General Information
Symbol
Dmel\brm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
brahma
Annotation Symbol
CG5942
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000212
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Adenosinetriphosphatase (3.6.1.3)
Gene Snapshot
Brahma (Brm) is the ATPase subunit of the Brahma chromatin-remodeling complex, which is involved in transcription regulation. Brm regulates Egfr signalling, stem cell proliferation, and innate immune response. Brm contributes to multiple processes including neurogenesis, muscle development, phagocytosis, His3-K27 acetylation and leg and wing morphogenesis. [Date last reviewed: 2017-06-15]
Also Known As
l(3)72Aa, brahma, dBRM
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:15,970,082..15,982,869 [-]
Recombination map
3-43
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
BRAHMA ASSOCIATED PROTEINS COMPLEX -
Brahma (BRM) complexes are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes that regulate nucleosome organization. Two BRM complexes have been identified in D.mel, BAP and PBAP. (Adapted from FBrf0192510).
POLYBROMO-CONTAINING BRAHMA ASSOCIATED PROTEINS COMPLEX -
Brahma (BRM) complexes are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes that regulate nucleosome organization. Two BRM complexes have been identified in D.mel, BAP and PBAP. (Adapted from FBrf0192510).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Transcriptional regulator (PubMed:1346755). Acts as a coactivator, assisting one or more dedicated transcriptional activators of ANTC and BXC homeotic gene clusters (PubMed:1346755). Can counteract the repressive effect of Polycomb protein (PubMed:1346755). ATPase subunit of the Brahma complex, a multiprotein complex which is the equivalent of the yeast SWI/SNF complex and acts by remodeling the chromatin by catalyzing an ATP-dependent alteration in the structure of nucleosomal DNA (PubMed:1346755). This complex can both serve as a transcriptional coactivator or corepressor, depending on the context (PubMed:10809665). In type II neuroblast lineage, as part of the Brm remodeling complex, suppresses the formation of ectopic neuroblasts probably through interaction with erm and HDAC3 (PubMed:24618901).
(UniProt, P25439)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
brm: brahma (J.A. Kennison)
Dominant suppressor of Pc and Pcl alleles. Recessive embryonic lethal with strong maternal contribution. Maternal effect lethality is non-rescuable even by two wildtype zygotic alleles. There is a single 5.5 kb mRNA present throughout development with the greatest amounts in the unfertilized egg and early embryo. brm1 isolated as a dominant suppressor of the antennal to leg transformation associated with a Pc2 AntpNs double heterozygote.
Interactive Fly
transcription factor - SWI2/SNF2 homolog - overcomes the repressive effect of chromatin to activate gene transcription - fine-tunes circadian transcription - regulates the Hippo pathway activity through forming complex with Yorkie-Scalloped and regulating the transcription of Crumbs
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\brm or the JBrowse view of Dmel\brm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Stop-codon suppression (UAG) postulated; FBrf0216884.
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075525
5339
1638
FBtr0075526
5553
1638
FBtr0075523
5327
1634
FBtr0075524
5322
1634
FBtr0330160
5339
1658
FBtr0333580
5351
1642
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075280
185.1
1638
7.60
FBpp0075281
185.1
1638
7.60
FBpp0075278
184.6
1634
7.52
FBpp0075279
184.6
1634
7.52
FBpp0303193
187.1
1658
7.60
FBpp0305757
185.6
1642
7.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1634 aa isoforms: brm-PC, brm-PD
1638 aa isoforms: brm-PA, brm-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1638 (aa); 185 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the Brahma complex, which is composed of brm, osa, mor, Snr1/Bap45, dalao/Bap111, Bap55, Bap60 and Act42A/Bap47 (PubMed:10601025, PubMed:10809665). Interacts with asf1 (PubMed:12381660). Associates with the brm-HDAC3-erm repressor complex, composed of brm, HDAC3 and erm (PubMed:24618901). Interacts with erm and HDAC3 (PubMed:24618901).
