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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\brm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
brahma
Annotation Symbol
CG5942
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000212
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Adenosinetriphosphatase (3.6.1.3)
Gene Snapshot
brahma (brm) encodes the ATPase subunit of the Brahma chromatin-remodeling complex, which is involved in transcription regulation. It regulates Egfr signalling, stem cell proliferation, and innate immune response. It contributes to multiple processes including neurogenesis, muscle development, phagocytosis, His3-K27 acetylation and leg and wing morphogenesis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
l(3)72Aa, dBRM
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:15,970,082..15,982,869 [-]
Recombination map
3-43
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BRAHMA ASSOCIATED PROTEINS COMPLEX -
Brahma (BRM) complexes are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes that regulate nucleosome organization. Two BRM complexes have been identified in D.mel, BAP and PBAP. (Adapted from FBrf0192510).
POLYBROMO-CONTAINING BRAHMA ASSOCIATED PROTEINS COMPLEX -
Brahma (BRM) complexes are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes that regulate nucleosome organization. Two BRM complexes have been identified in D.mel, BAP and PBAP. (Adapted from FBrf0192510).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcriptional regulator (PubMed:1346755). Acts as a coactivator, assisting one or more dedicated transcriptional activators of ANTC and BXC homeotic gene clusters (PubMed:1346755). Can counteract the repressive effect of Polycomb protein (PubMed:1346755). ATPase subunit of the Brahma complex, a multiprotein complex which is the equivalent of the yeast SWI/SNF complex and acts by remodeling the chromatin by catalyzing an ATP-dependent alteration in the structure of nucleosomal DNA (PubMed:1346755). This complex can both serve as a transcriptional coactivator or corepressor, depending on the context (PubMed:10809665). In type II neuroblast lineage, as part of the Brm remodeling complex, suppresses the formation of ectopic neuroblasts probably through interaction with erm and HDAC3 (PubMed:24618901).
(UniProt, P25439)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
brm: brahma (J.A. Kennison)
Dominant suppressor of Pc and Pcl alleles. Recessive embryonic lethal with strong maternal contribution. Maternal effect lethality is non-rescuable even by two wildtype zygotic alleles. There is a single 5.5 kb mRNA present throughout development with the greatest amounts in the unfertilized egg and early embryo. brm1 isolated as a dominant suppressor of the antennal to leg transformation associated with a Pc2 AntpNs double heterozygote.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\brm or the JBrowse view of Dmel\brm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Stop-codon suppression (UAG) postulated; FBrf0216884.
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075525
5339
1638
FBtr0075526
5553
1638
FBtr0075523
5327
1634
FBtr0075524
5322
1634
FBtr0330160
5339
1658
FBtr0333580
5351
1642
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075280
185.1
1638
7.60
FBpp0075281
185.1
1638
7.60
FBpp0075278
184.6
1634
7.52
FBpp0075279
184.6
1634
7.52
FBpp0303193
187.1
1658
7.60
FBpp0305757
185.6
1642
7.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1634 aa isoforms: brm-PC, brm-PD
1638 aa isoforms: brm-PA, brm-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1638 (aa); 185 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the Brahma complex, which is composed of brm, osa, mor, Snr1/Bap45, dalao/Bap111, Bap55, Bap60 and Act42A/Bap47 (PubMed:10601025, PubMed:10809665). Interacts with asf1 (PubMed:12381660). Associates with the brm-HDAC3-erm repressor complex, composed of brm, HDAC3 and erm (PubMed:24618901). Interacts with erm and HDAC3 (PubMed:24618901).
(UniProt, P25439)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\brm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (34 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CycE; FB:FBgn0010382
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Snr1; FB:FBgn0011715
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:mor; FB:FBgn0002783
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q7KTS4
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9V464
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P30052
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000330, InterPro:IPR014978
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005816
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000084207
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P51532
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000084207
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR029295
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000848485
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (22 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (19 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VNC2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:numb; FB:FBgn0002973
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:brat; FB:FBgn0010300
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rel; FB:FBgn0014018
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q8MQJ9
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005816
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000084796
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000084796
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005816
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000084207
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR030088
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
brm transcripts are expressed maximally in unfertilized eggs and early embryos, indicating maternal contributions. Levels drop steadily during embryogenesis with a dramatic drop at 16hrs. Low levels of brm transcripts are observed in larvae, pupae, and adult females. The temporal pattern of brm transcription is very similar to that of Snr1.
