General Information
Symbol
Dmel\cad
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
caudal
Annotation Symbol
CG1759
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0000251
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Caudal is a transcription factor involved in processes such as anterior/posterior patterning formation, organ morphogenesis and innate immune homeostasis. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
38E.19, cd
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:20,770,731..20,783,135 [+]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the Caudal homeobox family. (P09085)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
HOX-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
HOX-like (HOXL) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They encompass transcription factors encoded by the Hox genes of the Antennapedia and the Bithorax gene complexes and genes closely related in sequence. HOXL transcription factors are major regulators of animal development. (Adapted from FBrf0232555).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Caudal (cad) is one of a number of transcription factors controlling segmentation of the embryo. Further transcriptional regulation via a 5' flanking region containing DNA replication-related elements (DRE) and by dref also regulated by trh and tgo via the CNS midline element. Alongside Bicoid (bcd), caudal forms concentration gradients down the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis providing positional information and subsequent induction of the gap genes. Plays a role in gastrulation/germ band extension, hindgut morphogenesis, positive regulation of cell proliferation, genital disk development and pattern formation. Acts as a key regulator of the Hox gene network and activates transcription via the downstream core promoter element (DPE) relative to the TATA box. Plays a role in the establishment of the hindgut and in the invagination of the hindgut primordium during gastrulation. These effects on the gut are achieved by acting combinatorially at the posterior of the embryo to activate transcription of different targets including fog, fkh and wg. Caudal is involved in regulation of proliferation through transactivation of the E2F gene. Postembryonically its function is mostly restricted to the intestine where it regulates antimicrobial peptide (AMP) levels preserving the normal gut flora.
(UniProt, P09085)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
cad: caudal
Homozygous lethal; homozygous cad embryos from cad/+ mothes develop into nearly normal first-instar larvae, which, however, lack cuticular structures of the external terminalia, e.g., the anal tuft, parts of the anal pads and the terminal sense organs. Distribution of cad+ gene product in such embryos indistinguishable from that in their cad/+ and +/+ sibs, evidently maternally derived. cad/+ offspring from cad/cad oogenic cysts indistinguishable from those from cad/+ cysts; larvae lack portions of the eighth abdominal segment and sometimes parts of the fourth and less frequently other even-numbered abdominal segments; frequently they develop into normal adults. cad/cad embryos from homozygous cad cysts display variably abnormal segmentation; head and anterior thorax normal; many posterior segments deleted with T2 and odd-numbered abdominal segments more resistant to deletion; most of eighth abdominal segment and terminalia (but not some parts of posterior spiracles) deleted; replaced by small plates of sclerotized cuticle resembling mouth hooks. Maternal germ-line transciption of the cad/+ gene demonstated by the detection of transcript in oocytes and nurse cells; transcripts uniformly distributed in early embryos; in the syncytial blastoderm transcripts disappear from the anterior end of the embryo and an anterior-posterior gradient develops with heaviest concentration posteriorly. The cellular blastoderm shows a band of hybridization three to five cells wide encircling the embryo .13 to .19 of the distance from posterior to anterior end; label is internalized during gastrulation and is seen in hind gut, midgut, and Malpighian tubules. Immunocytochemical observations detect no cad polypeptide until the stage 5 or 6 embryo. In the syncytial blastoderm there is dramatic accumulation of cad polypeptide in the same antero-posterior gradient as observed for transcript; the polypeptide localizes strongly to nuclei during interphase. The same gradient develops over time in unfertilized eggs. Subsequent collapse of the gradient into a posteriorly disposed circumferential band follows the behavior of transcript. Embryos produced by homozygous BicD or bcd females display an uniform distribution of cad+ product, which subsequently becomes restricted to symmetrically disposed anterior and posterior rings of cad polypeptide. During gastrulation cad+ polypeptide persists in a position suggesting a fifteenth parasegment, in the posterior midgut and Malpighian tubules, in six narrow bands at double segment intervals, in pairs of neuromeres initially in parasegments 1-14, later in thorax and anterior abdomen, and in portions of the genital disc, possibly precursors of the analia. In third instar larvae transcripts are also found in germ cells of both sexes and in the presumptive hind gut and analia of the genital disc. The cad gene product can increase the level of ftz transcription in the posterior half of the embryo by interacting with multiple copies of a TTTATG consensus sequence located in the zebra-stripe element of the ftz promoter (Dearolf, Topol, and Parker, 1989, Nature 341: 340-42).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\cad or the JBrowse view of Dmel\cad for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081412
2516
427
FBtr0081413
2353
427
FBtr0335152
2570
445
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.6, 2.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080942
45.7
427
9.70
FBpp0089336
45.7
427
9.70
FBpp0307151
47.6
445
8.83
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