(UniProt, P25439)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\brm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CycE; FB:FBgn0010382
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Snr1; FB:FBgn0011715
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:mor; FB:FBgn0002783
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q7KTS4
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9V464
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P30052
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000330, InterPro:IPR014978
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005816
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P51532
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR029295
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (21 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (19 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VNC2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:numb; FB:FBgn0002973
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:brat; FB:FBgn0010300
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Rel; FB:FBgn0014018
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q8MQJ9
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005816
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000005816
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR030088
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
brm transcripts are expressed maximally in unfertilized eggs and early embryos, indicating maternal contributions. Levels drop steadily during embryogenesis with a dramatic drop at 16hrs. Low levels of brm transcripts are observed in larvae, pupae, and adult females. The temporal pattern of brm transcription is very similar to that of Snr1.
brm transcript levels are highest in unfertilized eggs and early embryos and are significantly lower in other stages of development.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
brm protein is detected throughout the entire leg and wing disc of the developing larva.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\brm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 45 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of brm
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
          0
          --
            0
            --
              0
              --
                0
                --
                  0
                  --
                    0
                    --
                    Other relevant insertions
                    Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
                    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
                    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of brm
                    Allele of brm
                    Mutagen
                    Associated Transgenic Construct
                    Stocks
                    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of brm
                    Deletions and Duplications ( 17 )
                    Phenotypes
                    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
                    Lethality
                    Allele
                    Sterility
                    Allele
                    Other Phenotypes
                    Allele
                    Phenotype manifest in
                    Allele
                    capitellum & macrochaeta
                    macrochaeta & wing, with Scer\GAL469B
                    mechanosensory chaeta & adult abdomen | somatic clone
                    mechanosensory chaeta & adult head | somatic clone
                    mechanosensory chaeta & adult thorax | somatic clone
                    sensillum campaniformium & wing, with Scer\GAL469B
                    Orthologs
                    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                    Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
                    Species\Gene Symbol
                    Score
                    Best Score
                    Best Reverse Score
                    Alignment
                    Complementation?
                    Transgene?
                    14 of 15
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    12 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
                    Species\Gene Symbol
                    Score
                    Best Score
                    Best Reverse Score
                    Alignment
                    Complementation?
                    Transgene?
                    14 of 15
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    12 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
                    12 of 13
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    10 of 13
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 13
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 13
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 13
                    No
                    No
                    1 of 13
                    No
                    No
                    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
                    8 of 12
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    6 of 12
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 12
                    No
                    Yes
                    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
                    13 of 15
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    12 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    4 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
                    15 of 15
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    5 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (7)
                    6 of 9
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    6 of 9
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    1 of 9
                    No
                    No
                    1 of 9
                    No
                    No
                    1 of 9
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 9
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 9
                    No
                    Yes
                    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
                    13 of 15
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    8 of 15
                    No
                    Yes
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    1 of 15
                    No
                    No
                    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
                    10 of 12
                    Yes
                    Yes
                    9 of 12
                    No
                    Yes
                    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900U7 )
                    Organism
                    Common Name
                    Gene
                    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
                    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                    Drosophila melanogaster
                    fruit fly
                    Drosophila suzukii
                    Spotted wing Drosophila
                    Drosophila simulans
                    Drosophila sechellia
                    Drosophila erecta
                    Drosophila yakuba
                    Drosophila ananassae
                    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
                    Drosophila persimilis
                    Drosophila willistoni
                    Drosophila virilis
                    Drosophila mojavensis
                    Drosophila grimshawi
                    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500HZ )
                    Organism
                    Common Name
                    Gene