brm transcript levels are highest in unfertilized eggs and early embryos and are significantly lower in other stages of development.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Protein is localized along the entire length of all chromosomes.
brm protein is detected throughout the entire leg and wing disc of the developing larva.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\brm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
capitellum & macrochaeta
macrochaeta & wing, with Scer\GAL469B
mechanosensory chaeta & adult abdomen | somatic clone
mechanosensory chaeta & adult head | somatic clone
mechanosensory chaeta & adult thorax | somatic clone
sensillum campaniformium & wing, with Scer\GAL469B
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (7)
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
6 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
9 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900U7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500HZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00IN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00HV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G01R9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the Brahma complex, which is composed of brm, osa, mor, Snr1/Bap45, dalao/Bap111, Bap55, Bap60 and Act42A/Bap47 (PubMed:10601025, PubMed:10809665). Interacts with asf1 (PubMed:12381660). Associates with the brm-HDAC3-erm repressor complex, composed of brm, HDAC3 and erm (PubMed:24618901). Interacts with erm and HDAC3 (PubMed:24618901).
(UniProt, P25439 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map
3-43
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:15,970,082..15,982,869 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
72C1-72C1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}Tfb2EP572 and P{lacW}thj5C8&P{PZ}Mbs03802
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
72A-72B
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Mapped by complementation analysis with deficiency and duplication chromosomes (details unspecified).
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (22)
Genomic Clones (10)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (61)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: brm CG18438
    Additional comments
    Source for merge of brm CG18438 was sequence comparison ( date:001104 ).
    A chimeric Scer\snf2-brm protein (in which the DNA-dependent ATPase domain of Scer\snf2 has been replaced with the corresponding region of brm) partially rescues the growth defects of S.cerevisiae Scer\snf2 mutant cells.
    Fifteen alleles induced by EMS, three alleles induced by γ irradiation and four alleles induced by hybrid dysgenesis.
    Other Comments
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for brm protein in S2 cells; GEO accession number GSE32404.
    The 'l(3)72Aa' (brm) complementation group comprises 19 EMS-induced mutant alleles.
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for brm protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of brm disrupts the dendritic routing patterns of the ddaD and ddaE neurons, resulting in aberrantly oriented primary dendrites. RNAi also causes defects in muscle, alterations in the number of MD neurons, defects in dendrite morphogenesis but no obvious defects in da dendrite development.
    S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.
    Loss of brm function results in loss of veins in the wing.
    D.melanogaster contains two distinct brahma (BRM) complexes: the BAP complex, defined by the presence of osa protein and the absence of both polybromo and Bap170 proteins, and the PBAP complex, which contains the polybromo and Bap170 proteins but lacks the osa protein.
    The chromatin remodelling activity of the brm complex may play a general role in facilitating transcription by RNA polymerase II.
    Pc, Scm, Psc, ph-p and ph-d contribute to the PRC1 (Polycomb repressive complex 1). PRC1 directly antagonizes ATP-dependent remodeling of nucleosomal arrays in a purified system and may directly modulate (and be modified by) SWI/SNF (brm/mor) activity.
    brm interacts with osa to regulate the expression of the Antp P2 promoter.
    Used in an investigation to address the relationship between retrotransposons and retroviruses and the coadaptation of these retroelements to their host genomes. Results indicate retrotransposons are heterogeneous in contrast to retroviruses, suggesting different modes of evolution by slippage-like mechanisms.
    The Snr1 and brm proteins are present in a large complex and co-precipitate from extracts, these results suggest that the Drosophila counterpart of the yeast SWI/SNF complex plays an important role in counteracting the repressive effects of chromatin on homeotic gene transcription during development.
    Phenotypic studies and genetic interactions suggest that Snr1 and brm act together, and with trx, to regulate homeotic gene transcription. Snr1 and brm proteins are present in a large complex, this complex may play an important role in maintaining homeotic gene transcription during development by counteracting the repressive effect of chromatin.
    brm is a positive transcriptional regulator of hh in imaginal development.
