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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Brd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Bearded
Annotation Symbol
CG3096
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000216
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Bearded (Brd) encodes a member of the Bearded family, which are small proteins containing predicted basic amphipathic alpha-helical domains in their N-terminal regions. The product of Brd is involved in Notch signaling pathway regulation and cell fate specification. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-12] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-42
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:14972667..14973198
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (3 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:O97179
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Snapshot
    Bearded (Brd) encodes a member of the Bearded family, which are small proteins containing predicted basic amphipathic alpha-helical domains in their N-terminal regions. The product of Brd is involved in Notch signaling pathway regulation and cell fate specification. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-12]
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    BEARDED GENE FAMILY -
    The Bearded gene family, named from homology with Brd, encode small proteins containing predicted basic amphipathic α-helical domains in their N-terminal regions. They are located in two genomic complexes - the Bearded Complex and the Enhancer of Split Complex. Some members have been implicated in Notch signaling. (Adapted from FBrf0123097).
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    Brd: Bearded (M. Leviten)
    Causes production of supernumerary chaetae and sensilla at or near normal positions. Brd1 homozygotes survive and exhibit more severe phenotypes than heterozygotes. Brd1/+ = Brd1/Df(3L)Brd. Brd alleles affect all classes of adult sensory organs. Brd1 strongly affects macrochaetae and other imaginal-disc sensilla (i.e., trichoid, campaniform, basiconic), but only mildly increases microchaete density. Brd3 and other alleles produce more severe microchaete phenotypes, in both disc and histoblast derived tissues, as well as exhibiting the Brd1 phenotypes. In addition to sensillum multiplication, Brd1 homozygotes also exhibit bristle loss, with anterior orbitals absent (>90%) and a less frequent loss of ocellar macrochaetae (<5%). This bristle loss occurs in other Brd genotypes and is most severe for Brd3 homozygotes. The combination of sensilla multiplication and loss phenotypes is made more severe by loss-of-function mutations at Notch and neuralized, and are decreased in the presence of three wild type copies of these genes. The ethyl-methanesulfonate-induced point revertants of Brd1 tested (Brdrv1-4) are homozygous viable, viable in trans to Brd deficiencies, and display no mutant phenotypes in either situation.
    Summary (Interactive Fly)
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Brd for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.40

    Gene model reviewed during 5.46

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0075621
    532
    81
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)

    0.6 (northern blot)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0075374
    9.2
    81
    8.72
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)

    81 (aa); 9 (kD)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Brd using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    northern blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference

    Comment: reference states 4-8 hr AEL

    Additional Descriptive Data

    Brd transcripts are detected in third instar larval eye discs in the morphogenetic furrow in closely spaced stripes, one anterior to the stripe of dpp staining in the furrow and one within the furrow and posterior to it. They are detected in the pupal wing at 8h APF in large clusters of proximal campaniform sensilla.

    Brd transcripts are detected weakly in preblastoderm embryos, are abundant in 4-8hr embryos and drop off dramatically in later embryonic stages on northern blots. Brd is expressed specifically in proneural clusters in the imaginal discs. In the wing imaginal disc, it is present at the positions of all developing adult external sensory organs. Further, it was found that Brd expression precedes sensory organ precursor specification.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\Brd in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 26 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Brd
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Brd
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 11 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    scutum & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
    wing sensillum & wing vein, with Scer\GAL469B
    wing sensillum & wing vein, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190KHM )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150IXQ )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      RNA-RNA
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      suppressible
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      enhanceable
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-42
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      71A4-71A4
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Mpcp00564 and P{PZ}l(3)rO220rO220
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Tom maps 2kb from Brd.
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (4)
      Genomic Clones (13)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (47)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
           
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of

          Source for identity of: Brd CG3096

          Source for database merge of
          Additional comments

          Possibly "Hi" was a "Brd" allele.

          Other Comments

          Overexpression of Brd antagonises the N pathway in multiple cell fate decisions during adult sensory organ development.

          Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.

          The Brd 3' UTR confers negative regulatory activity on heterologous reporter genes in vivo.

          Gain of function Brd mutations cause multiplication of adult sensory organs. Loss of function mutations of H and the AS-C are epistatic to Brd.

          Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that Brd is directly activated in proneural clusters of the late third-instar wing imaginal disc by protein complexes that include the ac and sc bHLH proteins.

          Mutations of Brd cause either sensory organ multiplication or loss. Cell markers reveal that multiplication results from the determination of supernumerary precursor cells and loss from the inappropriate differentiation of all precursor cells as neurons.

          Causes production of supernumerary chaetae and sensilla at or near normal positions. Brd alleles affect all classes of adult sensory organs. The combination of sensilla multiplication and loss phenotypes is made more severe by loss-of-function mutations at N and neur and are decreased in the presence of three wild-type copies of these genes.

          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 79 )
          Sequence Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
          DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
          EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (104)