                    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                    Musca domestica
                    House fly
                    Glossina morsitans
                    Tsetse fly
                    Lucilia cuprina
                    Australian sheep blowfly
                    Mayetiola destructor
                    Hessian fly
                    Aedes aegypti
                    Yellow fever mosquito
                    Anopheles darlingi
                    American malaria mosquito
                    Anopheles gambiae
                    Malaria mosquito
                    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00IN )
                    Organism
                    Common Name
                    Gene
                    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                    Danaus plexippus
                    Monarch butterfly
                    Heliconius melpomene
                    Postman butterfly
                    Apis florea
                    Little honeybee
                    Apis mellifera
                    Western honey bee
                    Bombus impatiens
                    Common eastern bumble bee
                    Bombus impatiens
                    Common eastern bumble bee
                    Bombus terrestris
                    Buff-tailed bumblebee
                    Bombus terrestris
                    Buff-tailed bumblebee
                    Linepithema humile
                    Argentine ant
                    Megachile rotundata
                    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                    Nasonia vitripennis
                    Parasitic wasp
                    Nasonia vitripennis
                    Parasitic wasp
                    Dendroctonus ponderosae
                    Mountain pine beetle
                    Dendroctonus ponderosae
                    Mountain pine beetle
                    Tribolium castaneum
                    Red flour beetle
                    Pediculus humanus
                    Human body louse
                    Pediculus humanus
                    Human body louse
                    Pediculus humanus
                    Human body louse
                    Rhodnius prolixus
                    Kissing bug
                    Rhodnius prolixus
                    Kissing bug
                    Cimex lectularius
                    Bed bug
                    Acyrthosiphon pisum
                    Pea aphid
                    Zootermopsis nevadensis
                    Nevada dampwood termite
                    Zootermopsis nevadensis
                    Nevada dampwood termite
                    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00HV )
                    Organism
                    Common Name
                    Gene
                    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                    Strigamia maritima
                    European centipede
                    Ixodes scapularis
                    Black-legged tick
                    Ixodes scapularis
                    Black-legged tick
                    Stegodyphus mimosarum
                    African social velvet spider
                    Tetranychus urticae
                    Two-spotted spider mite
                    Tetranychus urticae
                    Two-spotted spider mite
                    Daphnia pulex
                    Water flea
                    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G01R9 )
                    Organism
                    Common Name
                    Gene
                    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
                    Purple sea urchin
                    Ciona intestinalis
                    Vase tunicate
                    Gallus gallus
                    Domestic chicken
                    Gallus gallus
                    Domestic chicken
                    Human Disease Model Data
                    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
                    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
                    Download
                    Models ( 1 )
                    Allele
                    Disease
                    Evidence
                    References
                    Interactions ( 1 )
                    Allele
                    Disease
                    Interaction
                    References
                    Comments ( 0 )
                     
                    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
                    Functional Complementation Data
                    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
                    Interactions
                    Summary of Physical Interactions
                    esyN Network Diagram
                    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
                    Select Layout:
                    Legend:
                    Protein
                    RNA
                    Selected Interactor(s)
                    Interactions Browser

                    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
                    RNA-protein
                    Interacting group
                    Assay
                    References
                    protein-protein
                    Interacting group
                    Assay
                    References
                    Summary of Genetic Interactions
                    esyN Network Diagram
                    esyN Network Key:
                    Suppression
                    Enhancement

                    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
                    Starting gene(s)
                    Interaction type
                    Interacting gene(s)
                    Reference
                    Starting gene(s)
                    Interaction type
                    Interacting gene(s)
                    Reference
                    suppressible
                    External Data
                    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
                    Component of the Brahma complex, which is composed of brm, osa, mor, Snr1/Bap45, dalao/Bap111, Bap55, Bap60 and Act42A/Bap47 (PubMed:10601025, PubMed:10809665). Interacts with asf1 (PubMed:12381660). Associates with the brm-HDAC3-erm repressor complex, composed of brm, HDAC3 and erm (PubMed:24618901). Interacts with erm and HDAC3 (PubMed:24618901).
                    (UniProt, P25439 )
                    Linkouts
                    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                    Pathways
                    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
                    External Data
                    Linkouts
                    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
                    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
                    Chromosome (arm)
                    3L
                    Recombination map
                    3-43
                    Cytogenetic map
                    Sequence location
                    3L:15,970,082..15,982,869 [-]
                    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
                    Cytogenetic map
                    Evidence for location
                    72C1-72C1
                    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}Tfb2EP572 and P{lacW}thj5C8&P{PZ}Mbs03802
                    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
                    Cytogenetic map
                    Notes
                    References
                    72A-72B
                    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                    Mapped by complementation analysis with deficiency and duplication chromosomes (details unspecified).