    Regions of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
    A method based on in-vivo formaldehyde crosslinking and chromatin immunoprecipitation has allowed the determination of the in vivo distribution of Pc, brm and Abd-B products at their target sites.
    Severe abnormalities caused by loss of brm expression demonstrates that homeotic genes are not the only target for brm activation. The complex pattern of interallelic complementation suggests that brm may act as a multimer.
    Maternal and zygotic functions of brm are required during embryogenesis.
    Mutations cannot rescue the lethality of the Df(1)ph-2-Psc1 interaction, demonstrating that trx group mutations cannot suppress Pc group phenotypes.
    The ATPase domains of brm and Scer\snf2, but not Iswi, are functionally interchangeable.
    Heterozygous brm mutations suppress the dominant phenotypes of Pc and Pcl mutations.
    brm functions as an upstream activator of Scr expression and activates the Antp promoter directly.
    brm is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.
    Identified as dominant suppressor of Pc and Pcl alleles. Mutants cause recessive embryonic lethal with strong maternal contribution. Maternal effect lethality is non-rescuable even by two wild-type zygotic alleles.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Kennison, 1983.
    Etymology
    "Brahma" means "fate" in India.
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 74 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Brm @ Kto
    brm
    (Bangi et al., 2019, Chen et al., 2019, Chubak et al., 2019, Gervais et al., 2019, Leatham-Jensen et al., 2019, Tegeder et al., 2019, Valanne et al., 2019, Dasari et al., 2018, Richardson and Portela, 2018, He et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Sharma et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Xie et al., 2017, Brewer-Jensen et al., 2016, Du et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Saadin and Starz-Gaiano, 2016, Bivik et al., 2015, Dietz et al., 2015, Dupont et al., 2015, Fischer et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Richardson, 2015.3.11, Zang et al., 2015, Zhu et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Eroglu et al., 2014, Gonzalez et al., 2014, He et al., 2014, Janssens et al., 2014, Slattery et al., 2014, Yan et al., 2014, Yasunaga et al., 2014, Bengani et al., 2013, Jin et al., 2013, Kockmann et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Matzat et al., 2013, Moshkin et al., 2013, Petruk et al., 2013, Vasanthi et al., 2013, Vinayagam et al., 2013, Antao et al., 2012, Hainaut et al., 2012, Ji et al., 2012, Nakayama et al., 2012, Nowak et al., 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Rincon-Arano et al., 2012, Thor, 2012.11.28, Tie et al., 2012, Zraly and Dingwall, 2012, Cooper and Kennison, 2011, Curtis et al., 2011, Davis et al., 2011, Di Stefano et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Ghosh et al., 2011, Jungreis et al., 2011, Kirilly et al., 2011, Mikhaylova and Nurminsky, 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Neumüller et al., 2011, Pérez et al., 2011, Rodriguez-Jato et al., 2011, Sultana et al., 2011, Tea and Luo, 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Vorobyeva et al., 2011, Arancio et al., 2010, Baig et al., 2010, Bhatia et al., 2010, Herr et al., 2010, Karam et al., 2010, Kühnlein, 2010, Lamiable et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Smulders-Srinivasan et al., 2010, van Steensel et al., 2010, Christensen et al., 2009.5.6, Cook et al., 2009.11.25, Khan et al., 2009, Schneiderman et al., 2009, Shevelyov et al., 2009, Terriente-Félix and de Celis, 2009, Burgio et al., 2008, Carrera et al., 2008, Chalkley et al., 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Christensen et al., 2008.7.11, de Wit et al., 2008, Diop et al., 2008, Hallson et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, Nakamura et al., 2008, Petruk et al., 2008, Remaud et al., 2008, Vázquez et al., 2008, Zhou et al., 2008, Baeg et al., 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Corona et al., 2007, Goodfellow et al., 2007, Haigh and Lloyd, 2007, Ivaldi et al., 2007, Marfella and Imbalzano, 2007, Secombe et al., 2007, Stroschein-Stevenson et al., 2006, Zraly et al., 2006, Möller et al., 2005, Marenda et al., 2003, Balasov, 2002, Joanis and Lloyd, 2002, Gim et al., 2001, Hirose et al., 2001)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0036554
    Datasets (1)
    Study focus (1)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • transgene_used
    Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
    References (442)