, Paulk et al., 2013, Peterson and O'Connor, 2013, Tare et al., 2013, Upadhyai and Campbell, 2013, Zhu, 2013, Li and Padgett, 2012, Oh and Irvine, 2011, Rodriguez, 2011, Szuperák et al., 2011, Oliver et al., 2010, Schwank and Basler, 2010, Shen et al., 2010, Song et al., 2010, Eivers et al., 2009, Grieder et al., 2009, Svendsen et al., 2009, Campbell and Moser, 2008, Estella and Mann, 2008, Hofmeyer et al., 2008, Lim et al., 2008, Mandalaywala et al., 2008, Shen et al., 2008, Taylor and Adler, 2008, Tsai et al., 2008, Winkler et al., 2008, Zeng et al., 2008, Barrio et al., 2007, Estella and Mann, 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Kerszberg and Wolpert, 2007, Murakami et al., 2007, Pflugfelder et al., 2007, Ramel et al., 2007, Umemori et al., 2007, van Swinderen and Flores, 2007, Ashe, 2006, Bangi and Wharton, 2006, Capelson and Corces, 2006, de Navas et al., 2006, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson., 2006, Lee and Sun, 2006, Miotto et al., 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Mosimann et al., 2006, Winkler et al., 2006, Brisson et al., 2005, Capelson and Corces, 2005, Galindo et al., 2005, Moser and Campbell, 2005, Negeri et al., 2005, Porsch et al., 2005, Rogulja and Irvine, 2005, Shen and Dahmann, 2005, Thompson et al., 2005, Brisson et al., 2004, Cook et al., 2004, Crozatier et al., 2004, del Alamo Rodriguez et al., 2004, Pai et al., 2004, Song et al., 2004, Tabata and Takei, 2004, Wang and Struhl, 2004, Wernet and Desplan, 2004, Winter and Campbell, 2004, Cook and Bier, 2003, del Alamo et al., 2003, Hall, 2003, Reim et al., 2003, Tayler and Garrity, 2003, Tomlinson, 2003, Wittkopp et al., 2003, Adachi-Yamada, 2002, Erkner et al., 2002, Gerlitz et al., 2002, Kopp and Duncan, 2002, Lawrence et al., 2002, Martin-Castellanos and Edgar, 2002, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2002, Tang and Sun, 2002, Yao and Sun, 2002, Affolter et al., 2001, Funakoshi et al., 2001, Gurdon and Bourillot, 2001, Hofmeyer et al., 2001, Hofmeyer et al., 2001, Ingham and McMahon, 2001, Sanchez and Guerrero, 2001, Sanchez et al., 2001, Vincent and Briscoe, 2001, Vincent and Perrimon, 2001, Basler, 2000, Day and Lawrence, 2000, Funakoshi et al., 2000, Goulding and Lamar, 2000, Kopp et al., 2000, Martin-Blanco, 2000, Nebreda and Porras, 2000, Pages and Kerridge, 2000, Selleck, 2000, Singh et al., 2000, Sivasankaran et al., 2000, Takatsu et al., 2000, Tanimoto et al., 2000, Torres-Vazquez et al., 2000, Adachi-Yamada et al., 1999, Adachi-Yamada et al., 1999, Brummel et al., 1999, Campbell and Tomlinson, 1999, Diez del Corral et al., 1999, Gorfinkiel et al., 1999, Hughes, 1999, Jazwinska et al., 1999, Jazwinska et al., 1999, Kopp and Duncan, 1999, Kudoh, 1999, Kudoh, 1999, Marsh and Theisen, 1999, Minami et al., 1999, Morata and Sanchez-Herrero, 1999, Pflugfelder et al., 1999, Podos and Ferguson, 1999, Raftery and Sutherland, 1999, Sharma and Kumar, 1999, Sivasankaran and Basler, 1999, Zorin et al., 1999, de Celis, 1998, Gonzalez-Crespo et al., 1998, Haerry et al., 1998, Haerry et al., 1998, Hays et al., 1998, Hazelett et al., 1998, Hidalgo, 1998, Huang and Kunes, 1998, Jazwinska et al., 1998, Johnston, 1998, Lecuit and Cohen, 1998, Maves and Schubiger, 1998, Porsch et al., 1998, Rorth et al., 1998, Rutila et al., 1998, Sivasankaran and Basler, 1998, Stanewsky et al., 1998, Whitman, 1998, Burke and Basler, 1997, Chung and Kunes, 1997, Grimm et al., 1997, Heisenberg, 1997, Joiner and Griffith, 1997, Kavka and Green, 1997, Kim et al., 1997, Kopp and Duncan, 1997, Kopp et al., 1997, Maves and Schubiger, 1997, Neumann and Cohen, 1997, Serrano and O'Farrell, 1997, Tsai et al., 1997, Tsuneizumi et al., 1997, Vieira et al., 1997, Banfi et al., 1996, Brook and Cohen, 1996, Calleja, 1996.10.16, Calleja et al., 1996, Grimm and Pflugfelder, 1996, Lawrence and Struhl, 1996, Lecuit et al., 1996, Nellen et al., 1996, Smith, 1996, Balles et al., 1995, Grimm and Pflugfelder, 1995, Kerscher et al., 1995, Pflugfelder, 1995, Pflugfelder and Heisenberg, 1995, Pflugfelder et al., 1995, Sun et al., 1995, Balles and Pflugfelder, 1994, Hall, 1994, Kerscher et al., 1993, Pflugfelder et al., 1993, Poeck, 1993.9.20, Poeck, 1993.9.20, Poeck, 1993.9.20, Poeck, 1993.9.20, Poeck, 1993.9.20, Poeck, 1993.9.20, Poeck, 1993.10.14, Poeck, 1993.10.14, Poeck et al., 1993, Brunner et al., 1992, Hoube and Fischbach, 1992, Pflugfelder et al., 1992, Pflugfelder et al., 1992, Poeck et al., 1991, Ranganathan et al., 1991, Roth et al., 1991, Pflugfelder et al., 1990, Kulkarni et al., 1988, Oliver et al., 1988, Banga et al., 1986, Bulthoff and Buchner, 1985, Heisenberg et al., 1985, Bulthoff, 1982)
Name Synonyms
Optimotor-blind
Optomotor blind
lethal(l)optomotor-blind
opomoter-blind
optimotor blind
optomer-blind
optomoter-blind
optomotor-blind gene
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0002996
  • FBgn0003183
  • FBgn0004104
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (386)