                    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
                    Notes
                    Stocks and Reagents
                    Stocks (22)
                    Genomic Clones (10)
                     

                    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

                    cDNA Clones (61)
                     

                    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

                    cDNA clones, fully sequences
                    BDGP DGC clones
                    Other clones
                      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                      RNAi and Array Information
                      Linkouts
                      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                      Antibody Information
                      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                      Commercially Available Antibodies
                       
                      Other Information
                      Relationship to Other Genes
                      Source for database identify of
                      Source for database merge of
                      Source for merge of: brm CG18438
                      Additional comments
                      Source for merge of brm CG18438 was sequence comparison ( date:001104 ).
                      A chimeric Scer\snf2-brm protein (in which the DNA-dependent ATPase domain of Scer\snf2 has been replaced with the corresponding region of brm) partially rescues the growth defects of S.cerevisiae Scer\snf2 mutant cells.
                      Fifteen alleles induced by EMS, three alleles induced by γ irradiation and four alleles induced by hybrid dysgenesis.
                      Other Comments
                      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for brm protein in S2 cells; GEO accession number GSE32404.
                      The 'l(3)72Aa' (brm) complementation group comprises 19 EMS-induced mutant alleles.
                      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for brm protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
                      dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of brm disrupts the dendritic routing patterns of the ddaD and ddaE neurons, resulting in aberrantly oriented primary dendrites. RNAi also causes defects in muscle, alterations in the number of MD neurons, defects in dendrite morphogenesis but no obvious defects in da dendrite development.
                      S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.
                      Loss of brm function results in loss of veins in the wing.
                      D.melanogaster contains two distinct brahma (BRM) complexes: the BAP complex, defined by the presence of osa protein and the absence of both polybromo and Bap170 proteins, and the PBAP complex, which contains the polybromo and Bap170 proteins but lacks the osa protein.
                      The chromatin remodelling activity of the brm complex may play a general role in facilitating transcription by RNA polymerase II.
                      Pc, Scm, Psc, ph-p and ph-d contribute to the PRC1 (Polycomb repressive complex 1). PRC1 directly antagonizes ATP-dependent remodeling of nucleosomal arrays in a purified system and may directly modulate (and be modified by) SWI/SNF (brm/mor) activity.
                      brm interacts with osa to regulate the expression of the Antp P2 promoter.
                      Used in an investigation to address the relationship between retrotransposons and retroviruses and the coadaptation of these retroelements to their host genomes. Results indicate retrotransposons are heterogeneous in contrast to retroviruses, suggesting different modes of evolution by slippage-like mechanisms.
                      The Snr1 and brm proteins are present in a large complex and co-precipitate from extracts, these results suggest that the Drosophila counterpart of the yeast SWI/SNF complex plays an important role in counteracting the repressive effects of chromatin on homeotic gene transcription during development.
                      Phenotypic studies and genetic interactions suggest that Snr1 and brm act together, and with trx, to regulate homeotic gene transcription. Snr1 and brm proteins are present in a large complex, this complex may play an important role in maintaining homeotic gene transcription during development by counteracting the repressive effect of chromatin.
                      brm is a positive transcriptional regulator of hh in imaginal development.
                      Regions of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
                      A method based on in-vivo formaldehyde crosslinking and chromatin immunoprecipitation has allowed the determination of the in vivo distribution of Pc, brm and Abd-B products at their target sites.
                      Severe abnormalities caused by loss of brm expression demonstrates that homeotic genes are not the only target for brm activation. The complex pattern of interallelic complementation suggests that brm may act as a multimer.
                      Maternal and zygotic functions of brm are required during embryogenesis.
                      Mutations cannot rescue the lethality of the Df(1)ph-2-Psc1 interaction, demonstrating that trx group mutations cannot suppress Pc group phenotypes.