427 aa isoforms: cad-PA, cad-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
cad protein forms a gradient from posterior to anterior in the developing embryo and this gradient is dependant upon bcd protein. The PEST domain of bcd protein is necessary for the maintainance of the cad gradient, as deletions of PEST sequences in the bcd coding region resulted in an inability to repress cad protein translation in the anterior region of the embryo.
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\cad using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001216652
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001216652
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (16 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001216652
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001216652
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001216652
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Malpighian tubule

Comment: reference states 16-18 hr AEL

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states >=2-4 hr AEL

radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
cad transcript expression is increased with age and oxidative stress; expression levels in the adult gut are higher at 30 or 60 days of age than at 5 days of age.
Maternal cad transcript is detected uniformly in the egg, and later in development zygotic cad is detected in a broad domain which spans between 10% and 60% egg length.
Zygotic expression of cad transcript, rather than cad protein, contributes to the abdominal region expression pattern of cad. The wild type expression domain of zygotic cad transcript covers up to 50% egg length from the posterior. High levels of transcript are detected in two broad bands which range from approximately 10-30% egg length and 40-55% egg length respectively.
The 2.6 kb zygotic cad transcript is first detected during cellularization, and is restricted to a 4-5 cell wide stripe at 13-19% egg length at the start of gastrulation. Later in embryogenesis, cad transcript is detected in the hindgut and posterior midgut primordia. After germ band retraction, cad is expressed in the Malpighian tubules, posterior midgut, and hindgut. This expression is still present in third instar larvae, and additional expression in the gonad and the posterior region of the genital disc is also detected.
The maternal cad transcript is detected in the nurse cell cytoplasm starting at stage S6 of oogenesis. Transcript is later detected in the oocyte; and at stage S14, cad transcript is distributed evenly throughout the oocyte. cad transcript remains evenly distributed soon after fertilization, but becomes distributed in an anterior-posterior gradient at embryonic cycle 13. Maternal transcripts dissapear first from the anterior pole, and have disappeared completely before cellularization.
The cad transcript is detected at high levels in the malpighian tubules of later stage embryos, and lower levels in portions of the the posterior midgut and in the hindgut.
The 2.6 kb zygotic cad transcript is first detected in 2-4 hr embryos, and persists through early pupal stages.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | 0-60% egg length