                      The ATPase domains of brm and Scer\snf2, but not Iswi, are functionally interchangeable.
                      Heterozygous brm mutations suppress the dominant phenotypes of Pc and Pcl mutations.
                      brm functions as an upstream activator of Scr expression and activates the Antp promoter directly.
                      brm is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.
                      Identified as dominant suppressor of Pc and Pcl alleles. Mutants cause recessive embryonic lethal with strong maternal contribution. Maternal effect lethality is non-rescuable even by two wild-type zygotic alleles.
                      Origin and Etymology
                      Discoverer
                      Kennison, 1983.
                      Etymology
                      "Brahma" means "fate" in India.
                      Identification
                      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 72 )
                      Sequence Crossreferences
                      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
                      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
                      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                      Linkouts
                      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
                      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
                      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
                      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
                      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
                      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
                      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
                      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
                      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
                      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
                      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
                      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
                      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
                      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
                      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
                      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
                      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
                      Reported As
                      Symbol Synonym
                      Brm @ Kto
                      brm
                      (Dasari et al., 2018, Richardson and Portela, 2018, He et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Sharma et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Xie et al., 2017, Brewer-Jensen et al., 2016, Du et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Saadin and Starz-Gaiano, 2016, Bivik et al., 2015, Dietz et al., 2015, Dupont et al., 2015, Fischer et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Richardson, 2015.3.11, Zang et al., 2015, Zhu et al., 2015, Bonnay et al., 2014, Eroglu et al., 2014, Gonzalez et al., 2014, He et al., 2014, Janssens et al., 2014, Slattery et al., 2014, Yan et al., 2014, Yasunaga et al., 2014, Bengani et al., 2013, Jin et al., 2013, Kockmann et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Matzat et al., 2013, Moshkin et al., 2013, Petruk et al., 2013, Vasanthi et al., 2013, Vinayagam et al., 2013, Antao et al., 2012, Hainaut et al., 2012, Ji et al., 2012, Nakayama et al., 2012, Nowak et al., 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Rincon-Arano et al., 2012, Thor, 2012.11.28, Tie et al., 2012, Zraly and Dingwall, 2012, Cooper and Kennison, 2011, Curtis et al., 2011, Davis et al., 2011, Di Stefano et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Ghosh et al., 2011, Jungreis et al., 2011, Kirilly et al., 2011, Mikhaylova and Nurminsky, 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Neumüller et al., 2011, Pérez et al., 2011, Rodriguez-Jato et al., 2011, Sultana et al., 2011, Tea and Luo, 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Vorobyeva et al., 2011, Arancio et al., 2010, Baig et al., 2010, Bhatia et al., 2010, Herr et al., 2010, Karam et al., 2010, Lamiable et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Smulders-Srinivasan et al., 2010, van Steensel et al., 2010, Christensen et al., 2009.5.6, Cook et al., 2009.11.25, Khan et al., 2009, Schneiderman et al., 2009, Shevelyov et al., 2009, Terriente-Félix and de Celis, 2009, Burgio et al., 2008, Carrera et al., 2008, Chalkley et al., 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Christensen et al., 2008.7.11, de Wit et al., 2008, Diop et al., 2008, Hallson et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, Nakamura et al., 2008, Petruk et al., 2008, Remaud et al., 2008, Vázquez et al., 2008, Zhou et al., 2008, Baeg et al., 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Corona et al., 2007, Goodfellow et al., 2007, Haigh and Lloyd, 2007, Ivaldi et al., 2007, Marfella and Imbalzano, 2007, Secombe et al., 2007, Stroschein-Stevenson et al., 2006, Zraly et al., 2006, Möller et al., 2005, Marenda et al., 2003, Balasov, 2002, Joanis and Lloyd, 2002, Gim et al., 2001, Hirose et al., 2001)
                      Secondary FlyBase IDs
                      • FBgn0036554
                      Datasets (1)
                      Study focus (1)
                      Experimental Role
                      Project
                      Project Type
                      Title
                      • transgene_used
                      Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
                      References (426)