Comment: reference states 0-55% egg length

organism | 10-20% egg length

Comment: reference states 14-15% egg length

Additional Descriptive Data
The cad protein isdistributed in a gradient from the posterior pole up to approximately 50% egglength. The cad protein gradient is acheived through repression oftranslation of the uniformly distributed cad transcript in the anterior of theembryo.
The cad protein isexpressed in a gradient from the posterior tip of the embryo reaching up to 30%egg length.
cad protein is first detected just before the formation of pole cells, and is cytoplasmic. After embryonic cycle 9, cad protein becomes nuclear. During embryonic cycles 10-13, cad protein is distributed in an anterior-posterior gradient, and is once again detected in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. At gastrulation, cad protein is detected in a 4-5 cell wide stripe at 13-19% egg length, and in the pole cell nuclei. At germ band extension, cad protein is detected in the posterior of the germ band and in the hindgut and postrior midgut rudiments. After germ band retraction, cad protein is detected in posterior epidermal structures such as the anal pads.
The expression of cadprotein is dynamic during embryogenesis. In early embryos, a posterior toanterior gradient of protein, with highest concentrations in the posterior polecovers up to 90% egg length. As embryogenesis proceeds, the gradient moves moreposteriorly, covering 70-20% egg length. In the late embryo, just prior to germband extension, protein expression coelesces in a posterior ring aprroximately3-4 cells wide which spans between 10% and 15% egg length. Throughoutembryogenesis, protein is detected in the pole cells. During germ bandextension cad protein is detected at the germ band terminus and in the polecells. Specifically, protein is detected in cells which give rise to the analpads, the posterior midgut and the malpighian tubules.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\cad in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of cad
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 23 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of cad
Allele of cad
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of cad
vital-reporter construct
Deletions and Duplications ( 32 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190DGI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150HN6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08CF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X087Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0LXJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    RNA-RNA
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-54
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:20,770,731..20,783,135 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    38E9-38E10
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Hr3802306&P{PZ}dia1 and P{EP}CG31673EP432
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    38E-38F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    38E5-38E6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (59)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: cad CG1759
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for cad protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see mE1_TFBS_cad collection report.
    RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
    cad appears to be the Hox gene that determines the development of the fly's most posterior segment. cad acts in combination with the hh pathway to specify the different components of the analia.
    Zygotic activation of h stripe 6 expression is preceded by activation in response to maternal cad activity, activation does not depend exclusively on the zygotic activity of kni as thought previously. cad and kni activities cooperate in a non-synergistic manner to activate h stripe 6 transcription.
    cad is essential for invagination of the hindgut primordium and for further specification and development of the hindgut. cad acts through fog, fkh and wg, but does not play a role in activating tll, hkb, byn and bowl which are also required for proper hindgut development. cad, fkh, byn and wg constitute a conserved constellation of genes that plays a required role in gastrulation and gut development.
    h stripe 7 activation requires several factors including the cad and bcd proteins.
    One of a class of genes with TATA-less promoters that have a subset of the conserved DPE sequence.
    Regulation of cad by bcd occurs at the level of translation and depends on both the bcd homeodomain and on cis-acting sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the cad message. The bcd homeodomain can bind specifically to these cis-acting sequences in vitro. bcd regulates cad expression by blocking translational initiation.
    Analysis of Mmus\Hoxa7-Ecol\lacZ reporter constructs shows that the Mmus\Hoxa7 intron can function as an enhancer in Drosophila, and contains potential binding sites for cad and ftz.
    bcd may act in the region specific control of cad mRNA translation. In vitro studies reveal that bcd binds through its homeodomain to cad mRNA and exerts translational control through a bcd-binding region of cad mRNA.
    In embryos lacking bcd activity, as a result of mutation, the cad gradient fails to form and cad becomes evenly distributed throughout the embryo.
    Two independent and redundant elements in the kni upstream region depend upon bcd and cad activity. Ecol\lacZ reporter gene analysis demonstrates bcd and cad are necessary to activate kni.
    bcd acts as a translational repressor of cad, binding the 3' untranslated region of cad.
    cad, a conserved homeodomain protein that forms a posterior to anterior concentration gradient, and the anterior determinant bcd cooperate to form a partly redundant activator system in the posterior region of the embryo.
    The abdominal cad domain is under the control of the hb gradient. It is activated at low concentrations of hb and repressed at high concentrations. The abdominal cad domain itself is required to activate the gap genes kni and gt.
    The abdominal domain of cad expression is regulated by the hb gradient. cad is an activator for the expression of kni and gt.
    Comparisons of early development to that in other insects have revealed conservation of some aspects of development, as well as differences that may explain variations in early patterning events.
    Kr activity is required for cad expression in the tubules, cad expression is maintained as the Malpighian tubules develop. cad and ct are independent of each other with respect to Malpighian tubule regulation: both pathways require Kr.
    The product of the cad gene is a posterior-specific activator of ftz.
    cad mutants exhibit elimination of anal tuft and anal sense organs, additional lack of maternal product causes severe segmentation defects.
    Heat shock induced expression of cad at the anterior end of cellular blastoderm embryos was found to disrupt head development and segmentation due to the alteration of ftz and en expression and the repression of Dfd.
    cad can increase the level of transcription from ftz-Ecol\lacZ promoter fusion constructs in vitro.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-WO2004063362.83
    cad
    (Haines and Eisen, 2018, Myasnikova and Spirov, 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Erceg et al., 2017, Ghodsi et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Bürglin and Affolter, 2016, Kwon et al., 2016, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Fan et al., 2015, Kavi et al., 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Boyle et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Birkholz et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Combs and Eisen, 2013, Darbo et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Neckameyer and Argue, 2013, Samee and Sinha, 2013, Surkova et al., 2013, Aoki et al., 2012, Aswani et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Gutiérrez et al., 2012, Jaeger et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2012, Kozlov et al., 2012, Kvon et al., 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Sokolowski et al., 2012, Fowlkes et al., 2011, Gehring, 2011, Gursky et al., 2011, Harrison et al., 2011, Kaplan et al., 2011, Li et al., 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Wilson and Dearden, 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, Yassin et al., 2010, Ashyraliyev et al., 2009, Bai et al., 2009, Fang et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Fomekong-Nanfack et al., 2009, Iovino et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2009, Pisarev et al., 2009, Tchuraev and Galimzyanov, 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Venken et al., 2009, Ashyraliyev et al., 2008, Choi et al., 2008, Haecker et al., 2008, Hare et al., 2008, Juven-Gershon et al., 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Segal et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Surkova et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Chang et al., 2007, Choi et al., 2007, Nekrasov et al., 2007, Parrish et al., 2007, Vazquez-Pianzola et al., 2007, Cho et al., 2006, Holloway et al., 2006, McGregor, 2006, Cho et al., 2005, Peel et al., 2005, Choi et al., 2004, Grad et al., 2004, Hernandez et al., 2004, Ryu et al., 2004, Daulny et al., 2003, Freeland and Kuhn, 1996)
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0082204
    Datasets (2)
    Study focus (2)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
    • transgene_used
    Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (436)